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1.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 26(1): 33-41, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686571

RESUMO

Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of premature mortality. Survival is possible when timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are available in the community. GPs are well placed to provide early OHCA care and significantly increased rates of survival are achieved when GPs participate in resuscitation. A novel project alerts volunteer GP first responders to nearby OHCAs in Ireland.Objectives: To explore the reasons why GPs volunteer to be OHCA first responders and their experience of participation.Methods: A qualitative study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis was undertaken in 2017/18. Fourteen GPs from differing geographical areas in Ireland, who volunteered as OHCA first-responders were recruited to participate by purposive methods.Results: GP participation in OHCA voluntary first response was understood as a function of GPs relationship to the community, their ability to manage competing demands in their personal and professional lives and also specific participatory gains. GPs expressed both altruistic motivations and a sense of obligation. GPs described a complex, multifaceted role in providing OHCA first response; they derived an inherent sense of satisfaction in delivering potentially life-saving interventions but also in the provision of holistic, compassionate end-of-life care for patients and their families. Participation was not without psychosocial risk for GPs.Conclusion: GPs volunteer to provide early OHCA emergency care because of their relationship to the community. Care provided is complex and includes both resuscitation and end-of-life care.

2.
BMC Emerg Med ; 19(1): 81, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Irish ambulance services have traditionally transported all patients following an emergency (112/999) call, regardless of acuity, to an emergency department (ED). A proposal to introduce Treat and Referral, an established care pathway in some jurisdictions, is under active consideration in Ireland. This will present a significant change. Stakeholder engagement is recognised as an essential component of management of such change. This study has conducted a multicentre, cross-sectional survey exploring opinions on the introduction of Treat and Referral among key Irish stakeholders; consultants in emergency medicine, paramedics and advanced paramedics. METHODS: Public-sector consultants in emergency medicine (EM), registered paramedics and advanced paramedics, in Ireland at the time of the study, were invited to complete an on-line survey. RESULTS: A significant finding was that 90% of both cohorts (EM consultants and registered paramedic practitioners) support written after-care instructions being given to referred patients, that > 83% agree that Treat and Referral will reduce unnecessary ambulance journeys and that 70% are in favour of their own family member being offered Treat and Referral. Consensus was reached between respondents that Treat and Referral would improve care and increase clinical judgement of practitioners. Differences were identified in relation to the increased availability of ambulances locally, that only adults should be included, and that research was required to extend Treat and Referral beyond the index conditions. There was no consensus on whether general practitioners (GPs) should be directly informed. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that the Irish healthcare practitioners surveyed are supportive of the introduction of Treat and Referral into Ireland. It also affords healthcare policymakers the opportunity to address the concerns raised, in particular the clinical level which will be targeted for inclusion in this extended scope of practice.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029015, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the reasons why lay community first responders (CFRs) volunteer to participate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response and the realities of their experience in providing this service to the community. DESIGN: A qualitative study, using in-depth semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was undertaken and credibility checks conducted. SETTING: Nine geographically varied lay CFR schemes throughout Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve experienced CFRs. RESULTS: CFRs were motivated to participate based on a variety of factors. These included altruistic, social and pre-existing emergency care interest. A proportion of CFRs may volunteer because of experience of cardiac arrest or illness in a relative. Sophisticated structures and complex care appear to underpin CFR involvement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Strategic and organisational issues, multifaceted cardiac arrest care and the psychosocial impact of participation were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Health systems that facilitate CFR out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response should consider a variety of relevant issues. These issues include the suitability of those that volunteer, complexities of resuscitation/end-of-life care, responder psychological welfare as well as CFRs' core role of providing early basic life support and defibrillation in the community.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012764, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobilization of community first responders (CFRs) to the scene of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) event has been proposed as a means of shortening the interval from occurrence of cardiac arrest to performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation, thereby increasing patient survival. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of mobilizing community first responders (CFRs) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest events in adults and children older than four weeks of age, in terms of survival and neurological function. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases for relevant trials in January 2019: CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), and Web of Science. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov, and we scanned the abstracts of conference proceedings of the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials (RCTs and q-RCTs) that compared routine emergency medical services (EMS) care versus EMS care plus mobilization of CFRs in instances of OHCA.Trials with randomization by cluster were eligible for inclusion, including cluster-design studies with intervention cross-over.In some communities, the statutory ambulance service/EMS is routinely provided by the local fire service. For the purposes of this review, this group represents the statutory ambulance service/EMS, as distinct from CFRs, and was not included as an eligible intervention.We did not include studies primarily focused on opportunistic bystanders. Individuals who were present at the scene of an OHCA event and who performed CPR according to telephone instruction provided by EMS call takers were not considered to be CFRs.Studies primarily assessing the impact of specific additional interventions such as administration of naloxone in narcotic overdose or adrenaline in anaphylaxis were also excluded.We included adults and children older than four weeks of age who had experienced an OHCA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed all titles and abstracts received to assess potential eligibility, using set inclusion criteria. We obtained and examined in detail full-text copies of all papers considered potentially eligible, and we approached authors of trials for additional information when necessary. We summarized the process of study selection in a PRISMA flowchart.Three review authors independently extracted relevant data using a standard data extraction form and assessed the validity of each included trial using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus.We synthesized findings in narrative fashion due to the heterogeneity of the included studies. We used the principles of the GRADE system to assess the certainty of the body of evidence associated with specific outcomes and to construct a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS: We found two completed studies involving a total of 1136 participants that ultimately met our inclusion criteria. We also found one ongoing study and one planned study. We noted significant heterogeneity in the characteristics of interventions and outcomes measured or reported across these studies, thus we could not pool study results.One completed study considered the dispatch of police and fire service CFRs equipped with automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) in an EMS system in Amsterdam and surrounding areas. This study was an RCT with allocation made by cluster according to non-overlapping geographical regions. It was conducted between 5 January 2000 and 5 January 2002. All participants were 18 years of age or older and had experienced witnessed OHCA. The study found no difference in survival at hospital discharge (odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 2.2; 1 RCT; 469 participants; low-certainty evidence), despite the observation that all 72 incidences of defibrillation performed before EMS arrival occurred in the intervention group (OR and 95% CI - not applicable; 1 RCT; 469 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). This study reported increased survival to hospital admission in the intervention group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0; 1 RCT; 469 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).The second completed study considered the dispatch of nearby lay volunteers in Stockholm, Sweden, who were trained to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This represented a supplementary CFR intervention in an EMS system where police and fire services were already routinely dispatched to OHCA in addition to EMS ambulances. This study, an RCT, included both witnessed and unwitnessed OHCA and was conducted between 1 April 2012 and 1 December 2013. Participants included adults and children eight years of age and older. Researchers found no difference in 30-day survival (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.29; 1 RCT; 612 participants; low-certainty evidence), despite a significant increase in CPR performed before EMS arrival (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.03; 1 RCT; 665 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).Neither of the included completed studies considered neurological function at hospital discharge or at 30 days, measured by cerebral performance category or by any other means. Neither of the included completed studies considered health-related quality of life. The overall certainty of evidence for the outcomes of included studies was low to moderate. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence shows that context-specific CFR interventions result in increased rates of CPR or defibrillation performed before EMS arrival. It remains uncertain whether this can translate to significantly increased rates of overall patient survival. When possible, further high-quality RCTs that are adequately powered to measure changes in survival should be conducted.The included studies did not consider survival with good neurological function. This outcome is likely to be important to patients and should be included routinely wherever survival is measured.We identified one ongoing study and one planned trial whose results once available may change the results of this review. As this review was limited to randomized and quasi-randomized trials, we may have missed some important data from other study types.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Socorristas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(4): 1143-1148, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Irish legislation on Advance Healthcare Directives (Assisted Decision Making Capacity Act 2015, ADMC) proposes to change the basis of decision making from acting in the patient's best interests to following the expressed will and intentions of the patient. Refusal of life-saving care can occur, without sound reasons. The implications for care in life-threatening emergencies have not been explored among clinicians. DESIGN: An anonymous questionnaire survey of Advanced Paramedics (AP) covering awareness of the legislation, attitudes to and experience of refusal of care and potential actions in emergency scenarios now and if the legislation were in force. The scenarios covered end-of-life and deliberate self-harm situations potentially requiring resuscitation. SETTING: All 482 graduates of the Advanced Paramedic Training Programme were invited to take part. RESULTS: Overall, 85/389 (21.9%) valid contacts responded, with demographic characteristics similar to the overall population. Attitudes ranged from highly positive to highly negative in relation to the potential impact of the legislation on professional and operational responsibilities. Respondents described marked changes in whether they would offer resuscitation if the ADMC were in place. CONCLUSION: Irish legislation which changes the traditional basis of medical practice away from the best interests of the patient may affect the resuscitation practices of Advanced Paramedics in life-threatening situations. It has significant implications for medical education, professional practice and clinician-patient interactions. This legislation and similar planned legislation may have implications for other EU jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Tomada de Decisões , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Auxiliares de Emergência , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(2): 683-688, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric airway management is of fundamental importance in the critically unwell child. Pre-hospital paediatric airway management especially endotracheal intubation is however controversial. AIM: To explore Irish Advanced Paramedics (APs) training, experience and clinical practice in paediatric airway management as well as to examine clinician attitudes toward this topic. METHODS: An anonymous online survey of all graduates of the University College Dublin AP training program (N = 453). RESULTS: With duplicates and failed email deliveries excluded a valid sample of 382 individuals was obtained from whom a response rate of 185/382 (48.4%) was achieved. Three quarters of responding APs worked in urban or mixed practice with the remaining minority operating primarily in rural areas. One quarter of responding APs reported formal training in paediatric intubation. Almost 70% of APs had encountered a child requiring significant airway management in the preceding year. However, this was a rare exposure in terms of overall workload. Basic airway adjuncts were used frequently in such circumstances, with endotracheal intubation having been attempted by only a small minority of APs. Lack of practice was identified by many responding APs as a key issue causing concern in terms of paediatric intubation. CONCLUSION: Paediatric airway management has key relevance for pre-hospital care in Ireland. The overall frequency of exposure to children who may benefit from definitive airway management is however likely to represent a significant barrier to the acquisition and maintenance of competency. The ongoing practice of pre-hospital paediatric intubation by APs may not justify its risks.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD009269, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, from inception up to August 2017, and the reference lists of eligible articles. We also searched: 1) conference proceedings (online archives only) of the Society for the Study of Addiction, International Harm Reduction Association, International Conference on Alcohol Harm Reduction and American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence; and 2) online registers of clinical trials: Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Center Watch and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions with other psychosocial treatment, or treatment as usual, in adult PWIDs (aged at least 18 years) with concurrent problem alcohol use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (825 participants). We judged the majority of the trials to have a high or unclear risk of bias.The psychosocial interventions considered in the studies were: cognitive-behavioural coping skills training (one study), twelve-step programme (one study), brief intervention (three studies), motivational interviewing (two studies), and brief motivational interviewing (one study). Two studies were considered in two comparisons. There were no data for the secondary outcome, alcohol-related harm. The results were as follows.Comparison 1: cognitive-behavioural coping skills training versus twelve-step programme (one study, 41 participants)There was no significant difference between groups for either of the primary outcomes (alcohol abstinence assessed with Substance Abuse Calendar and breathalyser at one year: risk ratio (RR) 2.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10 to 55.06); and retention in treatment, measured at end of treatment: RR 0.89 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.29), or for any of the secondary outcomes reported. The quality of evidence for the primary outcomes was very low.Comparison 2: brief intervention versus treatment as usual (three studies, 197 participants)There was no significant difference between groups for either of the primary outcomes (alcohol use, measured as scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) at three months: standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.07 (95% CI -0.24 to 0.37); and retention in treatment, measured at three months: RR 0.94 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), or for any of the secondary outcomes reported. The quality of evidence for the primary outcomes was low.Comparison 3: motivational interviewing versus treatment as usual or educational intervention only (three studies, 462 participants)There was no significant difference between groups for either of the primary outcomes (alcohol use, measured as scores on the AUDIT or ASSIST at three months: SMD 0.04 (95% CI -0.29 to 0.37); and retention in treatment, measured at three months: RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.43), or for any of the secondary outcomes reported. The quality of evidence for the primary outcomes was low.Comparison 4: brief motivational intervention (BMI) versus assessment only (one study, 187 participants)More people reduced alcohol use (by seven or more days in the past month, measured at six months) in the BMI group than in the control group (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.60). There was no difference between groups for the other primary outcome, retention in treatment, measured at end of treatment: RR 0.98 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.02), or for any of the secondary outcomes reported. The quality of evidence for the primary outcomes was moderate.Comparison 5: motivational interviewing (intensive) versus motivational interviewing (one study, 163 participants)There was no significant difference between groups for either of the primary outcomes (alcohol use, measured using the Addiction Severity Index-alcohol score (ASI) at two months: MD 0.03 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.08); and retention in treatment, measured at end of treatment: RR 17.63 (95% CI 1.03 to 300.48), or for any of the secondary outcomes reported. The quality of evidence for the primary outcomes was low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low to very low-quality evidence to suggest that there is no difference in effectiveness between different types of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among people who use illicit drugs, and that brief interventions are not superior to assessment-only or to treatment as usual. No firm conclusions can be made because of the paucity of the data and the low quality of the retrieved studies.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos Anônimos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Psicoterapia Breve , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Grupos de Autoajuda , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Temperança/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000912, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402259

RESUMO

Objective: Resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is largely determined by the availability of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation within 5-10 min of collapse. The potential contribution of organised groups of volunteers to delivery of CPR and defibrillation in their communities has been little studied. Ireland has extensive networks of such volunteers; this study develops and tests a model to examine the potential impact at national level of these networks on early delivery of care. Methods: A geographical information systems study considering all statutory ambulance resource locations and all centre point locations for community first responder (CFR) schemes that operate in Ireland were undertaken. ESRI ArcGIS Desktop 10.4 was used to map CFR and ambulance base locations. ArcGIS Online proximity analysis function was used to model 5-10 min drive time response areas under sample peak and off-peak conditions. Response areas were linked to Irish population census data so as to establish the proportion of the population that have the potential to receive a timely cardiac arrest emergency response. Results: This study found that CFRs are present in many communities throughout Ireland and have the potential to reach a million additional citizens before the ambulance service and within a timeframe where CPR and defibrillation are likely to be effective treatments. Conclusion: CFRs have significant potential to contribute to survival following OHCA in Ireland. Further research that examines the processes, experiences and outcomes of CFR involvement in OHCA resuscitation should be a scientific priority.

10.
Resuscitation ; 126: 43-48, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510194

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to establish the role and outcome of general practitioner (GP) involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: A ten year prospective observational study involving a cohort of Irish general practices. SETTING: 521 general practice settings distributed throughout the Republic of Ireland, representing approximately one quarter of all practices and a third of Irish GPs. PARTICIPANTS: 534 patients suffering cardiac arrest in the community for whom resuscitation was attempted. INTERVENTIONS: Cardiac arrest with resuscitation attempted (CARA) in which a GP played a role. RESULTS: Over a ten year period almost half of participating practices reported one or more CARAs. A total of 534 CARAs were reported at a variety of locations; 161 (30%) had ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) at some point, with outcome data available for 147/161; 90 patients survived to hospital discharge. Most survivors for whom follow up data are available were discharged home and were completely independent. The highest rate of survival was achieved when CARAs occurred at a GP practice premises (47.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation following OHCA is a key task in general practice. Over time a significant number of GPs encounter OHCA, attempt resuscitation and achieve higher survival to hospital discharge rates than occur nationally among OHCAs in Ireland. We conclude that a defibrillator should be routinely available at all general practices and staff should have appropriate resuscitation skills.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Fatores Etários , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Ir J Med Sci ; 187(4): 867-871, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incident reporting is vital to identifying pre-hospital medication safety issues because literature suggests that the majority of errors pre-hospital are self-identified. In 2016, the National Ambulance Service (NAS) reported 11 medication errors to the national body with responsibility for risk management and insurance cover. The Health Information and Quality Authority in 2014 stated that reporting of clinical incidents, of which medication errors are a subset, was not felt to be representative of the actual events occurring. Even though reporting systems are in place, the levels appear to be well below what might be expected. Little data is available to explain this apparent discrepancy. AIMS: To identify, investigate and document the barriers to medication error reporting within the NAS. METHODS: An independent moderator led four focus groups in March of 2016. A convenience sample of 18 frontline Paramedics and Advanced Paramedics from Cork City and County discussed medication errors and the medication error reporting process. The sessions were recorded and anonymised, and the data was analysed using a process of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Practitioners understood the value of reporting errors. Barriers to reporting included fear of consequences and ridicule, procedural ambiguity, lack of feedback and a perceived lack of both consistency and confidentiality. The perceived consequences for making an error included professional, financial, litigious and psychological. CONCLUSION: Staff appeared willing to admit errors in a psychologically safe environment. Barriers to reporting are in line with international evidence. Time constraints prevented achievement of thematic saturation. Further study is warranted.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais/métodos , Erros de Medicação/psicologia , Ambulâncias , Humanos , Irlanda , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gestão de Riscos
12.
Emerg Med J ; 34(10): 659-664, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28655755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Age influences survival from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) but it is unclear to what extent. Improved understanding of the impact of increasing age may be helpful in improving decision making on who should receive attempted resuscitation to optimise outcomes and minimise inappropriate end-of-life management. Our aim is to describe the demographics, characteristics and outcomes following resuscitation attempts in OHCA patients aged 70 years and older in Ireland. METHODS: Data were extracted from the national OHCA Register. Patient and event characteristics were compared across three age categories (70-79; 80-89; ≥90 years). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of the primary outcome (survival to hospital discharge). RESULTS: A total of 2281 patients aged 70 years and older were attended by emergency medical services and had resuscitation attempted between 2012 and 2014. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 2.9%. For those aged 70-79 years, 80-89 years, 90 years and older survival to hospital discharge in each age group was 4.0%, 1.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Older age (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.95 95% CI 0.90 to 0.99) and having an arrest in the subjects own home (AOR 0.14 95% CI 0.07 to 0.28) were independent predictor associated with reduced odds of survival to hospital discharge. An initial shockable rhythm (AOR 17.9. 95% CI 8.19 to 39.2) and having a bystander witnessed OHCA (AOR 3.98. 95% CI 1.38 to 11.50) were independent predictors associated with increased odds of survival to hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: In those aged 70 years and older, the rate of survival to hospital discharge declined with increasing age group. Younger age, an initial shockable rhythm and witnessed arrest were independent predictors of survival to hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Br J Gen Pract ; 67(657): e267-e273, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28246098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use. AIM: To establish GPs' views and experiences of opiate addiction, overdose care, and naloxone provision. DESIGN AND SETTING: An anonymous postal survey to GPs affiliated with the Department of Academic General Practice, University College Dublin, Ireland. METHOD: A total of 714 GPs were invited to complete an anonymous postal survey. Results were compared with a parallel GP trainee survey. RESULTS: A total of 448/714 (62.7%) GPs responded. Approximately one-third of GPs were based in urban, rural, and mixed areas. Over 75% of GPs who responded had patients who used illicit opiates, and 25% prescribed methadone. Two-thirds of GPs were in favour of increased naloxone availability in the community; almost one-third would take part in such a scheme. A higher proportion of GP trainees had used naloxone to treat opiate overdose than qualified GPs. In addition, a higher proportion of GP trainees were willing to be involved in naloxone distribution than qualified GPs. Intranasal naloxone was much preferred to single (P<0.001) or multiple dose (P<0.001) intramuscular naloxone. Few GPs objected to wider naloxone availability, with 66.1% (n = 292) being in favour. CONCLUSION: GPs report extensive contact with people who have opiate use disorders but provide limited opiate agonist treatment. They support wider availability of naloxone and would participate in its expansion. Development and evaluation of an implementation strategy to support GP-based distribution is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Medicina Geral , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
BMC Fam Pract ; 17(1): 153, 2016 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying and treating problem alcohol use among people who also use illicit drugs is a challenge. Primary care is well placed to address this challenge but there are several barriers which may prevent this occurring. The objective of this study was to determine if a complex intervention designed to support screening and brief intervention for problem alcohol use among people receiving opioid agonist treatment is feasible and acceptable to healthcare providers and their patients in a primary care setting. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, pre-and-post design measured feasibility and acceptability of alcohol screening based on recruitment and retention rates among patients and practices. Efficacy was measured by screening and brief intervention rates and the proportion of patients with problem alcohol use. RESULTS: Of 149 practices that were invited, 19 (12.8 %) agreed to participate. At follow up, 13 (81.3 %) practices with 81 (62.8 %) patients were retained. Alcohol screening rates in the intervention group were higher at follow up than in the control group (53 % versus 26 %) as were brief intervention rates (47 % versus 19 %). Four (18 %) people reduced their problem drinking (measured by AUDIT-C), compared to two (7 %) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol screening among people receiving opioid agonist treatment in primary care seems feasible. A definitive trial is needed. Such a trial would require over sampling and greater support for participating practices to allow for challenges in recruitment of patients and practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Medicina Geral/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Medicina Geral/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Encaminhamento e Consulta
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(5): 900-909.e2, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 50% and 60% of patients misuse a dry powder inhaler, whereas studies with electronic monitors indicate that patients sometimes overuse/underuse their inhalers. It is not known what impact errors and erratic use have on inhaler adherence. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to longitudinally quantify when and how patients adhered to a twice-daily preventer treatment by using a novel acoustic recording device attached to an inhaler (INhaler Compliance Assessment). METHODS: Patients with a history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 123) from primary care and community pharmacies were given an INhaler Compliance Assessment-adapted inhaler for 1 month. Analysis of the audio files provided quantitative information on time and technique of inhaler use. RESULTS: Data were available for 103 patients. Twenty-one patients (20%) used their inhaler in the correct manner at the correct interval. There were 5045 audio files with attempted inhalations, of which 1204 had technique errors (24%). Errors included inadequate flow (27%), drug priming without inhalation (19%), exhalation into the inhaler (18%), and multiple inhalations (25%). On average, participants made errors 20% of the time. Of 60 doses expected to be taken in a month per person, on average 49 doses (82%) were attempted and when errors were accounted for, the average number of actual doses taken was 34 doses (57%; P < .01) comparing attempted to actual doses. DISCUSSION: These data highlight that ineffective and irregular inhaler use is common and when combined in a single calculation indicate that only 20% of participants used their inhaler correctly and on time.


Assuntos
Inaladores de Pó Seco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação , Acústica , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Resuscitation ; 102: 6-10, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telephone CPR (T-CPR) has significant variations in time from call receipt to first compression, with reported delays of up to five minutes. Ireland's National Ambulance Service (NAS) uses T-CPR based on standard AMPDS questions; we aimed to identify the time to first compression and the times needed for question blocks. Ireland has a low survival rate from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, (6% in 2013). METHODS: A retrospective review of all cardiac arrests in a two-year period was carried out in one NAS region. All cardiac arrests were identified from the national registry and audio tapes and Patient Care Reports reviewed, together with survival data. Times from call handover were noted and categorised in terms of the key question items. RESULTS: 202 cardiac arrests occurred in the period (36/10(5)/year); 30 (14.9%) patients were not in cardiac arrest at the time of the call. Records were available for 145/172 patients in cardiac arrest at the time of the call. In 63/145 (43.4%) cases, the caller was not at the patient's side. Of the remaining 82 cases, in 13/82 (15.8%) CPR was underway (two survivors), in 22/82 (26.8%) the caller would not attempt T-CPR (one survivor); in 47/82 (57.3%), T-CPR was carried out (two survivors). Median time to first compression was 05:28min (range 03:18-10:29). Repeated questioning in relation to the patient's condition caused most of the delays. CONCLUSIONS: Many callers are willing to attempt T-CPR but the questioning/instruction process causes significant delays. A focused, brief questioning process is required.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Consulta Remota/métodos , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 15: 206, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26590066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overdose is the most common cause of fatalities among opioid users. Naloxone is a life-saving medication for reversing opioid overdose. In Ireland, it is currently available to ambulance and emergency care services, but General Practitioners (GP) are in regular contact with opioid users and their families. This positions them to provide naloxone themselves or to instruct patients how to use it. The new Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Pre-hospital Emergency Care Council of Ireland allows trained bystanders to administer intranasal naloxone. We describe the development and process evaluation of an educational intervention, designed to help GP trainees identify and manage opioid overdose with intranasal naloxone. METHODS: Participants (N = 23) from one postgraduate training scheme in Ireland participated in a one-hour training session. The repeated-measures design, using the validated Opioid Overdose Knowledge (OOKS) and Attitudes (OOAS) Scales, examined changes immediately after training. Acceptability and satisfaction with training were measured with a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Knowledge of the risks of overdose and appropriate actions to be taken increased significantly post-training [OOKS mean difference, 3.52 (standard deviation 4.45); P < 0.001]; attitudes improved too [OOAS mean difference, 11.13 (SD 6.38); P < 0.001]. The most and least useful delivery methods were simulation and video, respectively. CONCLUSION: Appropriate training is a key requirement for the distribution of naloxone through general practice. In future studies, the knowledge from this pilot will be used to inform a train-the-trainer model, whereby healthcare professionals and other front-line service providers will be trained to instruct opioid users and their families in overdose prevention and naloxone use.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/educação , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Geral/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Amigos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
J Dual Diagn ; 11(2): 97-106, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many individuals receiving methadone maintenance receive their treatment through their primary care provider. As many also drink alcohol excessively, there is a need to address alcohol use to improve health outcomes for these individuals. We examined problem alcohol use and its treatment among people attending primary care for methadone maintenance treatment, using baseline data from a feasibility study of an evidence-based complex intervention to improve care. METHODS: Data on addiction care processes were collected by (1) reviewing clinical records (n = 129) of people who attended 16 general practices for methadone maintenance treatment and (2) administering structured questionnaires to both patients (n = 106) and general practitioners (GPs) (n = 15). RESULTS: Clinical records indicated that 24 patients (19%) were screened for problem alcohol use in the 12 months prior to data collection, with problem alcohol use identified in 14 (58% of those screened, 11% of the full sample). Of those who had positive screening results for problem alcohol use, five received a brief intervention by a GP and none were referred to specialist treatment. Scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) revealed the prevalence of hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking to be 25% (n = 26), 6% (n = 6), and 16% (n = 17), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the proportion of patients with negative AUDITs was 0.038 (SE = 0.01). The ICCs for screening, brief intervention, and/or referral to treatment (SBIRT) were 0.16 (SE = 0.014), -0.06 (SE = 0.017), and 0.22 (SE = 0.026), respectively. Only 12 (11.3%) AUDIT questionnaires concurred with corresponding clinical records that a patient had any/no problem alcohol use. Regular use of primary care was evident, as 25% had visited their GP more than 12 times during the past 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing clinical records with patients' experience of SBIRT can shed light on the process of care. Alcohol screening in people who attend primary care for substance use treatment is not routinely conducted. Interventions that enhance the care of problem alcohol use among this high-risk group are a priority.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
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