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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1128-1141, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More data regarding effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular events and mortality in LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) participants, by HF history. METHODS: In the multinational, double-blind, randomized LEADER trial, 9,340 patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk were assigned 1:1 to liraglutide (1.8 mg daily or maximum tolerated dose up to 1.8 mg daily) or placebo plus standard care, and followed for 3.5 to 5 years. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF was an exclusion criterion. The primary composite major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Post hoc Cox regression analyses of outcomes by baseline HF history were conducted. RESULTS: At baseline, 18% of patients had a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF (liraglutide: n = 835 of 4,668; placebo: n = 832 of 4,672). Effects of liraglutide versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events were consistent in patients with (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65 to 1.02]) and without (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.53). In both subgroups, fewer deaths were observed with liraglutide (HR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.70 to 1.14] with HF; HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.70 to 0.97] without HF; p interaction = 0.63) versus placebo. No increased risk of HF hospitalization was observed with liraglutide, regardless of HF history (HR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.75 to 1.28] with HF; HR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.61 to 1.00] without HF; p interaction = 0.22). Effects of liraglutide on the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death were consistent in patients with (HR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.15]) and without (HR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.65 to 0.91]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, liraglutide should be considered suitable for patients with T2D with or without a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF. (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]; NCT01179048).

2.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Disease management in these patients has been generally focused on glycemic control and controlling other renal and cardiac risk factors as, historically, few protective therapies have been available. The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation -(CREDENCE) trial of canagliflozin was the first study to demonstrate renal protection with a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in patients with T2DM and CKD, and these results could have important implications for clinical practice. SUMMARY: In CREDENCE, participants with T2DM and estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-<90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5,000 mg/g who were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker for ≥4 weeks prior to randomization at either the maximum labeled or tolerated dose were randomized to receive either canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. Canagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage kidney disease, or renal or cardiovascular (CV) death compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.82; p = 0.00001). Canagliflozin also reduced the risk of secondary renal and CV outcomes. The safety profile of canagliflozin in CREDENCE was generally similar to previous studies of canagliflozin. No imbalances were observed between canagliflozin and placebo in the risk of amputation or fracture in the CREDENCE population. Key Messages: The positive renal and CV effects of canagliflozin observed in the -CREDENCE trial could have a substantial impact on improving outcomes for patients with T2DM and CKD.

3.
Oncologist ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence has demonstrated that common intratumor bacteria metabolize the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine. The significance of this bacterial metabolism pathway, relative to the known metabolic pathways by host enzymes, is not known. We hypothesized that bacterial metabolism is clinically significant and that "knockdown" by antibacterial therapy has the unintended effect of increasing the effective dose of gemcitabine, thereby increasing the risk for gemcitabine-associated toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reanalyzed the comparator arm of the MPACT trial (NCT01442974), made available through Project Data Sphere, LLC (CEO Roundtable on Cancer's Life Sciences Consortium, Cary, NC; www.projectdatasphere.org). In this arm, 430 patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with gemcitabine. We used the Anderson-Gill survival model to compare the risk of developing an adverse event after antibacterial prescription with time unexposed to antibacterials. Adverse events of grade 3 and greater were considered at three levels of granularity: all aggregated into one endpoint, aggregated by class, and taken individually. Antibiotic exposures were analyzed in aggregate as well as by class. RESULTS: Antibacterial exposure was associated with an increased risk of adverse events (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.77; confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-2.14), any hematologic adverse event (HR: 1.64; CI: 1.26-2.13), and any gastrointestinal adverse event (HR: 2.14; CI: 1.12-4.10) but not a constitutional (HR: 1.33; CI: 0.611-2.90) or hepatologic adverse event (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.363-2.71). Among specific adverse events, antibacterial exposure was associated with an increased risk of anemia (HR: 3.16; CI: 1.59-6.27), thrombocytopenia (HR: 2.52; CI: 1.31-4.85), leukopenia (HR: 3.91; CI: 1.46-10.5), and neutropenia (HR: 1.53; CI: 1.07-2.17) but not any other specific adverse events. CONCLUSION: Antibacterial exposure was associated with an increased risk of gemcitabine-associated, dose-limiting adverse events, including aggregate hematologic and gastrointestinal events, as well as four specific hematologic adverse events, suggesting that intratumor bacteria may be responsible for a clinically significant portion of gemcitabine metabolism. Alternative avenues of evidence will be necessary to confirm this preliminary finding and assess its generalizability. There is plentiful opportunity for similar analyses on other clinical trial data sets, where gemcitabine or other biomimetic small molecules were used. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients treated with gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have an increased rate of gemcitabine-associated toxicity during and after antibiotic therapy. This observation is consistent with preclinical evidence that intratumor bacteria metabolize gemcitabine to an inactive form. Further research is needed to determine whether this observation merits any changes in clinical practice.

4.
Circulation ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098501

RESUMO

Background: The EXenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) assessed the impact of once-weekly exenatide 2 mg versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes, while aiming for glycemic equipoise. Consequently, greater drop-in of open-label glucose-lowering medications occurred in the placebo group. Accordingly, we explored the potential effects of their unbalanced use on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke, and all-cause mortality (ACM), given that some of these agents are cardioprotective. Methods: Cox hazard models were performed by randomized treatment for drug classes where >5% open-label drop-in glucose-lowering medication occurred, and for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs; 3.0%) using three methodologies: drop-in visit right censoring, inverse probability for treatment weighting (IPTW), and applying drug class risk reductions. Results: Baseline glucose-lowering medications for the 14,752 EXSCEL participants (73.1% with previous cardiovascular disease) did not differ between treatment groups. During median 3.2 years follow-up, open-label drop-in occurred in 33.4% of participants, more frequently with placebo than exenatide (38.1% vs. 28.8%), with metformin (6.1% vs. 4.9%), sulfonylurea (8.7% vs. 6.9%), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (10.6% vs. 7.5%), SGLT-2i (10.3% vs. 8.1%), GLP1 RA (3.4% vs. 2.4%), and insulin (13.8% vs. 9.4%). The MACE effect size was not altered meaningfully by right censoring, but the favorable HR for exenatide became nominally significant in the sulfonylurea and any glucose-lowering medication groups, while the ACM HR and p-values were essentially unchanged. IPTW decreased the MACE HR from 0.91 (p=0.061) to 0.85 (p=0.008) and the ACM HR from 0.86 (p=0.016) to 0.81 (p=0.012). Application of literature-derived risk reductions showed no meaningful changes in MACE or ACM HRs or pvalues, although simulations of substantially greater use of drop-in cardioprotective glucoselowering agents demonstrated blunting of signal detection. Conclusions: EXSCEL-observed HRs for MACE and ACM remained robust after right censoring or application of literature-derived risk reductions, but the exenatide versus placebo MACE effect size and statistical significance were increased by IPTW. Effects of open-label drop-in cardioprotective medications need to be considered carefully when designing, conducting, and analyzing cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering agents under the premise of glycemic equipoise. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01144338.

5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015407

RESUMO

Glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems that mimic pancreatic endocrine function could enhance health and improve quality of life for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with reduced ß-cell function. However, insulin delivery systems with rapid in vivo glucose-responsive behaviour typically have limited insulin-loading capacities and cannot be manufactured easily. Here, we show that a single removable transdermal patch, bearing microneedles loaded with insulin and a non-degradable glucose-responsive polymeric matrix, and fabricated via in situ photopolymerization, regulated blood glucose in insulin-deficient diabetic mice and minipigs (for minipigs >25 kg, glucose regulation lasted >20 h with patches of ~5 cm2). Under hyperglycaemic conditions, phenylboronic acid units within the polymeric matrix reversibly form glucose-boronate complexes that-owing to their increased negative charge-induce the swelling of the polymeric matrix and weaken the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged insulin and polymers, promoting the rapid release of insulin. This proof-of-concept demonstration may aid the development of other translational stimuli-responsive microneedle patches for drug delivery.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) present with diverse body weight status and degrees of glycemic control, which may warrant different treatment approaches. We sought to identify subgroups sharing phenotypes based on both weight and glycemia and compare characteristics across subgroups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with T1D in the SEARCH study cohort (n=1817, 6.0-30.4 years) were seen at a follow-up visit >5 years after diagnosis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to group participants based on five measures summarizing the joint distribution of body mass index z-score (BMIz) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were estimated by reinforcement learning tree predictions from 28 covariates. Interpretation of cluster weight status and glycemic control was based on mean BMIz and HbA1c, respectively. RESULTS: The sample was 49.5% female and 55.5% non-Hispanic white (NHW); mean±SD age=17.6±4.5 years, T1D duration=7.8±1.9 years, BMIz=0.61±0.94, and HbA1c=76±21 mmol/mol (9.1±1.9)%. Six weight-glycemia clusters were identified, including four normal weight, one overweight, and one subgroup with obesity. No cluster had a mean HbA1c <58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Cluster 1 (34.0%) was normal weight with the lowest HbA1c and comprised 85% NHW participants with the highest socioeconomic position, insulin pump use, dietary quality, and physical activity. Subgroups with very poor glycemic control (ie, ≥108 mmol/mol (≥12.0%); cluster 4, 4.4%, and cluster 5, 7.5%) and obesity (cluster 6, 15.4%) had a lower proportion of NHW youth, lower socioeconomic position, and reported decreased pump use and poorer health behaviors (overall p<0.01). The overweight subgroup with very poor glycemic control (cluster 5) showed the highest lipids and blood pressure (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There are distinct subgroups of youth and young adults with T1D that share weight-glycemia phenotypes. Subgroups may benefit from tailored interventions addressing differences in clinical care, health behaviors, and underlying health inequity.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been associated with increased occurrence of Fournier's gangrene (FG), a rare but serious form of necrotizing fasciitis, leading to a warning from the Food and Drug Administration. Real-world evidence on FG is needed to validate this warning. METHODS: We used data from IBM MarketScan (2013-2017) to compare the incidence of FG among adult patients who initiated either SGLT2i, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), or any non-SGLT2i antihyperglycemic medication. FG was defined using inpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition and Tenth Edition diagnosis codes 608.83 and N49.3, respectively, combined with procedure codes for debridement, surgery, or systemic antibiotics. We estimated crude incidence rates (IRs) using Poisson regression, and crude and adjusted HRs (aHR) and 95% CIs using standardized mortality ratio-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Sensitivity analyses examined the impact of alternative outcome definitions. RESULTS: We identified 211 671 initiators of SGLT2i (n=93 197) and DPP4i (n=118 474), and 305 329 initiators of SGLT2i (n=32 868) and non-SGLT2i (n=272 461). Crude FG IR ranged from 3.2 to 3.8 cases per 100 000 person-years during a median follow-up of 0.51-0.58 years. Compared with DPP4i, SGLT2i initiation was not associated with increased risk of FG for any outcome definition, with aHR estimates ranging from 0.25 (0.04-1.74) to 1.14 (0.86-1.51). In the non-SGLT2i comparison, we observed an increased risk of FG for SGLT2i initiators when using FG diagnosis codes alone, using all diagnosis settings (aHR 1.80; 0.53-6.11) and inpatient diagnoses only (aHR 4.58; 0.99-21.21). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of increased risk of FG associated with SGLT2i was observed compared with DPP4i, arguably the most relevant clinical comparison. However, uncertainty remains based on potentially higher risk in the broader comparison with all non-SGLT2i antihyperglycemic agents and the rarity of FG. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EUPAS Register Number 30018.

9.
Diabetes ; 69(4): 771-783, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974142

RESUMO

The cardiovascular benefits of fibrates have been shown to be heterogeneous and to depend on the presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We investigated whether genetic variability in the PPARA gene, coding for the pharmacological target of fibrates (PPAR-α), could be used to improve the selection of patients with type 2 diabetes who may derive cardiovascular benefit from addition of this treatment to statins. We identified a common variant at the PPARA locus (rs6008845, C/T) displaying a study-wide significant influence on the effect of fenofibrate on major cardiovascular events (MACE) among 3,065 self-reported white subjects treated with simvastatin and randomized to fenofibrate or placebo in the ACCORD-Lipid trial. T/T homozygotes (36% of participants) experienced a 51% MACE reduction in response to fenofibrate (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.34-0.72), whereas no benefit was observed for other genotypes (P interaction = 3.7 × 10-4). The rs6008845-by-fenofibrate interaction on MACE was replicated in African Americans from ACCORD (N = 585, P = 0.02) and in external cohorts (ACCORD-BP, ORIGIN, and TRIUMPH, total N = 3059, P = 0.005). Remarkably, rs6008845 T/T homozygotes experienced a cardiovascular benefit from fibrate even in the absence of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Among these individuals, but not among carriers of other genotypes, fenofibrate treatment was associated with lower circulating levels of CCL11-a proinflammatory and atherogenic chemokine also known as eotaxin (P for rs6008845-by-fenofibrate interaction = 0.003). The GTEx data set revealed regulatory functions of rs6008845 on PPARA expression in many tissues. In summary, we have found a common PPARA regulatory variant that influences the cardiovascular effects of fenofibrate and that could be used to identify patients with type 2 diabetes who would derive benefit from fenofibrate treatment, in addition to those with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

10.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 53-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and insulin with the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk are not known. This secondary, pooled analysis of data from the DEVOTE trial examined whether baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories were associated with a higher risk of these outcomes. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind trial involving 7637 patients with T2D at high CV risk who were randomized to once-daily treatment with either insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). Patients with estimated GFR data at baseline (n = 7522) were analyzed following stratification into four GFR categories. RESULTS: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality increased with worsening baseline GFR category (P < 0.05), with a trend towards higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with prior CVD, CKD (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/m2), or both were at higher risk of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality. Only CKD was associated with a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia, and the risk of MACE was higher in patients with CVD than in those with CKD (P  = 0.0003). There were no significant interactions between randomized treatment and GFR category. CONCLUSION: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality were higher with lower baseline GFR and with prior CVD, CKD, or both. The relative effects of degludec versus glargine U100 on outcomes were consistent across baseline GFR categories, suggesting that the lower rate of severe hypoglycemia associated with degludec use versus glargine U100 use was independent of baseline GFR category. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 398-404, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the International Hypoglycaemia Study Group (IHSG) level 2 low glucose definition can identify clinically relevant hypoglycemia in clinical trials and offer value as an end point for future trials. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed of the SWITCH (SWITCH 1: n = 501, type 1 diabetes; SWITCH 2: n = 721, type 2 diabetes) and DEVOTE (n = 7,637, type 2 diabetes) trials utilizing the IHSG low glucose definitions. Patients in all trials were randomized to either insulin degludec or insulin glargine 100 units/mL. In the main analysis, the following definitions were compared: 1) American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2005 (plasma glucose [PG] confirmed ≤3.9 mmol/L with symptoms); and 2) IHSG level 2 (PG confirmed <3.0 mmol/L, independent of symptoms). RESULTS: In SWITCH 2, the estimated rate ratios of hypoglycemic events indicated increasing differences between treatments with decreasing PG levels until 3.0 mmol/L, following which no additional treatment differences were observed. Similar results were observed for the SWITCH 1 trial. In SWITCH 2, the IHSG level 2 definition produced a rate ratio that was lower than the ADA 2005 definition. CONCLUSIONS: The IHSG level 2 definition was validated in a series of clinical trials, demonstrating its ability to discriminate between basal insulins. This definition is therefore recommended to be uniformly adopted by regulatory bodies and used in future clinical trials.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 446-452, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of once-weekly exenatide (EQW) on microvascular and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes by baseline renal function in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Least squares mean difference (LSMD) in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline between the EQW and placebo groups was calculated for 13,844 participants. Cox regression models were used to estimate effects by group on incident macroalbuminuria, retinopathy, and major adverse CV events (MACE). Interval-censored time-to-event models estimated effects on renal composite 1 (40% eGFR decline, renal replacement, or renal death) and renal composite 2 (composite 1 variables plus macroalbuminuria). RESULTS: EQW did not change eGFR significantly (LSMD 0.21 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI -0.27 to 0.70]). Macroalbuminuria occurred in 2.2% of patients in the EQW group and in 2.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.70-1.07]). Neither renal composite was reduced with EQW in unadjusted analyses, but renal composite 2 was reduced after adjustment (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.74-0.98]). Retinopathy rates did not differ by treatment group or in the HbA1c-lowering or prior retinopathy subgroups. CV outcomes in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 did not differ by group. Those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had nominal risk reductions for MACE, all-cause mortality, and CV death, but interactions by renal function group were significant for only stroke (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.58-0.93]; P for interaction = 0.035) and CV death (HR 1.08 [95% CI 0.85-1.38]; P for interaction = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: EQW had no impact on unadjusted retinopathy or renal outcomes. CV risk was modestly reduced only in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in analyses unadjusted for multiplicity.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 487-493, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857443

RESUMO

The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have briefly updated their 2018 recommendations on management of hyperglycemia, based on important research findings from large cardiovascular outcomes trials published in 2019. Important changes include: 1) the decision to treat high-risk individuals with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), cardiovascular death, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression should be considered independently of baseline HbA1c or individualized HbA1c target; 2) GLP-1 receptor agonists can also be considered in patients with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) but with the presence of specific indicators of high risk; and 3) SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, particularly those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, to reduce hHF, MACE, and CVD death, as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 to ≤60 mL min-1 [1.73 m]-2 or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, particularly >300 mg/g) to prevent the progression of CKD, hHF, MACE, and cardiovascular death.

14.
Diabetologia ; 63(2): 221-228, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853556

RESUMO

The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have briefly updated their 2018 recommendations on management of hyperglycaemia, based on important research findings from large cardiovascular outcomes trials published in 2019. Important changes include: (1) the decision to treat high-risk individuals with a glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalisation for heart failure (hHF), cardiovascular death or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression should be considered independently of baseline HbA1c or individualised HbA1c target; (2) GLP-1 receptor agonists can also be considered in patients with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) but with the presence of specific indicators of high risk; and (3) SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, particularly those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, to reduce hHF, MACE and CVD death, as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD (eGFR 30 to ≤60 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2 or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, particularly >300 mg/g) to prevent the progression of CKD, hHF, MACE and cardiovascular death.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 43(3): 643-652, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm a bidirectional association between severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) and cardiovascular (CV) event risk and to characterize individuals at dual risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of 14,752 Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) participants, we examined time-dependent associations between SHEs and subsequent major adverse cardiac events (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke), fatal/nonfatal MI, fatal/nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (hACS), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), and all-cause mortality (ACM), as well as time-dependent associations between nonfatal CV events and subsequent SHEs. RESULTS: SHEs were uncommon and not associated with once-weekly exenatide therapy (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.94-1.36], P = 0.179). In fully adjusted models, SHEs were associated with an increased risk of subsequent ACM (1.83 [1.38-2.42], P < 0.001), CV death (1.60 [1.11-2.30], P = 0.012), and hHF (2.09 [1.37-3.17], P = 0.001), while nonfatal MI (2.02 [1.35-3.01], P = 0.001), nonfatal stroke (2.30 [1.25-4.23], P = 0.007), hACS (2.00 [1.39-2.90], P < 0.001), and hHF (3.24 [1.98-5.30], P < 0.001) were all associated with a subsequent increased risk of SHEs. The elevated bidirectional time-dependent hazards linking SHEs and a composite of all CV events were approximately constant over time, with those individuals at dual risk showing higher comorbidity scores compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, showing greater risk of SHEs after CV events as well as greater risk of CV events after SHEs, validate a bidirectional relationship between CV events and SHEs in patients with high comorbidity scores.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721979

RESUMO

Importance: After the occurrence of nonfatal cardiovascular events, recurrent events are highly likely. Most cardiovascular outcomes trials analyze first events only; extending analyses to first and recurrent (total) events can provide clinically meaningful information. Objective: To investigate whether liraglutide is associated with reduced first and recurrent total major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared with placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of cardiovascular events. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) randomized, double-blind, clinical trial included data from patients with type 2 diabetes who had established or were at high risk for cardiovascular disease at 410 sites in 32 countries from August 2010, to December 2015. Data analysis was performed from August 15, 2016, to July 5, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive liraglutide (up to 1.8 mg per day) or placebo, both with standard care, for 3.5 to 5.0 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Assessed outcomes were MACE (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke), expanded MACE (primary MACE plus coronary revascularization and hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina pectoris), and the individual end points. Results: The 9340 LEADER trial participants (6003 [64.3%] male; mean [SD] age, 64.3 [7.2] years) experienced 1605 total MACE (1302 first and 303 recurrent events; median follow-up, 3.8 years [range, 0-5.2 years]). Patients who experienced any MACE were older (1 MACE: mean [SD] age, 65.6 [8.0] years; >1 MACE: 65.7 [7.9] years) and had diabetes for longer duration (1 MACE: mean [SD] duration, 13.4 [8.3] years; >1 MACE: 14.4 [8.7] years) compared with patients without MACE (mean [SD] age, 64.1 [7.1] years; mean [SD] duration, 12.7 [7.9] years). Fewer first and recurrent MACE occurred in the liraglutide group (n = 4668; 608 first and 127 recurrent events) than in the placebo group (n = 4672; 694 first and 176 recurrent events). Liraglutide was associated with a 15.7% relative risk reduction in total MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93) and a 13.4% reduction in total expanded MACE (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.93) compared with placebo. For most individual cardiovascular end points, liraglutide was associated with lower risk vs placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that liraglutide treatment is associated with reduced total MACE compared with placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of cardiovascular events. This analysis supports the findings of an absolute benefit of liraglutide treatment with respect to the overall burden of cardiovascular events in this high-risk patient population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01179048.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): e008018, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent trials have identified anti-diabetes mellitus agents that lower major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates, although some increase rates of lower-extremity amputation (LEA). Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have greater incidence of diabetes mellitus and risk for LEA, prompting this investigation of clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus and PAD in the EXSCEL trial (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering). METHODS: EXSCEL evaluated the effects of once-weekly exenatide (a GLP-1 [glucagon-like peptide-1] receptor agonist) versus placebo on the rates of the primary composite MACE end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed the association of baseline PAD with rates of MACE, LEA, and the effects of exenatide versus placebo in patients with and without PAD. RESULTS: EXSCEL included 2800 patients with PAD (19% of the trial population). These individuals had higher unadjusted and adjusted rates of MACE compared with patients without PAD (13.6% versus 11.4%, respectively) as well as a higher adjusted hazard ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.00-1.27]; P=0.047). Patients with PAD had higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.38 [95% CI, 1.20-1.60]; P<0.001) and more frequent LEA (adjusted hazard ratio 5.48 [95% CI, 4.16-7.22]; P<0.001). Patients treated with exenatide or placebo had similar rates of MACE and LEA, regardless of PAD status. CONCLUSIONS: EXSCEL participants with PAD had higher rates of all-cause mortality and LEA compared with those without PAD. There were no differences in MACE or LEA rates with exenatide versus placebo. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01144338.

18.
Clin Ther ; 41(11): 2219-2230.e6, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587812

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to conduct qualitative participant interviews to provide context to the meaningfulness of improvements in end points seen in 2 large-scale Phase III sotagliflozin trials in participants with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Participants were eligible for an interview if they had exited one of the clinical trials within the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited by investigators at the clinical trial sites, and interviews were conducted by independent interviewers by telephone in accordance with a semistructured interview guide. Both interviewers and participants were blinded to treatment assignment. Qualitative analysis was conducted using ATLAS-ti version 7.5, and descriptive statistics were computed and summarized. FINDINGS: Across 3 countries, 41 participants were interviewed. Difficulty maintaining blood glucose within a desired range, described by participants as lack of blood glucose "stability," was the most concerning symptom that they reported, wanting to see it improved during the clinical trial because it negatively impacted their physical, mental, and emotional lives. Participants who reported symptom improvement also reported a positive psychosocial impact while taking the clinical trial medication. All participants who monitored ketones described themselves as being "pretty confident" to "very confident" that they could avoid diabetic ketoacidosis by monitoring both ketone levels and understanding the physical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia. IMPLICATIONS: Improvements in glucose stability and control were important to participants with type 1 diabetes, as these improvements were correlated with improvements in the participants' lives. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02384941; NCT02421510.

19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 138, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes through distinct mechanisms. However, evidence on clinical outcomes in patients treated with both GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i is lacking. We aim to provide insight into the effects of open-label SGLT2i use in parallel with or shortly after once-weekly GLP-1 RA exenatide (EQW) on cardiorenal outcomes. METHODS: In the EXSCEL cardiovascular outcomes trial EQW arm, SGLT2i drop-in occurred in 8.7% of participants. These EQW+SGLT2i users were propensity-matched to: (1) placebo-arm participants not taking SGLT2i (n = 572 per group); and to (2) EQW-arm participants not taking SGLT2i (n = 575), based on their last measured characteristics before SGLT2i initiation, and equivalent study visit in comparator groups. Time-to-first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) were compared using Cox regression analyses. eGFR slopes were quantified using mixed model repeated measurement analyses. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, the risk for MACE with combination EQW+SGLT2i use was numerically lower compared with both placebo (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.39-1.17) and EQW alone (0.85, 0.48-1.49). Risk of ACM was nominally significantly reduced compared with placebo (0.38, 0.16-0.90) and compared with EQW (0.41, 0.17-0.95). Combination EQW+SGLT2i use also nominally significantly improved estimated eGFR slope compared with placebo (+ 1.94, 95% CI 0.94-2.94 mL/min/1.73 m2/year) and EQW alone (+ 2.38, 1.40-3.35 mL/min/1.73 m2/year). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis supports the hypothesis that combinatorial EQW and SGLT2i therapy may provide benefit on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifying number: NCT01144338, Date of registration: June 15, 2010.

20.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1518-1519, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613341
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