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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current practice in cardiogenic shock is guided by expert opinion in guidelines and scientific statements from professional societies with limited high quality randomized trial data to inform optimal patient management. An international panel conducted a modified Delphi process with the intent of identifying aspects of cardiogenic shock care where there was uncertainty regarding optimal patient management. METHODS: An 18-person multidisciplinary panel comprising international experts was convened. A modified RAND/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness methodology was used. A survey comprising 70 statements was completed. Participants anonymously rated the appropriateness of each statement on a scale of 1 to 9: 1 to 3 inappropriate, 4 to 6 uncertain, and 7 to 9 appropriate. A summary of the results was discussed as a group, and the survey was iterated and completed again before final analysis. RESULTS: There was broad alignment with current international guidelines and consensus statements. Overall, 44 statements were rated as appropriate, 19 as uncertain, and 7 as inappropriate. There was no disagreement with a disagreement index <1 for all statements. Routine fluid administration was deemed to be inappropriate. Areas of uncertainty focused panel on pre-PCI interventions, the use of right heart catheterization to guide management, routine use of left ventricular unloading strategies, and markers of futility when considering escalation to mechanical circulatory support. CONCLUSIONS: While there was broad alignment with current guidance, an expert panel found several aspects of care where there was clinical equipoise, further highlighting the need for randomized controlled trials to better guide patient management and decision making in cardiogenic shock.

2.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraprocedural optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a valuable tool for guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention, but long-term follow-up data are lacking. AIMS: The aim of this study was to address the long-term (7.5 years) clinical impact of quantitative OCT metrics of suboptimal stent implantation. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 391 patients with long-term follow-up (mean 2,737 days; interquartile range 1,301-3,143 days) from the multicentre Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto – Optimisation of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CLI-OPCI) registry. OCT-assessed suboptimal stent deployment required the presence of at least one of the following pre-defined OCT findings: in-stent MLA <4.5 mm2, proximal or distal reference lumen narrowing with lumen area <4.5 mm2, significant proximal or distal edge dissection width ≥200 μm. RESULTS: One-hundred-two patients (26.1%) with 138 stented lesions (27.7%) experienced a device-oriented cardiovascular event (DOCE). In-stent MLA <4.5 mm2 (38.1% vs 19.8%, p<0.001), in-stent lumen expansion <70% (29.5% vs 20.3%, p=0.032), proximal reference lumen narrowing <4.5 mm2 (6.5% vs 1.4%, p=0.004), and distal reference lumen narrowing <4.5 mm2 (12.9% vs 3.6%, p=0.001) were significantly more common in the DOCE vs non-DOCE group. OCT assessed suboptimal stent deployment was an independent predictor of long-term DOCE (HR 2.17, p<0.001), together with bare metal stent implantation (HR 1.73, p=0.003) and prior revascularisation (HR 1.53, p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of OCT assessed suboptimal criteria for stent implantation was related to a worse clinical outcome at very long-term follow-up. This information further supports an OCT-guided strategy of stent deployment.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to recognize intraplaque macrophage infiltration is now well acknowledged. This post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA study aimed to address the clinical impact of the circumferential extension of OCT-defined macrophages and their location at one year follow-up. METHODS: The multicentre CLIMA study enrolled 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Measurements of circumferential extension of macrophages and measurements of the distance from intima-lumen contour to macrophages string were performed at the plaque cross-section judged as containing the greatest amount of macrophages. The main study endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or target vessel revascularization (TVR). RESULTS: Patients with large macrophage arc (p = 0.001) and superficial macrophage arc (p < 0.001) showed a higher one-year incidence of the main one-year composite endpoint. Consistently hypertension (p = 0.018), family history of CAD (p = 0.046), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.036), lower ejection fraction (p = 0.009) and chronic kidney disease (p = 0.019) were more frequently found in patients experiencing the main composite endpoint. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, fibrous cap thickness < 75 µm (HR 2.51, 95% 1.46-4.32), presence of large (HR 1.97, 95%CI 1.16-3.35, p = 0.012) and superficial (HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.02-2.90; p = 0.040) macrophage arc remained independent predictors of the main composite endpoint. Large macrophage arc was associated with target LAD related MI. CONCLUSION: The present post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA showed that the circumferential extension of macrophages and their location are related to a composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI and/or TVR.

4.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(11): E843-E850, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plaque rupture (PR) is the main cause of coronary thrombosis in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), but can be found in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Our study compared the morphology and local inflammatory activity of ruptured plaques between stable CAD and NSTEMI patients using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 70 plaques with PR at the FD-OCT (25 in stable CAD patients and 45 in NSTEMI patients). Main clinical, angiographic, and morphological features were compared. RESULTS: Besides an overall equivalence in clinical and angiographic features (except for more smokers among NSTEMI patients), some important FD-OCT differences in plaque morphology emerged: PR in NSTEMI was characterized by more macrophage infiltrates (78% in NSTEMI patients vs 20% in stable CAD patients; P<.001) and intraluminal thrombosis (84% in NSTEMI patients vs 48% in stable CAD patients; P<.01). Quantitative analysis showed a higher density of macrophages in NSTEMI than in stable CAD patients: median max normalized standard deviation (NSD) was 0.0934 (IQR, 0.0796-0.1022) vs 0.0689 (IQR, 0.0598-0.0787); P<.01 and mean NSD was 0.062 (IQR, 0.060-0.065) vs 0.053 (IQR, 0.051-0.060); P<.001. Other morphological features did not differ between stable CAD and NSTEMI patients. Main FD-OCT quantitative parameters like minimal lumen area and plaque length were also equivalent between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in morphological features of PR between stable CAD and NSTEMI patients suggest that local inflammation contributes to the unstable fate of the atherosclerotic plaque.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Placa Aterosclerótica , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to test the safety and efficacy of intravascular imaging and specifically optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for left main angioplasty and analyze the mid-term outcome accordingly. BACKGROUND: Clinical data and international guidelines recommend the use of intravascular imaging ultrasound (IVUS) to guide left main (LM) angioplasty. Despite early experience using OCT in this setting is encouraging, the evidence supporting its use is still limited. METHODS: ROCK II is a multicenter, investigator-driven, retrospective European study to compare the performance of IVUS and OCT versus angiography in patients undergoing distal-LM stenting. The primary study endpoint was target-lesion failure (TLF) including cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and target-lesion revascularization. We designed this study hypothesizing the superiority of intravascular imaging over angiographic guidance alone, and the non-inferiority of OCT versus IVUS. RESULTS: A total of 730 patients, 377 with intravascular-imaging guidance (162 OCT, 215 IVUS) and 353 with angiographic guidance, were analyzed. The one-year rate of TLF was 21.2% with angiography and 12.7% with intravascular-imaging (p = 0.039), with no difference between OCT and IVUS (p = 0.26). Intravascular-imaging was predictor of freedom from TLF (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.93: p = 0.03). Propensity-score matching identified three groups of 100 patients each with no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The one-year rate of TLF was 16% in the angiographic, 7% in the OCT and 6% in the IVUS group, respectively (p = 0.03 for IVUS or OCT vs. angiography). No between-group significant differences in the rate of individual components of TLF were found. CONCLUSIONS: Intravascular imaging was superior to angiography for distal LM stenting, with no difference between OCT and IVUS.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456154

RESUMO

In one multicenter and several single-center studies involving 202 cases, new shapes of transradial access PCI guide catheters were tested following a standardized original protocol. The evaluation included a newly designed score for PCI complexity. Three operators successfully performed the 40 cases of the multicenter study, scoring intermediate to difficult 66% of the cases. New shapes were tested for left and right coronary artery and saphenous vein graft PCIs, with right or left transradial access. The new shapes performed adequately, including in 5F sizing. PCI success and fluoroscopy time were related to the score of complexity.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389852

RESUMO

AIMS: To report the incidence, the predictors and clinical impact of device-related complications (DRCs) in the IMP-IT (IMPella Mechanical Circulatory Support Device in Italy) registry. Impella is percutaneous left ventricular assist devices, which provides mechanical circulatory support both in cardiogenic shock (CS) and high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI). The IMP-IT registry is a multicentre registry evaluating the trends in use and clinical outcomes of Impella in Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 406 patients have been included in this registry: 56.4% in the setting of CS, while 43.6% patients in the setting of HR-PCI. DRCs were defined as a composite endpoint of access-site bleeding, limb ischaemia, vascular complication requiring treatment, haemolysis, aortic injury, and left ventricular perforation. DRC incidence in the overall population was 25.6%, with significantly higher rate in the CS (37.1%) than in the HR-PCI (10.7%) group. The most frequent complication was haemolysis (11.8%), which occurred almost exclusively in CS population. Access-site bleeding was observed in 9.6% of the overall population, with no significant difference between the two groups. Limb ischaemia was observed in 8.3% of the overall population, with significantly higher rate in the CS group. CS and right ventricular dysfunction appear as the strongest independent predictors of DRC. One-year mortality in patients with DRC appears higher than in patients with no DRC. However, DRC was not confirmed as an independent predictor of 1-year mortality at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In the IMP-IT registry, the rate of DRC was 25.6%, with CS being the strongest independent predictor. DRC was not found as an independent predictor of 1-year mortality.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405232

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this article was to compare rates of all-cause death at 10 years following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAXES study evaluated up to 10-year survival of 1800 patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) randomized to receive either PCI or CABG in the SYNTAX trial. Ten-year all-cause death according to diabetic status and revascularization strategy was examined. In diabetics (n = 452), the risk of mortality was numerically higher with PCI compared with CABG at 5 years [19.6% vs. 13.3%, hazard ratio (HR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 2.43, P = 0.075], with the opposite seen between 5 and 10 years (PCI vs. CABG: 20.8% vs. 24.4%, HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.27, P = 0.366). Irrespective of diabetic status, there was no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years between patients receiving PCI or CABG, the absolute treatment difference was 1.9% in diabetics (PCI vs. CABG: 36.4% vs. 34.5%, difference: 1.9%, 95% CI: -7.6%, 11.1%, P = 0.551). Among insulin-treated patients (n = 182), all-cause death at 10 years was numerically higher with PCI (47.9% vs. 39.6%, difference: 8.2%, 95% CI: -6.5%, 22.5%, P = 0.227). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment effects of PCI vs. CABG on all-cause death at 10 years in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD were similar irrespective of the presence of diabetes. There may, however, be a survival benefit with CABG in patients with insulin-treated diabetes. The association between revascularization strategy and very long-term ischaemic and safety outcomes for patients with diabetes needs further investigation in dedicated trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972 and SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16486, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389748

RESUMO

Patient-specific and lesion-specific computational simulation of bifurcation stenting is an attractive approach to achieve individualized pre-procedural planning that could improve outcomes. The objectives of this work were to describe and validate a novel platform for fully computational patient-specific coronary bifurcation stenting. Our computational stent simulation platform was trained using n = 4 patient-specific bench bifurcation models (n = 17 simulations), and n = 5 clinical bifurcation cases (training group, n = 23 simulations). The platform was blindly tested in n = 5 clinical bifurcation cases (testing group, n = 29 simulations). A variety of stent platforms and stent techniques with 1- or 2-stents was used. Post-stenting imaging with micro-computed tomography (µCT) for bench group and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for clinical groups were used as reference for the training and testing of computational coronary bifurcation stenting. There was a very high agreement for mean lumen diameter (MLD) between stent simulations and post-stenting µCT in bench cases yielding an overall bias of 0.03 (- 0.28 to 0.34) mm. Similarly, there was a high agreement for MLD between stent simulation and OCT in clinical training group [bias 0.08 (- 0.24 to 0.41) mm], and clinical testing group [bias 0.08 (- 0.29 to 0.46) mm]. Quantitatively and qualitatively stent size and shape in computational stenting was in high agreement with clinical cases, yielding an overall bias of < 0.15 mm. Patient-specific computational stenting of coronary bifurcations is a feasible and accurate approach. Future clinical studies are warranted to investigate the ability of computational stenting simulations to guide decision-making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory and improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Prótese Vascular , Simulação por Computador , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Desenho de Prótese/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e020535, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259010

RESUMO

Background Myocardial bridging (MB) may represent a cause of myocardial ischemia in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD). Herein, we assessed the interplay between MB and coronary vasomotor disorders, also evaluating their prognostic relevance in patients with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) or stable NOCAD. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled patients with NOCAD undergoing intracoronary acetylcholine provocative test. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for unstable angina, was assessed at follow-up. We also assessed angina status using Seattle Angina Questionnaires summary score. We enrolled 310 patients (mean age, 60.6±11.9; 136 [43.9%] men; 169 [54.5%] stable NOCAD and 141 [45.5%] MINOCA). MB was found in 53 (17.1%) patients. MB and a positive acetylcholine test coexisted more frequently in patients with MINOCA versus stable NOCAD. MB was an independent predictor of positive acetylcholine test and MINOCA. At follow-up (median, 22 months; interquartile range, 13-32), patients with MB had a higher rate of major adverse cardiac events, mainly driven by a higher rate of hospitalization attributable to angina, and a lower Seattle Angina Questionnaires summary score (all P<0.001) compared with patients without MB. In particular, the group of patients with MB and a positive acetylcholine test had the worst prognosis. Conclusions Among patients with NOCAD, coronary spasm associated with MB may predict a worse clinical presentation with MINOCA and a higher rate of hospitalization attributable to angina at long-term follow-up with a low rate of hard events.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrocardiografia , Ponte Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Acetilcolina/administração & dosagem , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Ponte Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cidade de Roma/epidemiologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(11): 3129-3135, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Near infrared spectroscopy-Intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) provide a fully automated Lipid Core Burden Index (LCBI). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is potentially capable of measuring lipid longitudinal extension in a dedicated two-dimensional LCBI spread-out plot. The present study has been designed to validate an automated approach to assess OCT images, able of providing a dedicated LCBI spread-out plot. METHODS: We compared results obtained with conventional (manual) OCT, with those obtained with a novel automated OCT algorithm and with NIRS-IVUS in consecutive 40 patients. Our goal was to calculate the lipid core longitudinal extension in a dedicated two-dimensional LCBI spread-out plot. Three groups were identified according to the studied lesions: (1) culprit lesions in ACS patients (n = 16), (2) non-culprit lesions in ACS patients (n = 12) and (3) lesions in stable patients (n = 12). OCT (either manual and automated) and NIRS-IVUS assessment showed for culprit ACS plaques a more complex anatomy. RESULTS: A strong trend for increased LCBI was found in the culprit ACS group, regardless of the adopted imaging modality (either NIRS-IVUS or automated OCT). A fair correlation was obtained for the maximum 4 mm LCBI measured by NIRS-IVUS and automated OCT (r = 0.75). The sensitivity and specificity of automated OCT to detect significant LCBI (> 400) were 90.5 and 84.2 respectively. CONCLUSION: We developed an OCT automated approach that can provide a dedicated lipid plaque spread-out plot to address plaque vulnerability. The automated OCT software can promote and improve OCT clinical applications for the identification of patients at risk of hard events.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Placa Aterosclerótica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lipídeos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Software , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(7): 561-569, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175912

RESUMO

Valvular heart diseases (VHD) are common in the elderly population and several therapeutic options are available to treat them. When selecting the management strategy for VHD patients, to evaluate the operatory risk, using special scores like STS score, EuroSCORE II and other more specific ones is pivotal. However, the risk scores do not consider some aspects, such as the clinical needs of the single patients, the management of local resources and the expertise of the center. The Heart Team, combining the experience of various specialists, can optimize the decision-making process through a better evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio of the therapeutic choices. The multidisciplinary discussion of the most complex cases is recommended by the international guidelines for the management of VHD and it is part of the clinical practice of many centers. So far, both trials and large clinical studies supporting such multidisciplinary management are lacking. Despite these important limitations, the Heart Team can be actually regarded as a promising tool to locally promote best practices for the treatment of VHD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Idoso , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/terapia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12252, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112841

RESUMO

The structural morphology of coronary stents (e.g. stent expansion, lumen scaffolding, strut apposition, tissue protrusion, side branch jailing, strut fracture), and the local hemodynamic environment after stent deployment are key determinants of procedural success and subsequent clinical outcomes. High-resolution intracoronary imaging has the potential to enable the geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of coronary stents. The aim of this work was to present a novel algorithm for 3D stent reconstruction of coronary artery stents based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography, and test experimentally its accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility, and ability to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Our method has the following steps: 3D lumen reconstruction based on OCT and angiography, stent strut segmentation in OCT images, packaging, rotation and straightening of the segmented struts, planar unrolling of the segmented struts, planar stent wireframe reconstruction, rolling back of the planar stent wireframe to the 3D reconstructed lumen, and final stent volume reconstruction. We tested the accuracy and reproducibility of our method in stented patient-specific silicone models using micro-computed tomography (µCT) and stereoscopy as references. The clinical feasibility and CFD studies were performed in clinically stented coronary bifurcations. The experimental and clinical studies showed that our algorithm (1) can reproduce the complex spatial stent configuration with high precision and reproducibility, (2) is feasible in 3D reconstructing stents deployed in bifurcations, and (3) enables CFD studies to assess the local hemodynamic environment within the stent. Notably, the high accuracy of our algorithm was consistent across different stent designs and diameters. Our method coupled with patient-specific CFD studies can lay the ground for optimization of stenting procedures, patient-specific computational stenting simulations, and research and development of new stent scaffolds and stenting techniques.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Stents , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Algoritmos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(9): 2591-2601, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993420

RESUMO

Stent implantation in bifurcated coronary lesions is technically challenging so that procedural refinements are continuously investigated. Novel procedure modeling and intracoronary imaging techniques may offer critical insights on stent deformations and stent-wall interactions during bifurcation stenting procedures. Thus, we assessed coronary bifurcation stenting techniques using multimodal imaging and 3D modeling in reanimated swine hearts. Harvested swine hearts were reanimated using Visible Heart® methodologies and (under standard fluoroscopic guidance) used to test 1-stent (provisional and inverted provisional) and 2-stent (culotte, TAP and DK-crush) techniques on bifurcations within various coronary vessels using commercially available devices. Intracoronary angioscopy and frequency-domain optical-coherence-tomography (OCT) were obtained during the procedures. 3D OCT reconstruction and micro-computed tomography 3D modeling (post heart fixations) were used to assess stent deformations and stent-wall interactions. We conducted multiple stenting procedures and collected unique endoscopic and OCT images (and subsequent computational models from micro-CT) to assess stent deformations and device/wall interactions during different steps of bifurcation stenting procedures. Endoscopy, micro-CT and virtual reality processing documented that different 1- and 2-stent techniques, practiced according to experts' recommended steps, achieve optimal post-intervention stent conformation. As compared with intra-procedural endoscopy, software-generated 3D OCT images accurately depicted stent deformations during 1-stent techniques. On the opposite, during more complex 2-stent techniques, some defects were appreciated at 3D OCT reconstruction despite optimal 2D OCT images. This study provided unique insights regarding both stent deformations occurring in the course of bifurcation stenting and the efficacy of OCT to visualize them.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Animais , Angiografia Coronária , Imagem Multimodal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Stents , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Eur Heart J ; 42(37): 3829-3839, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-left-main coronary bifurcation lesions are usually best treated with a stepwise provisional approach. However, patients with true left main stem bifurcation lesions have been shown in one dedicated randomized study to benefit from systematic dual stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-seven patients with true left main stem bifurcation lesions requiring intervention were recruited to the EBC MAIN study in 11 European countries. Patients were aged 71 ± 10 years; 77% were male. Patients were randomly allocated to a stepwise layered provisional strategy (n = 230) or a systematic dual stent approach (n = 237). The primary endpoint (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization at 12 months) occurred in 14.7% of the stepwise provisional group vs. 17.7% of the systematic dual stent group (hazard ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.5-1.3; P = 0.34). Secondary endpoints were death (3.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.48), myocardial infarction (10.0% vs. 10.1%, P = 0.91), target lesion revascularization (6.1% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.16), and stent thrombosis (1.7% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.90), respectively. Procedure time, X-ray dose and consumables favoured the stepwise provisional approach. Symptomatic improvement was excellent and equal in each group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with true bifurcation left main stem stenosis requiring intervention, fewer major adverse cardiac events occurred with a stepwise layered provisional approach than with planned dual stenting, although the difference was not statistically significant. The stepwise provisional strategy should remain the default for distal left main stem bifurcation intervention. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT02497014.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Masculino , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the acute management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) bolus not followed by intravenous infusion is potentially advantageous given their fast onset and offset of action, but clinical evidence in a contemporary setting is limited. METHODS: We collected data from consecutive STEMI patients admitted to the cardiac catheterization laboratory of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli from October 2017 to September 2019. RESULTS: Out of 423 consecutive STEMI patients, 297 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the study. Of them, 107/297 (36%) received an intracoronary GPI bolus-only during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) not followed by intravenous infusion and 190/297 (64%) received standard antithrombotic therapy. Of the 107 GPI-treated, 22/107 (21%) had P2Y12 inhibitor pre-treatment (adjunctive strategy) and 85/107 (79%) did not (bridging strategy). During hospital staying, there was no difference in the primary safety endpoint of TIMI major+minor bleeding (p=0.283), TIMI major (p=0.267) or TIMI minor (p=0.685) bleeding between groups. No stroke event occurred in the GPI group. Despite patients receiving GPI having a significantly higher intraprocedural ischemic burden, no significant differences were found in the efficacy outcomes between groups. Consistent findings were observed for patients receiving GPIs bolus before (bridging strategy) or after (adjunctive strategy) P2Y12 inhibitors, compared to those receiving standard therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses did not find any independent predictors significantly associated to the primary and secondary composite endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary real-world population of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI, the use of intracoronary GPIs bolus-only in selected patients at high ischemic risk is safe and could represent a useful antithrombotic strategy both in those pre-treated and in those naïve to P2Y12 inhibitors.

19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(2): E222-E234, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the microaxial percutaneous mechanical circulatory support device (Impella® pump) implantation pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus during/after PCI in cardiogenic shock (CS) and high-risk PCI populations. BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the safety and effectiveness of the Impella and the role of timing of this support initiation in specific clinical settings is of utmost clinical relevance. METHODS: A total of 365 patients treated with Impella 2.5/CP in the 17 centers of the IMP-IT Registry were included. Through propensity-score weighting (PSW) analysis, 1-year clinical outcomes were assessed separately in CS and HR-PCI patients, stratified by timing of Impella support. RESULTS: Pre-procedural insertion was associated with an improvement in 1-year survival in patients with CS due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with PCI (p = .04 before PSW, p = .009 after PSW) and HR-PCI (p < .01 both before and after PSW). Among patients undergoing HR-PCI, early Impella support was also associated with a lower rate of the composite of mortality, re-hospitalization for heart failure, and need for left-ventricular assist device/heart transplantation at 1-year (p = .04 before PSW, p = .01 after PSW). Furthermore, Impella use during/after PCI was associated with an increased in-hospital life-threatening and severe bleeding among patients with AMI-CS receiving PCI (7 vs. 16%, p = .1) and HR-PCI (1 vs. 9%, p = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested a survival benefit and reduced rates of major bleeding when a pre-PCI Impella implantation instead of during-after procedure was used in the setting of HR-PCI and AMI-CS.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(3): 126-133, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813534

RESUMO

The growing burden of valvular heart disease in Western countries represents a challenge for the daily clinical practice, especially in the light of the ever-increasing number of therapeutic options. The Euro Heart Survey showed that, among elderly subjects with severe, symptomatic valve dysfunction, surgery is denied for 33% of patients with aortic stenosis and for 50% of patients with mitral regurgitation. Current management (from diagnosis to follow-up) is often fragmented in multiple-sometimes unnecessary-steps. Such a "patchy" approach may translate into a suboptimal management, especially in the geriatric population. New healthcare models exist that can coordinate care, reduce fragmentation, limit costs and, ultimately, improve outcomes: the clinical pathways.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Benchmarking , Procedimentos Clínicos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia
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