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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most deadly infectious disease globally and highly prevalent in the developing world. For individuals infected with both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the risk of active TB is 10% or more annually. Previously, we identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) a region on chromosome 5 associated with resistance to TB, which included epigenetic marks that could influence gene regulation. We hypothesized that HIV-infected individuals exposed to Mtb, who remain disease free, carry epigenetic changes that strongly protect them from active TB. METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide study in HIV-infected, TB-exposed cohorts from Uganda and Tanzania and integrated data from our GWAS. RESULTS: We identified 3 regions of interest that included markers that were differentially methylated between TB cases and LTBI controls: chromosome 1 (RNF220, p=4x10 -5), chromosome 2 (between COPS8 and COL6A3, p=2.7x10 -5), and chromosome 5 (CEP72, p=1.3x10 -5). These methylation results co-localized with associated SNPs, methylation QTLs, and methylation x SNP interaction effects. These markers were in regions with regulatory markers for cells involved in TB immunity and/or lung. CONCLUSION: Epigenetic regulation is a potential biologic factor underlying resistance to TB in immunocompromised individuals that can act in conjunction with genetic variants.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

3.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that a majority of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims suffer from blunt force to the head, neck and the face area. Injuries to head and neck are among the major causes for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: In this interdisciplinary study, we aimed to characterize the key associations between IPV and TBI by mining de-identified electronic health records data with more than 12 M records between 1999 to 2017 from the IBM Explorys platform. For this purpose, we formulated a data-driven analytical framework to identify significant health correlates among IPV, TBI and six control cohorts. Using this framework, we assessed the co-morbidity, shared prevalence, and synergy between pairs of conditions. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that health effects attributed to malnutrition, acquired thrombocytopenia, post-traumatic wound infection, local infection of wound, poisoning by cardiovascular drug, alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic fatty liver, and drug-induced cirrhosis were highly significant at the joint presence of IPV and TBI. CONCLUSION: To develop a better understanding of how IPV is related to negative health effects, it is potentially useful to determine the interactions and relationships between symptom categories. Our results can potentially improve the accuracy and confidence of existing clinical screening techniques on determining IPV-induced TBI diagnoses.

5.
Brain ; 143(8): 2561-2575, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844198

RESUMO

Approximately 30% of older adults exhibit the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease without signs of cognitive impairment. Yet, little is known about the genetic factors that allow these potentially resilient individuals to remain cognitively unimpaired in the face of substantial neuropathology. We performed a large, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two previously validated metrics of cognitive resilience quantified using a latent variable modelling approach and representing better-than-predicted cognitive performance for a given level of neuropathology. Data were harmonized across 5108 participants from a clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease and three longitudinal cohort studies of cognitive ageing. All analyses were run across all participants and repeated restricting the sample to individuals with unimpaired cognition to identify variants at the earliest stages of disease. As expected, all resilience metrics were genetically correlated with cognitive performance and education attainment traits (P-values < 2.5 × 10-20), and we observed novel correlations with neuropsychiatric conditions (P-values < 7.9 × 10-4). Notably, neither resilience metric was genetically correlated with clinical Alzheimer's disease (P-values > 0.42) nor associated with APOE (P-values > 0.13). In single variant analyses, we observed a genome-wide significant locus among participants with unimpaired cognition on chromosome 18 upstream of ATP8B1 (index single nucleotide polymorphism rs2571244, minor allele frequency = 0.08, P = 2.3 × 10-8). The top variant at this locus (rs2571244) was significantly associated with methylation in prefrontal cortex tissue at multiple CpG sites, including one just upstream of ATPB81 (cg19596477; P = 2 × 10-13). Overall, this comprehensive genetic analysis of resilience implicates a putative role of vascular risk, metabolism, and mental health in protection from the cognitive consequences of neuropathology, while also providing evidence for a novel resilience gene along the bile acid metabolism pathway. Furthermore, the genetic architecture of resilience appears to be distinct from that of clinical Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that a shift in focus to molecular contributors to resilience may identify novel pathways for therapeutic targets.

6.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 217, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847609

RESUMO

Germline disease-causing variants are generally more spatially clustered in protein 3-dimensional structures than benign variants. Motivated by this tendency, we develop a fast and powerful protein-structure-based scan (PSCAN) approach for evaluating gene-level associations with complex disease and detecting signal variants. We validate PSCAN's performance on synthetic data and two real data sets for lipid traits and Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrate that PSCAN performs competitively with existing gene-level tests while increasing power and identifying more specific signal variant sets. Furthermore, PSCAN enables generation of hypotheses about the molecular basis for the associations in the context of protein structures and functional domains.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(3): 1047-1060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant work has identified genetic variants conferring risk and protection for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but functional effects of these variants is lacking, particularly in under-represented ancestral populations. Expression studies performed in easily accessible tissue, such as whole blood, can recapitulate some transcriptional changes occurring in brain and help to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify transcriptional differences between AD cases and controls in a cohort of diverse ancestry. METHODS: We analyzed the protein coding transcriptome using RNA sequencing from peripheral blood collected from 234 African American (AA) (115 AD, 119 controls) and 240 non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (121 AD, 119 controls). To identify case-control differentially expressed genes and pathways, we performed stratified, joint, and interaction analyses using linear regression models within and across ancestral groups followed by pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 418 (291 upregulated, 127 downregulated) and 488 genes (352 upregulated, 136 downregulated) differentially expressed in the AA and NHW datasets, respectively, with only 16 genes commonly differentially expressed in both ancestral groups. Joint analyses provided greater power to detect case-control differences and identified 1,102 differentially expressed genes between cases and controls (812 upregulated, 290 downregulated). Interaction analysis identified only 27 genes with different effects in AA compared to NHW. Pathway and gene-set enrichment analyses revealed differences in immune response-related pathways that were enriched across the analyses despite different underlying gene sets. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis of converging underlying pathophysiological processes in AD across ancestral groups.

8.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1859-1875, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108311

RESUMO

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) undertook whole exome sequencing in 5,740 late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases and 5,096 cognitively normal controls primarily of European ancestry (EA), among whom 218 cases and 177 controls were Caribbean Hispanic (CH). An age-, sex- and APOE based risk score and family history were used to select cases most likely to harbor novel AD risk variants and controls least likely to develop AD by age 85 years. We tested ~1.5 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 50,000 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for association to AD, using multiple models considering individual variants as well as gene-based tests aggregating rare, predicted functional, and loss of function variants. Sixteen single variants and 19 genes that met criteria for significant or suggestive associations after multiple-testing correction were evaluated for replication in four independent samples; three with whole exome sequencing (2,778 cases, 7,262 controls) and one with genome-wide genotyping imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel (9,343 cases, 11,527 controls). The top findings in the discovery sample were also followed-up in the ADSP whole-genome sequenced family-based dataset (197 members of 42 EA families and 501 members of 157 CH families). We identified novel and predicted functional genetic variants in genes previously associated with AD. We also detected associations in three novel genes: IGHG3 (p = 9.8 × 10-7), an immunoglobulin gene whose antibodies interact with ß-amyloid, a long non-coding RNA AC099552.4 (p = 1.2 × 10-7), and a zinc-finger protein ZNF655 (gene-based p = 5.0 × 10-6). The latter two suggest an important role for transcriptional regulation in AD pathogenesis.

12.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 25: 523-534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797624

RESUMO

Modern genomic studies are rapidly growing in scale, and the analytical approaches used to analyze genomic data are increasing in complexity. Genomic data management poses logistic and computational challenges, and analyses are increasingly reliant on genomic annotation resources that create their own data management and versioning issues. As a result, genomic datasets are increasingly handled in ways that limit the rigor and reproducibility of many analyses. In this work, we examine the use of the Spark infrastructure for the management, access, and analysis of genomic data in comparison to traditional genomic workflows on typical cluster environments. We validate the framework by reproducing previously published results from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project. Using the framework and analyses designed using Jupyter notebooks, Spark provides improved workflows, reduces user-driven data partitioning, and enhances the portability and reproducibility of distributed analyses required for large-scale genomic studies.

13.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 25: 575-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797629

RESUMO

Return of results is not common in research settings as standards are not yet in place for what to return, how to return, and to whom. As a pioneer of large-scale of return of research results, the Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort now known of All of Us plans to return pharmacogenomic results and variants of clinical significance to its participants starting late 2019. To better understand the local landscape of possibilities regarding return of research results, we assessed the frequency of pathogenic variants and APOL1 renal risk variants in a small diverse cohort of chronic kidney disease patients (CKD) ascertained from a public hospital in Cleveland, Ohio genotyped on the Illumina Infinium MegaEX. Of the 23,720 ClinVar-designated variants directly assayed by the MegaEX, 8,355 (35%) had at least one alternate allele in the 130 participants genotyped. Of these, 18 ClinVar variants deemed pathogenic by multiple submitters with no conflicts in interpretation were distributed across 27 participants. The majority of these pathogenic ClinVar variants (14/18) were associated with autosomal recessive disorders. Of note were four African American carriers of TTR rs76992529 associated with amyloidogenic transthyretin amyloidosis, otherwise known as familial transthyretin amyloidosis (FTA). FTA, an autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance, is more common among African-descent populations compared with European-descent populations. Also common in this CKD population were APOL1 renal risk alleles G1 (rs73885319) and G2 (rs71785313) with 60% of the study population carrying at least one renal risk allele. Both pathogenic ClinVar variants and APOL1 renal risk alleles were distributed among participants who wanted actionable genetic results returned, wanted genetic results returned regardless of actionability, and wanted no results returned. Results from this local genetic study highlight challenges in which variants to report, how to interpret them, and the participant's potential for follow-up, only some of the challenges in return of research results likely facing larger studies such as All of Us.

14.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 25: 739-742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797644

RESUMO

The majority of accepted papers in computational biology and biocomputing describe new software approaches to relevant biological problems. While journals and conferences often require the availability of software and source code, there are limited resources available to maximize the distribution and use of developed software within the scientific community. The accepted standard is to make source code available for new approaches in published work, the growing problem of system configuration issues, language, library version conflicts, and other implementation issues often impede the broad distribution, availability of software tools, and reproducibility of research. There are a variety of solutions to these implementation issues, but the learning curve for applying these solutions is steep. This tutorial demonstrates tools and approaches for packaging and distribution of published code, and provides methodological practices for the broad and open sharing of new biocomputing software.

15.
Brain ; 142(9): 2581-2589, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497858

RESUMO

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas tau/genética
16.
Public Health Genomics ; 22(1-2): 16-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454805

RESUMO

Despite monumental advances in genomics, relatively few health care provider organizations in the United States offer personalized or precision medicine as part of the routine clinical workflow. The gaps between research and applied genomic medicine may be a result of a cultural gap across various stakeholders representing scientists, clinicians, patients, policy makers, and third party payers. Scientists are trained to assess the health care value of genomics by either quantifying population-scale effects, or through the narrow lens of clinical trials where the standard of care is compared with the predictive power of a single or handful of genetic variants. While these metrics are an essential first step in assessing and documenting the clinical utility of genomics, they are rarely followed up with other assessments of health care value that are critical to stakeholders who use different measures to define value. The limited value assessment in both the research and implementation science of precision medicine is likely due to necessary logistical constraints of these teams; engaging bioethicists, health care economists, and individual patient belief systems is incredibly daunting for geneticists and informaticians conducting research. In this narrative review, we concisely describe several definitions of value through various stakeholder viewpoints. We highlight the existing gaps that prevent clinical translation of scientific findings generally as well as more specifically using two present-day, extreme scenarios: (1) genetically guided warfarin dosing representing a handful of genetic markers and more than 10 years of basic and translational research, and (2) next-generation sequencing representing genome-dense data lacking substantial evidence for implementation. These contemporary scenarios highlight the need for various stakeholders to broadly adopt frameworks designed to define and collect multiple value measures across different disciplines to ultimately impact more universal acceptance of and reimbursement for genomic medicine.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Pesquisa em Genética , Testes Genéticos , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Estados Unidos
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3053-3061, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162550

RESUMO

Little is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms that modulate the genetic effects in the molecular pathways underlying Alzheimer disease (AD), and even less is known about how these changes might differ across diverse populations. RNA editing, the process that alters individual bases of RNA, may contribute to AD pathogenesis due to its roles in neuronal development and immune regulation. Here, we pursued one of the first transcriptome-wide RNA editing studies in AD by examining RNA sequencing data from individuals of both African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) ethnicities. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and RNA editing analysis were performed on peripheral blood specimens from 216 AD cases (105 AA, 111 NHW) and 212 gender matched controls (105 AA, 107 NHW). 449 positions in 254 genes and 723 positions in 371 genes were differentially edited in AA and NHW, respectively. While most differentially edited sites localized to different genes in AA and NHW populations, these events converged on the same pathways across both ethnicities, especially endocytic and inflammatory response pathways. Furthermore, these differentially edited sites were preferentially predicted to disrupt miRNA binding and induce nonsynonymous coding changes in genes previously associated with AD in molecular studies, including PAFAH1B2 and HNRNPA1. These findings suggest RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional regulatory program in AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Edição de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Transcriptoma
18.
AIDS ; 33(10): 1575-1582, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many of those aging with HIV suffer from distal neuropathic pain (DNP) due to HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN). Prior studies have linked chronic pain conditions to a variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), ValMet. This variant confers reduced enzymatic activity and results in higher synaptic dopamine levels. Here we examined the role of ValMet as a predictor of DNP in HIV-SN. METHODS: In 1044 HIV-infected individuals enrolled in CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research, an observational study across six US institutions, we characterized the relationship between ValMet and DNP in HIV-SN. Participants underwent neurologic examination and genotyping. Stratification into genetic ancestry groups was employed to eliminate bias due to genetic background. FINDINGS: Of 590 participants with HIV-SN, 38% endorsed DNP, 24% reported nonpainful symptoms of neuropathy (paresthesia and numbness), and 38% were asymptomatic. Compared with asymptomatic HIV-SN, ValMet was associated with 2.3 higher odds of DNP. There were no increased odds of nonpainful symptoms. The association remained significant after controlling for other risk factors for DNP: lifetime diagnosis of depression, older age, ancestry, cumulative exposure to dideoxynucleoside antiretrovirals, diabetes, and nadir CD4. Stratified by genetic ancestry, the association between ValMet and DNP was significant in European and African genetic ancestry. INTERPRETATION: ValMet may be a genetic marker for susceptibility to DNP in HIV-SN. Our findings support the notion that differences in pain processing mediated by COMT-related dopamine signaling play a role in susceptibility to DNP in HIV-SN. Because prior studies suggest that the COMT allele may influence dose-response relationships with opioid treatment, knowing COMT genotype could influence management.


Assuntos
Nefropatia Associada a AIDS/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Neuralgia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Valina/genética
19.
Genes Immun ; 20(6): 473-483, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100616

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health burden worldwide, and more effective treatment is sorely needed. Consequently, uncovering causes of resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is of special importance for vaccine design. Resistance to Mtb infection can be defined by a persistently negative tuberculin skin test (PTST-) despite living in close and sustained exposure to an active TB case. While susceptibility to Mtb is, in part, genetically determined, relatively little work has been done to uncover genetic factors underlying resistance to Mtb infection. We examined a region on chromosome 2q previously implicated in our genomewide linkage scan by a targeted, high-density association scan for genetic variants enhancing PTST- in two independent Ugandan TB household cohorts (n = 747 and 471). We found association with SNPs in neighboring genes ZEB2 and GTDC1 (peak meta p = 1.9 × 10-5) supported by both samples. Bioinformatic analysis suggests these variants may affect PTST- by regulating the histone deacetylase (HDAC) pathway, supporting previous results from transcriptomic analyses. An apparent protective effect of PTST- against body-mass wasting suggests a link between resistance to Mtb infection and healthy body composition. Our results provide insight into how humans may escape latent Mtb infection despite heavy exposure.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Tuberculose/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genomics ; 111(4): 808-818, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857119

RESUMO

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 584 subjects from 111 multiplex families at three sequencing centers. Genotype calling of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion-deletion variants (indels) was performed centrally using GATK-HaplotypeCaller and Atlas V2. The ADSP Quality Control (QC) Working Group applied QC protocols to project-level variant call format files (VCFs) from each pipeline, and developed and implemented a novel protocol, termed "consensus calling," to combine genotype calls from both pipelines into a single high-quality set. QC was applied to autosomal bi-allelic SNVs and indels, and included pipeline-recommended QC filters, variant-level QC, and sample-level QC. Low-quality variants or genotypes were excluded, and sample outliers were noted. Quality was assessed by examining Mendelian inconsistencies (MIs) among 67 parent-offspring pairs, and MIs were used to establish additional genotype-specific filters for GATK calls. After QC, 578 subjects remained. Pipeline-specific QC excluded ~12.0% of GATK and 14.5% of Atlas SNVs. Between pipelines, ~91% of SNV genotypes across all QCed variants were concordant; 4.23% and 4.56% of genotypes were exclusive to Atlas or GATK, respectively; the remaining ~0.01% of discordant genotypes were excluded. For indels, variant-level QC excluded ~36.8% of GATK and 35.3% of Atlas indels. Between pipelines, ~55.6% of indel genotypes were concordant; while 10.3% and 28.3% were exclusive to Atlas or GATK, respectively; and ~0.29% of discordant genotypes were. The final WGS consensus dataset contains 27,896,774 SNVs and 3,133,926 indels and is publicly available.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas , Algoritmos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
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