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1.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread comorbidity of obesity. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been demonstrated very effective in treating patients with OSA. The aims of this study were to investigate whether or not cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can characterize patients with OSA and to evaluate the effect of nasal CPAP therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe obesity and suspected OSA. All patients underwent cardiorespiratory sleep study, spirometry, and functional evaluation with ECG-monitored, incremental, maximal CPET. RESULTS: Of the 147 patients, 94 presented with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h and were thus considered to have OSA (52 receiving nasal CPAP treatment; 42 untreated) while 53 formed a control group (AHI < 15 events/h). Patients with untreated OSA showed significantly lower oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, minute ventilation (VE), and end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) at peak exercise compared to controls. Patients receiving nasal CPAP showed higher VE and VO2 at peak exercise compared to untreated patients. A difference in PETCO2 between the maximum value reached during test and peak exercise (ΔPETCO2 max-peak) of 1.71 mmHg was identified as a predictor of OSA. CONCLUSION: Patients with moderate to severe obesity and untreated OSA presented a distinctive CPET-pattern characterized by lower aerobic and exercise capacity, higher PETCO2 at peak exercise associated with a lower ventilatory response. Nasal CPAP treatment was shown to positively affect these cardiorespiratory adaptations during exercise. ΔPETCO2 max-peak may be used to suggest OSA in patients with obesity.

2.
Obes Facts ; 14(5): 543-549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity are associated with a more severe COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Adipose tissue-related chronic inflammation could be a promoter for the occurrence of the cytokine storm that predicts aggravation of COVID-19. The primary aim was to investigate if this increased risk for more severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher inflammatory response. METHODS: We enrolled patients <75 years old hospitalized in a medical COVID-19 ward with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Patients were classified according to BMI as normal weight, overweight, and obesity. Laboratory parameters were measured at admission and every second day during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Ninety patients (64.4% males; median age 61 years) were enrolled. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was needed in 9% of the patients with normal weight, in 32.4% of the patients with overweight, and in 12.9% of the patients with obesity (p = 0.045). Maximal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during hospital stay was 92 (48-122) mg/L in patients with normal weight, 140 (82-265) mg/L in patients with overweight, and 117 (67-160) mg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.037). Maximal ferritin values were 564 (403-1,379) µg/L in patients with a normal weight, 1,253 (754-2,532) µg/L in patients with overweight, and 828 (279-1,582) µg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Patients with overweight and obesity required more IMV and had higher peaks of CRP and ferritin than patients with normal weight during COVID-19.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444930

RESUMO

Fewer studies compared the improvement of plasma lipid levels after different types of surgery, in particular compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The aim of our study was to investigate how laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and OAGB impact on weight loss and lipid profile 18 months after surgery, in patients with severe obesity. Forty-six patients treated with OAGB were matched to eighty-eight patients submitted to LSG. Weight loss after OAGB (33.2%) was more evident than after LSG (29.6%) (p = 0.024). The difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia showed a statistically significant reduction only after OAGB (61% versus 22%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for delta body mass index (BMI), age and sex, we demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of the differences between the changes before and after (delta Δ) the two surgery procedures: Δ total cholesterol values (p < 0.001), Δ low density lipoprotein-cholesterol values (p < 0.001) and Δ triglycerides values (p = 0.007). Patients with severe obesity undergoing to OAGB presented a better improvement of lipid plasma values than LSG patients. The reduction of lipid plasma levels was independent of the significant decrease of BMI after surgery, of age and of sex.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
4.
Obes Facts ; 14(4): 415-424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic adaptations to maximal physical exercise in people with obesity (PwO) are scarcely described. This cross-sectional study evaluates the metabolic response to exercise via the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in PwO and different degrees of glycemic control. METHODS: Eighty-five PwO (body mass index 46.0 [39.0-54.0] kg/m2), that is, 32 normoglycemic (Ob-N), 25 prediabetic (Ob-preDM), and 28 diabetic (Ob-T2DM) subjects and 18 healthy subjects performed an incremental, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The RER was measured at rest (RERrest) and at peak exercise (RERpeak). RESULTS: RERpeak was significantly higher in healthy subjects than that in PwO. Among those, RERpeak was significantly higher in Ob-N than that in Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM (1.20 [1.15-1.27] vs. 1.18 [1.10-1.22] p = 0.04 and vs. 1.14 [1.10-1.18] p < 0.001, respectively). Accordingly, ΔRER (RERpeak-RERrest) was lower in Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM than that in Ob-N (0.32 [0.26-0.39] p = 0.04 and 0.29 [0.24-0.36] p < 0.001 vs. 0.38 [0.32-0.43], respectively), while no significant difference was found in ΔRER between Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM and not even between Ob-N and healthy subjects. Moreover, ΔRER in PwO correlated with glucose area under curve (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: PwO demonstrate restricted metabolic response during maximal exercise. Particularly, those with prediabetes already show metabolic inflexibility during exercise, similarly to those with type 2 diabetes. These findings also suggest a potential role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in detecting early metabolic alterations in PwO.

5.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13273, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076949

RESUMO

There is a need for updated practice recommendations on exercise in the management of overweight and obesity in adults. We summarize the evidence provided by a series of seven systematic literature reviews performed by a group of experts from across Europe. The following recommendations with highest strength (Grade A) were derived. For loss in body weight, total fat, visceral fat, intra-hepatic fat, and for improvement in blood pressure, an exercise training program based on aerobic exercise at moderate intensity is preferentially advised. Expected weight loss is however on average not more than 2 to 3 kg. For preservation of lean mass during weight loss, an exercise training program based on resistance training at moderate-to-high intensity is advised. For improvement in insulin sensitivity and for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, any type of exercise training (aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic or resistance) or high-intensity interval training (after thorough assessment of cardiovascular risk and under supervision) can be advised. For increasing muscular fitness, an exercise training program based preferentially on resistance training alone or combined with aerobic training is advised. Other recommendations deal with the beneficial effects of exercise training programs on energy intake and appetite control, bariatric surgery outcomes, and quality of life and psychological outcomes in management of overweight and obesity.

6.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13296, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080281

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the effectiveness of exercise training programs in adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. A systematic search of controlled trials published up to October 2019 that assigned participants to either a preoperative or postoperative exercise training group or a nonexercise group was performed. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models. Twenty-two training programs were assessed (18 performed after bariatric surgery). The effect of preoperative exercise training on postsurgery outcomes was reported in only one study. Compared with the control condition without exercise, postoperative exercise training led to higher weight loss (N = 14, mean difference [95% CI] = -1.8 [-3.2; -0.4] kg, P = 0.01), fat loss (N = 9, P = 0.01), increase in VO2 max (N = 8, P < 0.0001), and increase in muscle strength (N = 9, P < 0.0001). No significant effect was found on lean body mass (N = 11). Preliminary evidence suggests a beneficial effect of postoperative exercise training on bone mineral density (N = 3, P < 0.001) and weight maintenance after the end of the intervention (N = 2, P < 0.001) but no significant effect on quality of life (N = 2), habitual physical activity (N = 2), or cardiometabolic outcomes (N < 4). In conclusion, exercise training performed after bariatric surgery improves physical fitness and leads to a small additional weight and fat loss and may prevent bone loss and weight regain after bariatric surgery.

8.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140163

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemics has created unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Among other important risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, obesity has emerged along with undernutrition-malnutrition as a strong predictor of disease risk and severity. Obesity-related excessive body fat may lead to respiratory, metabolic and immune derangements potentially favoring the onset of COVID-19 complications. In addition, patients with obesity may be at risk for loss of skeletal muscle mass, reflecting a state of hidden malnutrition with a strong negative health impact in all clinical settings. Also importantly, obesity is commonly associated with micronutrient deficiencies that directly influence immune function and infection risk. Finally, the pandemic-related lockdown, deleterious lifestyle changes and other numerous psychosocial consequences may worsen eating behaviors, sedentarity, body weight regulation, ultimately leading to further increments of obesity-associated metabolic complications with loss of skeletal muscle mass and higher non-communicable disease risk. Therefore, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies should be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients in the presence of obesity; lockdown-induced health risks should also be specifically monitored and prevented in this population. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing clinical practice guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients with obesity in various clinical settings.

9.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13251, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949089

RESUMO

This systematic review examined the impact of exercise training interventions on energy intake (EI) and appetite control in adults with overweight/obesity (≥18 years including older adults). Articles were searched up to October 2019. Changes in EI, fasting appetite sensations, and eating behavior traits were examined with random effects meta-analysis, and other outcomes were synthesized qualitatively. Forty-eight articles were included (median [range] BMI = 30.6 [27.0-38.4] kg/m2 ). Study quality was rated as poor, fair, and good in 39, seven, and two studies, respectively. Daily EI was assessed objectively (N = 4), by self-report (N = 22), with a combination of the two (N = 4) or calculated from doubly labeled water (N = 1). In studies rated fair/good, no significant changes in pre-post daily EI were found and a small but negligible (SMD < 0.20) postintervention difference when compared with no-exercise control groups was observed (five study arms; MD = 102 [1, 203] kcal). There were negligible-to-small pre-post increases in fasting hunger and dietary restraint, decrease in disinhibition, and some positive changes in satiety and food reward/preferences. Within the limitations imposed by the quality of the included studies, exercise training (median duration of 12 weeks) leads to a small increase in fasting hunger and a small change in average EI only in studies rated fair/good. Exercise training may also reduce the susceptibility to overconsumption (PROSPERO: CRD42019157823).

10.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13258, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949778

RESUMO

Multicomponent behavior change interventions are typically used in weight management, but results are largely heterogeneous and modest. Determining which techniques (behavior change technique [BCTs]) are more effective in changing behavior is thus required. This study aimed to identify the most effective BCTs for increasing physical activity (PA) in digital and face-to-face behavior change interventions in adults with overweight/obesity. Four databases were searched for eligible studies until October 2019. BCTs were coded using BCTTv1 and MBCT taxonomies. Sixty-two RCTs were included. Meta-regressions were performed to explore BCTs' moderating role. Five BCTs showed significant moderator effects on PA in digital interventions: goal setting behavior, goal setting outcome, graded tasks, social incentive, and self-monitoring of behavior (adjusted R2 's = 0.15-0.51). One BCT showed significant moderator effects on PA in face-to-face interventions, behavioral practice and rehearsal (adjusted R2 = 0.22). Multivariate and sensitivity analysis generally led to similar findings. Effective BCTs for increasing PA in adults with overweight/obesity in digital and face-to-face interventions seem to differ. Evidence suggests that using goal setting, social incentive, and graded tasks might help improve PA in digital interventions while avoiding inconsistent self-monitoring of behavior. In face-to-face interventions, prompting behavioral practice and rehearsal might lead to better PA outcomes. Still, further studies are needed. Implications of the current findings are discussed.

11.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13256, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955140

RESUMO

This overview of reviews aimed to summarize the effects of exercise training programs on weight loss, changes in body composition, and weight maintenance in adults with overweight or obesity. A systematic search of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs) published between 2010 and December 2019 was performed. Only SR-MAs of controlled trials were included. The mean difference (MD) or standardized MD (SMD) were extracted from SR-MAs. Twelve SR-MAs (149 studies) were included. Exercise led to a significant weight loss (4 SR-MAs, MDs ranging from -1.5 to -3.5 kg), fat loss (4 SR-MAs, MDs ranging from -1.3 to -2.6 kg) and visceral fat loss (3 SR-MAs, SMDs ranging from -0.33 to -0.56). No difference in weight, fat, and visceral loss was found between aerobic and high-intensity interval training as long as energy expenditure was equal. Resistance training reduced lean mass loss during weight loss (1 SR-MA, MD: 0.8 [95%CI: 0.4-1.3] kg). No significant effect of exercise was found on weight maintenance (1 SR-MA). These findings show favorable effects of exercise training on weight loss and body composition changes in adults with overweight or obesity. Visceral fat loss may lead to benefits for cardiometabolic health. More research is needed to identify training modalities that promote weight maintenance.

12.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13261, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960106

RESUMO

This study systematically identified the effects of exercise on multiple psychological outcomes among adults with overweight/obesity, also assessing whether these effects differed across exercise types, genders, age, and body mass index (BMI) categories. Pubmed, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and SportDiscus were searched up to October 2019 for peer-reviewed papers assessing exercise training effects on psychosocial outcomes in adults with overweight/obesity. Thirty-six articles, 32 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), were included in this review. Most interventions were supervised (65%), ranging between 6 and 76 weeks (median = 12). Sixteen psychological outcomes were studied. Exercise induced positive changes in quality of life but did not reduce depression. Large effect sizes were observed on quality of life's physical component, but exercise was also able to improve vitality and mental health. Most psychological outcomes (e.g., body image, anxiety, and perceived stress) are poorly studied, evidencing either conflicting or null exercise effects. Exercise self-efficacy and autonomous motivations were also consistently improved. Exercise types and gender seem to moderate exercise psychological effects. Exercise training programs might lead to positive changes in some psychological outcomes, especially in quality of life, in adults with overweight and obesity, but more studies, with greater systematization in program characteristics, and longer follow-ups are still required to allow more solid conclusions.

13.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13269, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960110

RESUMO

This systematic review examined the impact of exercise intervention programs on selected cardiometabolic health indicators in adults with overweight or obesity. Three electronic databases were explored for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included adults with overweight or obesity and provided exercise-training interventions. Effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance (homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR), and magnetic resonance measures of intrahepatic fat in exercise versus control groups were analyzed using random effects meta-analyses. Fifty-four articles matched inclusion criteria. Exercise training reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean difference, MD = -2.95 mmHg [95% CI -4.22, -1.68], p < 0.00001, I2  = 63% and MD = -1.93 mmHg [95% CI -2.73, -1.13], p < 0.00001, I2  = 54%, 60 and 58 study arms, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased also when considering only subjects with hypertension. Exercise training significantly decreased HOMA-IR (standardized mean difference, SMD = -0.34 [-0.49, -0.18], p < 0.0001, I2 = 48%, 37 study arms), with higher effect size in subgroup of patients with type 2 diabetes (SMD = -0.50 [95% CI: -0.83, -0.17], p = 0.003, I2 = 39%). Intrahepatic fat decreased significantly after exercise interventions (SMD = -0.59 [95% CI: -0.78, -0.41], p < 0.00001, I2  = 0%), with a larger effect size after high-intensity interval training. In conclusion, exercise training is effective in improving cardiometabolic health in adults with overweight or obesity also when living with comorbitidies.

14.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 4: e13239, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939229

RESUMO

This systematic review examined the effect of exercise training interventions on physical fitness in adults with overweight or obesity and compared the effectiveness of different types of exercise training. Four electronic databases were searched. Articles were included if they described randomized controlled trials of exercise training interventions and their effect on maximal oxygen consumption or muscle strength in adults with overweight or obesity. Changes in outcome parameters were analyzed using random effects meta-analyses for different training types (aerobic, resistance, combined aerobic plus resistance, and high-intensity interval training). Eighty-eight articles satisfied the inclusion criteria of which 66 (3964 participants) could be included in the meta-analyses. All training types increased VO2max (mean difference 3.82 ml/min/kg (95% CI 3.17, 4.48), P < 0.00001; I2 = 48%). In direct comparisons, resistance training was less effective in improving VO2max than aerobic training, HIIT was slightly more effective than aerobic training, and no difference between aerobic and combined aerobic plus resistance training was found. For muscle strength benefits, incorporation of resistance exercise in the training program is indicated. Exercise training increases VO2max and muscle strength in adults with overweight or obesity. Differences between training types should be weighed with other needs and preferences when health professionals advise on exercise training to improve physical fitness.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1949-1957, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Different approaches are used to classify obesity severity. Beyond classical anthropometric measurements, the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) considers medical, physical and psychological parameters. However, this method has some limitations, principally due to the absence of an objective measure for physical impairment. The aim of our study is thus to overcome this limitation suggesting a new functional parameter obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), expressed as weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak/kg). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study conducted on a population of 843 patients affected by obesity finally enrolled 500 subjects. Every patient underwent clinical, anthropometric, biochemical assessment and CPET. First, participants have been classified according to standard EOSS in five stages. Second, patients were reclassified according to the new modified EOSS (EOSS-CRF) based on their age- and gender-appropriate VO2peak/kg percentiles as reported in the healthy normal-weight population of the FRIEND registry. RESULTS: VO2peak/kg was significantly different between standard EOSS classes 1 and 2 and classes 1 and 3 (ANCOVA p model = 0.004), whereas patients in classes 2 and 3 showed similar CRF. The EOSS-CRF classification varied in number of patients in each class compared to EOSS, particularly with a shift from class 2 to class 3. Moreover, CRF showed that physical impairment is less addressed by EOSS when compared to EOSS-CRF. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of EOSS with CRF allowed us to assign to each patient a severity index that considers not only clinical parameters, but also their functional impairment through a quantitative and prognostically important parameter (VO2peak/kg). This improvement of the staging system may also provide a better approach to identify individuals at increased risk of mortality leading to targeted therapeutic management and prognostic risk stratification for patients with obesity.

16.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105649, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962014

RESUMO

Several pharmacological approaches to controlling body weight have been developed over the last decades, albeit with limited success. Currently available agents include centrally acting appetite suppressants and peripherally acting compounds. Efficacy and safety of these agents in the clinical setting require a difficult balance. Further strategies including multiagonists able to simultaneously target multiple actors involved in obesity initiation and expansion such as the glucagon receptor family are under investigation. The results of recent clinical trials are encouraging and highlight emerging compounds as potential game changers. In view of the rising prevalence of obesity and the associated burden of comorbidities worldwide, and compared with other areas of pharmacological intervention, we feel that the field of obesity has been affected by therapeutic inertia. Of note, obesity may also affect the response to concomitant medications such as low-dose aspirin. Lessons from withdrawn agents such as the cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant include developing compounds with a more targeted action profile (i.e., central vs peripheral, or antagonist versus inverse agonist) as well as careful selection of patients based on individual risk factors. We anticipate that the expanding knowledge base and clinical testing will result in improved outcomes for patients with obesity in the near future.

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1477-1486, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have unveiled a relationship between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and obesity. The aims of this multicenter retrospective cohort study were to disentangle the association of BMI and associated metabolic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and current smoking status) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to intensive care units for COVID-19 in 21 centers (in Europe, Israel, and the United States) were enrolled in this study between February 19, 2020, and May 19, 2020. Primary and secondary outcomes were the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and 28-day mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1,461 patients were enrolled; the median (interquartile range) age was 64 years (40.9-72.0); 73.2% of patients were male; the median BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (25.4-32.3); a total of 1,080 patients (73.9%) required IMV; and the 28-day mortality estimate was 36.1% (95% CI: 33.0-39.5). An adjusted mixed logistic regression model showed a significant linear relationship between BMI and IMV: odds ratio = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.12-1.45) per 5 kg/m2 . An adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model showed a significant association between BMI and mortality, which was increased only in obesity class III (≥40; hazard ratio = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.06-2.64]). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, a linear association between BMI and the need for IMV, independent of other metabolic risk factors, and a nonlinear association between BMI and mortality risk were observed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052990

RESUMO

Obesity is a complex chronic relapsing disease, resulting from the interaction between multiple environmental, genetic and epigenetic causes, and supported by changes in the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating energy balance and body weight. Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity-related complications. However, the prevalent narrative about the causes and mechanisms of obesity remains a much more simplistic one, based on the false assumption that individuals can fully control their body weight through appropriate behavioural choices. According to this narrative, obesity is simply reversible "persuading" the patient to follow healthier and more virtuous individual behaviours (moral judgement). This persistent narrative forms the deep root of the stigmatisation of people with obesity at the individual level and creates a clear discrepancy on how obesity prevention and cure are designed in comparison with the case of other non-communicable chronic diseases (clinical stigma). The promotion of systemic preventive measures against obesity is not supported at a political and social level by the persistence of a narrative of obesity as the simple consequence of individual failures and lack of willpower. The simplistic narrative of obesity as a self-imposed condition with an easy way-out ("eat less and move more") creates a clear discrepancy on how obesity is managed by health care systems in comparison with other NCDs. The over-estimation of the efficacy of therapeutic intervention solely based on patients education and lifestyle modification is responsible of therapeutic inertia in health care professionals and in clinical guidelines, limiting or delaying the adoption of more effective therapeutic strategies, like anti-obesity medications and bariatric surgery. In conclusion, the persistence of a narrative describing obesity as a self-induced easily reversible condition has profound consequences on how obesity prevention and management are build, including the design and implementation of obesity management guidelines and a tendency to therapeutic inertia.Level of evidence: No level of evidence.

20.
Obes Facts ; 14(2): 222-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been recently proposed as an appealing nutritional strategy for obesity management. The VLCKD is characterized by a low carbohydrate content (<50 g/day), 1-1.5 g of protein/kg of ideal body weight, 15-30 g of fat/day, and a daily intake of about 500-800 calories. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current document is to suggest a common protocol for VLCKD and to summarize the existing literature on its efficacy in weight management and weight-related comorbidities, as well as the possible side effects. METHODS: This document has been prepared in adherence with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Literature searches, study selection, methodology development, and quality appraisal were performed independently by 2 authors and the data were collated by means of a meta-analysis and narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Of the 645 articles retrieved, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed, revealing 4 main findings. First, the VLCKD was shown to result in a significant weight loss in the short, intermediate, and long terms and improvement in body composition parameters as well as glycemic and lipid profiles. Second, when compared with other weight loss interventions of the same duration, the VLCKD showed a major effect on reduction of body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, total cholesterol and triglyceridemia as well as improved insulin resistance. Third, although the VLCKD also resulted in a significant reduction of glycemia, HbA1c, and LDL cholesterol, these changes were similar to those obtained with other weight loss interventions. Finally, the VLCKD can be considered a safe nutritional approach under a health professional's supervision since the most common side effects are usually clinically mild and easily to manage and recovery is often spontaneous. CONCLUSIONS: The VLCKD can be recommended as an effective dietary treatment for individuals with obesity after considering potential contra-indications and keeping in mind that any dietary treatment has to be personalized. Prospero Registry: The assessment of the efficacy of VLCKD on body weight, body composition, glycemic and lipid parameters in overweight and obese subjects: a meta-analysis (CRD42020205189).

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