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1.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2529-2538, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the 1970s outcome of aplastic anemia (AA) patients has improved significantly due to the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation (HCT). However, patients may suffer from persistent disease, relapse, clonal evolution, graft-versus-host disease and other late effects. Here, we analyse very long-term outcome of all AA patients at our institution comparing not only survival, but also response status and complications. METHODS: Patient charts of all 302 AA patients treated between 1973 and 2017 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: First line treatment was IST in 226 (75%) and HCT in 76 (25%) patients. Overall survival at 30 years was similar in patients treated initially by HCT and IST (44% (±14%), and 40% (± 9%) respectively, with better results in more recent years. Partial and no response occurred more frequently after IST, relapse incidence after IST was 24 %, whereas non-engraftment and graft failure was documented in 15 patients (19 %) after HCT. Clonal evolution to myelodysplastic syndrome / acute myeloid leukemia was 16 % at 25 years in IST patients, 1.3 % in HCT patients, iron overload (18 versus 4 %, p = 0.002) and cardiovascular events (11 versus 1 %, p=0.011) occured significantly more often in IST than HCT treated patients. The majority of long-term survivors, 96% of those alive at 25 years, were in complete remission at last follow up, irrespective of the initial treatment modality. CONCLUSION: Very long term survivors after AA are those with stable hematopoietic recovery.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressão , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aloenxertos , Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Release kinetics of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are incompletely understood. We aimed to assess whether hs-cTnT/I release in early AMI is near linear. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study the acute release of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI within 1 and 2hours from presentation to the emergency department was quantified using 3 hs-cTnT/I assays in patients with suspected AMI. The primary endpoint was correlation between hs-cTn changes from presentation to 1 hour vs changes from presentation to 2hours, among all AMI patients and different prespecified subgroups. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists, based on serial hs-cTnT from the serial study blood samples and additional locally measured hs-cTn values. RESULTS: Among 2437 patients with complete hs-cTnT data, AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 376 patients (15%). For hs-cTnT, the correlation coefficient between 0- to 1-hour change and 0- to 2 hour change was 0.931 (95%CI, 0.916-0.944), P <.001. Similar findings were obtained with hs-cTnI (Architect) with correlation coefficients between 0- to 1-hour change and 0- to 2 hour change of 0.969 and hs-cTnI (Centaur) of 0.934 (P <.001 for both). Findings were consistent among type 1 and type 2 AMI and in the subgroup of patients presenting very early after chest pain onset. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with early AMI showed a near linear release of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. This near linearity provides the pathophysiological basis for rapid diagnostic algorithms using 0- to 1-hour changes as surrogates for 0- to 2 hour or 0- to 3 hour changes. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT00470587).

3.
Water Res ; 175: 115708, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220669

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) pollution threatens ecosystems and human health. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a key role in limiting Hg discharges from wastewaters to rivers and lakes, but large-scale studies to estimate Hg loads and discharge at national levels are scarce. We assessed the concentration, flux, speciation, and removal of Hg in municipal wastewater throughout Switzerland by investigating 64 WWTPs in a pre-study and a subset of 28 WWTPs in the main study. We also studied the behavior and pathways of Hg along the various treatment steps in a state-of-the-art WWTP. The resulting dataset, representative of industrialized countries, provides an overview of (i) current Hg concentration ranges, (ii) average per capita loads, and (iii) wastewater Hg inputs into surface waters. The results allowed estimation of a total Hg (THg) load in Swiss wastewater of 130 ± 30 kg THg/year (15.7 mg/capita/y), of which 96 ± 4% is retained in sewage sludge. About 4.7 ± 0.5 kg THg/year (0.57 mg/capita/y) is discharged with the treated wastewater into surface waters. This corresponds to only 1.5-3% of the THg load carried by the major Swiss rivers, indicating that >95% of riverine Hg originates from other sources. Extrapolation to the population of Europe would yield a total amount of 11,700 kg THg/year in raw wastewater, with some 480 kg THg/year discharged to surface waters. Monomethyl mercury on average accounted for 0.23% of THg, and its fraction remained constant along the different treatment steps.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Águas Residuárias
4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(9): 1140-1147, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity on the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction/injury (PMI) and mortality following non-cardiac surgery is not well understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, who were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients were screened for PMI, defined as an absolute increase from preoperative to postoperative sensitive/high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations. The body mass index (BMI) was classified according to the WHO classification (underweight< 18 kg/m2, normal weight 18-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obesity class I 30-34.9 kg/m2, obesity class II 35-39.9 kg/m2, obesity class III > 40 kg/m2). The incidence of PMI and all-cause mortality at 365 days, both stratified according to BMI. RESULTS: We enrolled 4277 patients who had undergone 5413 surgeries. The median BMI was 26 kg/m2 (interquartile range 23-30 kg/m2). Incidence of PMI showed a non-linear relationship with BMI and ranged from 12% (95% CI 9-14%) in obesity class I to 19% (95% CI 17-42%) in the underweight group. This was confirmed in multivariable analysis with obesity class I. showing the lowest risk (adjusted OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.49-0.83) for developing PMI. Mortality at 365 days was lower in all obesity groups compared to patients with normal body weight (e.g., unadjusted OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.39-0.73) and adjusted OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) in obesity class I). CONCLUSION: Obesity class I was associated with a lower incidence of PMI, and obesity in general was associated with a lower all-cause mortality at 365 days.

5.
Transfusion ; 60(3): 544-552, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determination of blood donor hemoglobin (Hb) levels is a pre-requisite to ensure donor safety and blood product quality. We aimed to identify Hb measurement practices across blood donation services and to what extent differences associate with low-Hb deferral rates. METHODS: An online survey was performed among Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative members, extended with published data. Multivariable negative-binomial regression models were built to estimate adjusted associations of minimum donation intervals, Hb cut-offs (high, ≥13.5 g/dL in men or ≥ 12.5 g/dL in women, vs. lower values), iron monitoring (yes/no), providing or prescribing iron supplementation (yes/no), post-versus pre-donation Hb measurement and geographical location (Asian vs. rest), with low-Hb deferral rates. RESULTS: Data were included from 38 blood services. Low-Hb deferral rates varied from 0.11% to 8.81% among men and 0.84% to 31.85% among women. Services with longer minimum donation intervals had significantly lower deferral rates among both women (rate ratio, RR 0.53, 95%CI 0.33-0.84) and men (RR 0.53, 95%CI 0.31-0.90). In women, iron supplementation was associated with lower Hb deferral rates (RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.94). Finally, being located in Asia was associated with higher low-Hb deferral rates; RR 9.10 (95%CI 3.89-21.27) for women and 6.76 (95%CI 2.45-18.68) for men. CONCLUSION: Differences in Hb measurement and eligibility criteria, particularly longer donation intervals and iron supplementation in women, are associated with variations in low-Hb deferral rates. These insights could help improve both blood donation service efficiency and donor care.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Seleção do Doador , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 46(5): 384-385, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832065

RESUMO

Herein we describe a case of febrile non-hemolytic reaction (FNHTR) in a 64-year-old male 20 min after the transfusion of one red blood cell unit. 20 days prior the patient had undergone an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) from an unrelated donor with minor ABO disparity. The patient had been treated for plasma cell myeloma with multiple transfusions in the past, but no transfusion reactions or alloimmunization had been reported.

7.
Transfusion ; 59(11): 3350-3361, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal pathogen inactivation of platelet concentrates (PCs) using amotosalen/ultraviolet A with 7-day storage was implemented in Switzerland in 2011. Routine-use data were analyzed at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective two-cohort study of patient and PC characteristics, component usage, patient outcomes, count increments (CIs), and adverse events were analyzed for two consecutive 5-year periods with either 0- to 5-day-old conventional PC (C-PC) (n = 14,181) or 0- to 7-day-old pathogen-inactivated PC (PI-PC) (n = 22,579). RESULTS: In both periods, PCs were issued for transfusion on a "first in, first out" basis. With 7-day PI-PC, wastage was reduced from 8.7% to 1.5%; 16.6% of transfused PI-PCs were more than 5 days old. Transfusion of PI-PC more than 5 days old compared with 5 days old or less did not increase platelet and RBC use on the same or next day as an indirect measure of hemostasis and did not increase transfusion reactions. Mean corrected count increments (CCIs) for PI-PC stored for 5 days or less were 22.6% lower than for C-PC (p < 0.001), and declined with increasing storage duration for both, although the correlation was weak (r2 = 0.005-0.014). Mean number of PCs used per patient and duration of PC support were not different for hematology/oncology, allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and general medical/surgical patients, who used the majority (~92.0%) of PI-PCs. Five-year treatment-related mortality in allogeneic HSCT was unchanged in the PI-PC period. CONCLUSIONS: PI-PCs with 7-day storage reduced wastage and did not increase PC or red blood cell utilization or adverse reactions compared with fresh PI-PC or a historical control group, demonstrating preserved efficacy and safety.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030913, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urban transmission patterns of influenza viruses are complex and poorly understood, and multiple factors may play a critical role in modifying transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) allows the description of patient-to-patient transmissions at highest resolution. The aim of this study is to explore urban transmission patterns of influenza viruses in high detail by combining geographical, epidemiological and immunological data with WGS data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is performed at the University Hospital Basel, University Children's Hospital Basel and a network of paediatricians and family doctors in the Canton of Basel-City, Switzerland. The retrospective study part includes an analysis of PCR-confirmed influenza cases from 2013 to 2018. The prospective study parts include (1) a household survey regarding influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination against influenza during the 2015/2016 season; (2) an analysis of influenza viruses collected during the 2016/2017 season using WGS-viral genomic sequences are compared with determine genetic relatedness and transmissions; and (3) measurement of influenza-specific antibody titres against all vaccinated and circulated strains during the 2016/2017 season from healthy individuals, allowing to monitor herd immunity across urban quarters. Survey data and PCR-confirmed cases are linked to data from the Statistics Office of the Canton Basel-City and visualised using geo-information system mapping. WGS data will be analysed in the context of patient epidemiological data using phylodynamic analyses, and the obtained herd immunity for each quarter. Profound knowledge on the key geographical, epidemiological and immunological factors influencing urban influenza transmission will help to develop effective counter measurements. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is registered and approved by the regional ethics committee as an observational study (EKNZ project ID 2015-363 and 2016-01735). It is planned to present the results at conferences and publish the data in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03010007.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 130: 1596-1611, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730307

RESUMO

Constitutive JAK2 signaling is central to myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathogenesis and results in activation of STAT, PI3K/AKT, and MEK/ERK signaling. However, the therapeutic efficacy of current JAK2 inhibitors is limited. We investigated the role of MEK/ERK signaling in MPN cell survival in the setting of JAK inhibition. Type I and II JAK2 inhibition suppressed MEK/ERK activation in MPN cell lines in vitro, but not in Jak2V617F and MPLW515L mouse models in vivo. JAK2 inhibition ex vivo inhibited MEK/ERK signaling, suggesting that cell-extrinsic factors maintain ERK activation in vivo. We identified PDGFRα as an activated kinase that remains activated upon JAK2 inhibition in vivo, and PDGF-AA/PDGF-BB production persisted in the setting of JAK inhibition. PDGF-BB maintained ERK activation in the presence of ruxolitinib, consistent with its function as a ligand-induced bypass for ERK activation. Combined JAK/MEK inhibition suppressed MEK/ERK activation in Jak2V617F and MPLW515L mice with increased efficacy and reversal of fibrosis to an extent not seen with JAK inhibitors. This demonstrates that compensatory ERK activation limits the efficacy of JAK2 inhibition and dual JAK/MEK inhibition provides an opportunity for improved therapeutic efficacy in MPNs and in other malignancies driven by aberrant JAK-STAT signaling.

10.
Transfusion ; 59(3): 1052-1060, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD34+ cell count correlates with engraftment potency after autologous stem cell transplantation. Assessment of CD34+ mainly occurs after apheresis and before cryopreservation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The influence of postthaw CD34+ cell numbers over time to engraftment is not well studied, and determination of postthaw CD34+ cell counts is challenging for a variety of reasons. The aim of this retrospective study was to systematically assess the value of postthaw CD34+ cell counts in autologous grafts with and without DMSO removal. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2015, 236 adult patients underwent a total of 292 autologous stem cell transplantations. Median age at transplantation was 56 years, and the main indication was multiple myeloma (60%). DMSO removal was done in 96 grafts (33%), either by centrifugation or by Sepax method. RESULTS: Patients receiving grafts containing DMSO showed a significantly faster platelet (p = 0.02) and RBC (p = 0.001) engraftment. DMSO removal was not associated with fewer infusion-related adverse events. We observed a good correlation between CD34+ cell count after apheresis and CD34+ cell count after thawing/washing (r = 0.931). Ninety grafts (31%) showed a significant loss of viable CD34+ cells, which translated into a delayed engraftment. CONCLUSION: DMSO removal was associated with delayed platelet and RBC engraftment without preventing adverse events. CD34+ cell enumeration after thawing remains difficult to perform, but grafts showing higher cell loss during cryopreservation and thawing are associated with slower engraftment. Prospective studies on the role of DMSO removal and postthaw CD34+ enumeration using defined protocols are needed.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/análise , Dimetil Sulfóxido/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criopreservação , Crioprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Heart ; 105(11): 826-833, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, daytime variation in perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) has been observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We aim at investigating whether daytime variation also occurs in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study, we evaluated the presence of daytime variation in PMI in patients at increased cardiovascular risk undergoing non-cardiac surgery, as well as its possible impact on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and death during 1-year follow-up in a propensity score-matched cohort. PMI was defined as an absolute increase in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. RESULTS: Of 1641 patients, propensity score matching defined 630 with similar baseline characteristics, half undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the morning (starting from 8:00 to 11:00) and half in the afternoon (starting from 14:00 to 17:00). There was no difference in PMI incidence between both groups (morning: 50, 15.8% (95% CI 12.3 to 20.3); afternoon: 52, 16.4% (95% CI 12.7 to 20.9), p=0.94), nor if analysing hs-cTnT release as a quantitative variable (median morning group: 3 ng/L (95% CI 1 to 7 ng/L); median afternoon group: 2 ng/L (95% CI 0 to 7 ng/L; p=0.16). During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of AMI was 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) among morning surgeries versus 4.1% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.9%) among the afternoon surgeries (corrected HR for afternoon surgery 3.44, bootstrapped 95% CI 1.33 to 10.49, p log-rank=0.03), whereas no difference in mortality emerged (p=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no daytime variation in PMI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, the incidence of AMI during follow-up is increased in afternoon surgeries and requires further study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02573532;Results.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
13.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 28(5): 665-673, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate the impact of the discontinuation times of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor on postoperative bleeding rates and the use of blood products in patients undergoing isolated urgent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 334 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing urgent CABG at the University Hospital Basel. A total of 262 patients continued to take dual antiplatelet therapy during the surgery (72 received clopidogrel; 68, prasugrel; and 122, ticagrelor). They were stratified by the discontinuation time of dual antiplatelet therapy (<24 h, 24-48 h, 48-72 h and >72 h). Seventy-two patients taking acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as monotherapy served as a comparison group. RESULTS: Median postsurgical bleeding rates were significantly higher with ticagrelor if it was discontinued <24 h [1220 ml, interquartile range (IQR) 978-1520 ml; P < 0.001], 24-48 h (1200 ml, IQR 800-1550 ml; P < 0.001) and 48-72 h (1100 ml, IQR 845-1245 ml; P = 0.036) but not if discontinued >72 h (700 ml, IQR 520-825 ml; P = 0.22) and with prasugrel if discontinued <24 h (1320 ml, IQR 900-1950 ml; P < 0.001) but not if discontinued 24-48 h (1050 ml, IQR 638-1438 ml; P = 0.089) or >72 h (750 ml, IQR 488-1040; P = 0.63) compared to ASA monotherapy (800 ml, IQR 593-1043 ml). The postsurgical use of blood products compared to ASA monotherapy (0, IQR 0-2 units) was significantly higher with ticagrelor and prasugrel if discontinued <24 h (2.5 units, IQR 0-6; P < 0.001 and 2 units, IQR 1-6; P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation of ticagrelor and prasugrel for more than 72 h before urgent CABG was not associated with higher bleeding rates compared to treatment with ASA monotherapy. In contrast, discontinuation for less than 24 h was associated with higher use of blood products. For ticagrelor, this study supports evidence and recent guidelines proposing a shorter discontinuation time of 3 days and raises the question of whether the same could be true for prasugrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Internados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
14.
Ther Umsch ; 76(9): 542-548, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157964

RESUMO

Cellular therapies Abstract. Transfusion medicine and allogeneic stem cell transplantation are well known and established cellular therapies in hematology. Since decades many efforts have been made, in order to re-program the patient's own immune system in order to clear malignancies. A breakthrough was achieved with the manufacturing and optimizing of so-called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells, genetically engineered cells, specifically directed against tumor antigens. In this review we discuss the structure of CAR T-cells, their manufacturing and the different steps of a CAR T-cell treatment according to the current licensing. Furthermore, we give an outlook on future prospects of cellular therapies including the major issues in the field.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T
15.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 45(4): 239-250, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283273

RESUMO

Background: High-frequency blood group antigens (HFA) are present in >90% of the human population, according to some reports even in >99% of individuals. Therefore, patients lacking HFA may become challenging for transfusion support because compatible blood is hardly found, and if the patient carries alloantibodies, the cross-match will be positive with virtual every red cell unit tested. Methods: In this study, we applied high-throughput blood group SNP genotyping on >37,000 Swiss blood donors, intending to identify homozygous carriers of low-frequency blood group antigens (LFA). Results: 326 such individuals were identified and made available to transfusion specialists for future support of patients in need of rare blood products. Conclusion: Thorough comparison of minor allele frequencies using population genetics revealed heterogeneity of allele distributions among Swiss blood donors which may be explained by the topographical and cultural peculiarities of Switzerland. Moreover, geographically localized donor subpopulations are described which contain above-average numbers of individuals carrying rare blood group genotypes.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(8): 84502, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235423

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, [Formula: see text]. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) have been investigated extensively and thus regulated, but for many other PFASs, knowledge about their current uses and hazards is still very limited or missing entirely. To address this problem and prepare an action plan for the assessment and management of PFASs in the coming years, a group of more than 50 international scientists and regulators held a two-day workshop in November, 2017. The group identified both the respective needs of and common goals shared by the scientific and the policy communities, made recommendations for cooperative actions, and outlined how the science-policy interface regarding PFASs can be strengthened using new approaches for assessing and managing highly persistent chemicals such as PFASs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4158.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fluorcarbonetos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(42): 3780-3794, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169752

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the performance of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1h-algorithms and to derive and externally validate alternative cut-offs specific to older patients. Methods and results: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in three large diagnostic studies. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Patients were stratified according to age [<55 years (young), ≥55 to <70 years (middle-age), ≥70 years (old)]. Rule-out safety of the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm was very high in all age-strata: sensitivity 100% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 94.9-100] in young, 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-99.9) in middle-age, and 99.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.8) in old patients. Accuracy of rule-in decreased with age: specificity 97.0% (95% CI 95.8-97.9) in young, 96.1% (95% CI 94.5-97.2) in middle-age, and 92.7% (95% CI 90.7-94.3) in older patients. Triage efficacy decreased with increasing age (young 93%, middle-age 80%, old 55%, P < 0.001). Similar results were found for the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm. Alternative, slightly higher cut-off concentrations optimized for older patients maintained very high safety of rule-out, increased specificity of rule-in (P < 0.01), reduced overall efficacy for hs-cTnT (P < 0.01), while maintaining efficacy for hs-cTnI. Findings were confirmed in two validation cohorts (n = 2767). Conclusion: While safety of the ESC 0/1h-algorithms remained very high, increasing age significantly reduced overall efficacy and the accuracy of rule-in. Alternative slightly higher cut-off concentrations may be considered for older patients, particularly if using hs-cTnI. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587, number NCT00470587 and NCT02355457 (BACC).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina/sangue
19.
Clin Chem ; 64(11): 1596-1606, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to directly compare high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in the detection of functionally relevant coronary artery disease (fCAD). METHODS: Consecutive patients referred with clinical suspicion of fCAD and no structural heart disease other than coronary artery disease were included. The presence of fCAD was based on rest/stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and coronary angiography. hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in a blinded fashion. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and evaluated both for uniform use in all patients and for sex-specific use in women and men separately. The prognostic end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction) within 2 years. For the prognostic performance, we used a multivariable model comparison with the Akaike information criterion (AIC). RESULTS: fCAD was detected in 613 of 2062 patients (29.7%) overall, 112 of 664 of women (16.9%), and 501 of 1398 of men (35.8%). hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT had comparable diagnostic accuracy when assessed for uniform use in all patients (AUC, 0.68 vs 0.66; P = 0.107) and separately in women (AUC, 0.68 vs 0.63; P = 0.068) and men (AUC, 0.65 vs 0.64; P = 0.475). However, women required lower rule-out cutoffs to achieve high sensitivity, and men needed higher rule-in cutoffs to achieve high specificity. hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were strongly and independently associated with MACE within 2 years (P < 0.001), with comparable prognostic accuracies by the AIC. CONCLUSIONS: hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT provide moderate and comparable diagnostic accuracy. Sex-specific cutoffs may be preferred. The prognostic utility of both troponins is comparable.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
20.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 45(3): 151-156, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928168

RESUMO

Introduction: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) has been identified as the most prevalent transfusion-associated infectious risk. To prevent PC-related septic transfusion reactions, the Intercept® pathogen inactivation procedure was introduced for all PCs in Switzerland in 2011. Methods: Based on numbers of transfused units and mandatorily reported adverse events with high imputability, we compare the risks associated with transfusion of conventional PCs (cPCs) and pathogen-inactivated PCs (PI-PCs). Results: From 2005 to 2011, a total of 158,502 cPCs have been issued in Switzerland, and 16 transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (including 3 fatalities) were reported. This corresponds to a morbidity and mortality rate of ca. 1:9,900 and 1:52,800, respectively. From 2011 to 2016, a total of 205,574 PI-PCs have been issued, and no transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection was reported. Despite continuously increasing transfusion reaction rates per 1,000 RBC and plasma issued between 2008 and 2016, we observed reductions of 66% for life-threatening and fatal reactions and of 26% for all high-imputability transfusion reactions related to PI-PCs as compared to cPCs. No increased rates of bleeding or clinical observations of ineffectiveness of PI-PCs have been reported. After implementation of PI-PCs, the annual increase in platelet usage per 1,000 inhabitants decelerated. Discussion: Swiss hemovigilance data confirm a favorable safety profile of the nationwide introduced Intercept pathogen inactivation procedure and its reliable prevention of septic transfusion reactions and fatalities due to bacterially contaminated PCs.

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