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1.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 19(1): 4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fisheries have tremendous cultural and educational importance in human societies. The world is undergoing fast environmental and cultural changes, and local knowledge is being lost. Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. This study was planned with the intent to document and conserve the knowledge about the uses of the freshwater fish fauna among the residents in South Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were conducted to collect data from informers (N = 88). Principal component analysis, relative frequency citation, fidelity level, relative popularity level, rank-order priority, and similarity index were used to analyze the fish data. RESULTS: Overall, a total of 43 species of fishes were utilized in the study region, but only 26 species were utilized ethnomedicinally to treat a variety of illnesses such as asthma, body weakness, burn, chicken pox, cold, cough, eyesight, hepatitis, impotence, joint pain, night blindness, skin burn, spleen treatment, stomach infection, and weakness. The uses of fishes were analyzed employing various indices. The highest use value (UV) of 0.86 was calculated for spotted snakehead (Channa punctata), whereas the lowest UV of 0.05 was attained by karail fish (Securicula gora). Moreover, Channa punctata, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Wallago attu, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rita rita, Sperata seenghala, Notopterus notopterus, Labeo dyocheilus, Systomus sarana, Puntius punjabensis, Securicula gora, Ompok bimaculatus, and Ompok pabda were the most popular species with RPL = 1.0. Out of the total, 20 species had a "zero" similarity index, while the ethnomedicinal use of 12 species (i.e., Labeo dyocheilus, Labeo boggut, Systomus sarana, Puntius punjabensis, Aspidoparia morar, Securicula gora, Crossocheilus diplochilus, Mastacembelus armatus, Ompok bimaculatus, Ompok pabda, Labeo gonius, and Sperata seenghala) was documented for the first time for a variety of diseases (i.e., body weakness, stomach infection, skin burn, joint pain, impotence, asthma, spleen treatment, and chicken pox). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the local people of the study area hold noteworthy traditional knowledge about the medicinal and cultural uses of fish species. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of active chemicals and in vivo and/or in vitro activities of chemicals derived from ichthyofauna with the highest FC as well as UVs could be interesting for research on new drugs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Varicela , Disfunção Erétil , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Água Doce , Diversidade Cultural , Povos Indígenas
2.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358279

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are utilized around the globe for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. This study is an attempt to document the utilization of medicinal plants across the four different cultural groups residing in the rural and remote villages of the northern districts of the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. To gather information related to medicinal plants and health care practices among the local folk, field surveys were conducted from February 2018 to May 2021. The ethnomedicinal information was gathered through semi-structured interviews and group discussions. During the study, a total of 109 plant species belonging to 35 families were recorded as commonly utilized by the local population, with Asteraceae reported as the dominant family. The most common growth form was herbs, with a percentage contribution of 86%. Leaves (38%) were the most commonly used plant part for the preparation of traditional remedies, and most of the remedies were prepared as paste and applied topically. The highest use value of 0.30 was reported for Capsella bursa-pastoris. Greater similarity (14% species) in the usage of plants was shown by Bakerwal, Gujjar, and Pahadi ethnic groups, whereas the least similarity (1%) was observed between Bakerwal and Kashmiri ethnic groups. Based on the results obtained in the present study, further phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plants is recommended to confirm the efficacy and safety of the remedies used and to possibly elucidate candidates for the development of new drugs.

3.
J Hum Evol ; 172: 103258, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206720

RESUMO

Current knowledge about Paleolithic human plant use is limited by the rare survival of identifiable plant remains as well as the availability of methods for plant detection and identification. By analyzing DNA preserved in cave sediments, we can identify organisms in the absence of any visible remains, opening up new ways to study details of past human behavior, including plant use. Aghitu-3 Cave contains a 15,000-yearlong record (from ∼39,000 to 24,000 cal BP) of Upper Paleolithic human settlement and environmental variability in the Armenian Highlands. Finds from this cave include stone artifacts, faunal remains, bone tools, shell beads, charcoal, and pollen, among others. We applied sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding to the Aghitu-3 sedimentary sequence and combined this with pollen data to obtain a temporal reconstruction of plant assemblages. Our results reveal a stratification of plant abundance and diversity where sedaDNA reflects periods of human occupation, showing higher diversity in layers with increased human activity. Low pollen concentrations combined with high sedaDNA abundance indicate plant remains may have been brought into the cave by animals or humans during the deposition of the lower two archaeological horizons. Most of the recovered plants are reported to be useful for food, flavor, medicine, and/or technical purposes, demonstrating the potential of the environment around Aghitu-3 Cave to support humans during the Upper Paleolithic. Moreover, we identified several specific plant taxa that strengthen previous findings about Upper Paleolithic plant use in this region (i.e., for medicine and the manufacturing and dyeing of textiles). This study represents the first application of plant sedaDNA analysis of cave sediments for the investigation of potential plant use by prehistoric humans.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Armênia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Carvão Vegetal , Cavernas , Hominidae/genética , Arqueologia/métodos , Plantas/genética
4.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077997

RESUMO

Animal-derived products have an important role in treating many health conditions and have widely been used across cultures. In South Asia, ethnozoological research has been conducted only by a small number of researchers. Therefore, this area of research needs further exploration in order to preserve the eroding ethnozoological knowledge of medicinal animals severely affected by ongoing social change. This study was conducted in the region of Jammu and Kashmir from February 2019 to August 2021. The study was carried out among eight different ethnic groups living in the region. A total of 374 informants were selected and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and verified through group discussions. Data was analyzed using different statistical tools, including R 4.0.0. The cross-cultural data were compared through Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Genomics software and later subjected to further analysis, applying Pearson correlation and ordination techniques (Principal Component Analysis). We recorded a total of 79 animal species being used by the eight studied ethnic groups in the region. Wild animal species were mainly used for therapeutic purposes. Chest infections, sexual problems, and paralysis were frequently treated diseases. Flesh was the most commonly part used. The cross-cultural comparison showed a remarkable heterogeneity in the use of the animals among the different groups, which could be an effect to the historical sociocultural stratifications, as well as different religious affiliation of certain groups preventing them to forage or hunt certain animals. Some groups however showed prominent overlap of uses of some recorded species. For instance, Lerwalerwa and Bubalus bubalis were commonly used by both Gujjar and Pahari, which could be referred to the fact that they have gone through significant socio-cultural contact, and they are exogamous to each other. The Pearson correlation coefficient supported the strength and direction of an association between ethnic groups and regions. The study makes an important contribution to the field of ethnozoology in the Himalayas by providing insights to understand the historical human and nature relationships and supplying a baseline for developing future conservation efforts in the region to protect the wild fauna.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(16)2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36009651

RESUMO

Amphibians and reptiles have interacted with humans for millennia. However, humans interact with amphibian and reptile species in different manners, which depend on their culture and traditions. This study was designed to better understand the interactions between amphibian and reptile species and their usage among the native peoples in the vicinity of the Jhelum and Chenab rivers, Pakistan. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, and was analyzed by using different indices, including the frequency of citation, corrected fidelity level, fidelity level, relative importance level, and informant major ailment. Two amphibians and twenty-six reptile species were used in therapeutic medicine in the study area. Based on the cultural analysis, we found that Naja naja (black cobra) was highly cited across all cultural groups. A 100% Fidelity Level was calculated for the following species: Naja naja (eye infection), Varanus bengalensis (joint pain), Eurylepis taeniolatus (cataract), and Acanthodactylus cantoris (cancer). We found five endangered species in the study area, i.e., Aspideretes gangeticus, A. hurum, Chitra indica, Varanus flavescens, and Geoclemys hamiltonii, that were used to cure joint pain, muscle stretching and pain, backbone pain, paralysis, and psoriasis, respectively. Likewise, Lissemys punctata andersoni, a vulnerable species as labelled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, was extensively used for the treatment of joint pain, body pain, paralysis, and arthritis in the study area. In terms of conservation, it is critical to protect the highly vulnerable and endangered species that are being used in therapeutic medicines. Our findings may be helpful for the conservation of amphibian and reptile species by helping to make an effective plan to prevent their extinction. The main threats to the diversity of amphibian and reptile species in the area are hunting, trading, and cultural use. These threats could potentially lead to the extinction of these species. Therefore, with the involvement of concerned authorities, e.g., local stakeholders, the Ministry of Climate Change, provincial wildlife departments, academia, and conservation managers, immediate conservation measures should be taken for the protection and sustainable utilization of medicinal species.

6.
J Integr Med ; 20(6): 488-496, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985974

RESUMO

At present, a variety of vaccines have been approved, and existing antiviral drugs are being tested to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no standardized treatment has yet been approved by the World Health Organization. The virally encoded chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which facilitates the replication of SARS-CoV in the host cells, is one potential pharmacological target for the development of anti-SARS drugs. Online search engines, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed, were used to retrieve data on the traditional uses of medicinal plants and their inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Various pure compounds, including polyphenols, terpenoids, chalcones, alkaloids, biflavonoids, flavanones, anthraquinones and glycosides, have shown potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 2-44 µg/mL. Interestingly, most of these active compounds, including xanthoangelol E (isolated from Angelica keiskei), dieckol 1 (isolated from Ecklonia cava), amentoflavone (isolated from Torreya nucifera), celastrol, pristimerin, tingenone and iguesterin (isolated from Tripterygium regelii), tannic acid (isolated from Camellia sinensis), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, 3-isotheaflav1in-3 gallate and dihydrotanshinone I (isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza), had IC50 values of less than 15 µg/mL. Kinetic mechanistic studies of several active compounds revealed that their mode of inhibition was dose-dependent and competitive, with Ki values ranging from 2.4-43.8 µmol/L. Given the significance of plant-based compounds and the many promising results obtained, there is still need to explore the phytochemical and mechanistic potentials of plants and their products. These medicinal plants could serve as an effective inexpensive nutraceutical for the general public to help manage COVID-19.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 365-388, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396918

RESUMO

Modifications of land use and vegetation cover are proceeding faster than ever before in human history, with a considerable reduction in forest cover in biodiversity hotspots. We investigated the land use and vegetation cover changes, their impact on biodiversity in the Kurram District, Pakistan, for 27 years (1989 to 2015). Temporal satellite imagery was processed using a supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm in ARCGIS 10.1 to elucidate information regarding land use/land cover changes,with conducted structured interviews to obtain the inhabitants' perspectives on their dependence on ecosystems in Kurram, and how their environment is changing. We found that the land under forest cover and rangeland showed a remarkable decrease over the study period. This decline in rangeland and forest cover was a result of the increased of farmland, barren land. The study area is part of a biodiversity, with important medicinal, rare and unique plant species.


Las modificaciones del uso de la tierra y la cobertura vegetal están avanzando más rápido que nunca en la historia de la humanidad, con una reducción considerable de la cobertura forestal en los puntos críticos de biodiversidad. Investigamos el uso de la tierra y los cambios en la cobertura vegetal, su impacto en la biodiversidad en el distrito de Kurram, Pakistán, durante 27 años (1989 a 2015). Las imágenes satelitales temporales se procesaron utilizando un algoritmo de clasificación de máxima verosimilitud supervisada en ARCGIS 10.1 para dilucidar información sobre los cambios en el uso del suelo/cobertura del suelo, con entrevistas estructuradas realizadas para obtener las perspectivas de los habitantes sobre su dependencia de los ecosistemas en Kurram y cómo está cambiando su entorno. Descubrimos que la tierra cubierta por bosques y pastizales mostró una disminución notable durante el período de estudio. Esta disminución en los pastizales y la cubierta forestal fue el resultado del aumento de las tierras de cultivo, tierras estériles. El área de estudio es parte de una biodiversidad, con importantes especies de plantas medicinales, raras y únicas.


Assuntos
Usos do Solo , Exploração de Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Paquistão , Pastagens , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Imagens de Satélites
8.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453691

RESUMO

Plant resources have always been valuable in human life, and many plant species are used in medicine, food, and ritual, and resource utilization is closely related to cultural diversity. Our study was conducted from June 2019 to April 2021, during which we aimed to document the local knowledge of plant resources of five ethnic groups, i.e., the Gujjar, Bakarwal, Kashmiri, Pahari, and Dogra communities of the Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region, Western Himalayas. Through semi-structured interviews (N = 342) and group discussions (N = 38), we collected data on the ethnobotanical uses of plant resources. The data was subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and ordination techniques (Principal Component Analysis) via, R software of version 4.0.0. Traditional uses were classified into three groups, i.e., single-, double-, and multi-use groups. The study recorded a total of 127 plant species, belonging to 113 genera and distributed among 64 botanical families. The dominant plant families were the Asteraceae, with 8% of all species, followed by Lamiaceae (6%), Polygonaceae (5%) and Ranunculaceae (4%). The recorded plant taxa were frequently used for medicine (51.4% responses), followed by food (14.9%), and fodder (9.5%). Principal component analysis (PCA) separated three groups of provisioning services depending on plant consumption preference levels. Comparative analysis showed remarkable similarities in plant uses (food, medicinal) among the Gujjar and Bakarwal ethnic groups, as both groups share a common culture. Some plants like Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris, Ulmus wallichiana, Amaranthus blitum, and Celtis australis were also used for magico-religious purposes. We also recorded some medicinal uses that are new to the ethnobotanical literature of the J&K Himalayas, such as for Betula utilis, Sambucus wightiana, and Dolomiaea macrocephala, in our case for example local medicinal recipe, which is derived from Dolomiaea macrocephala, often known as Nashasta, used to treat weakness, back pain, and joint pain. Similarly, we also recorded new food uses for Eremurus himalaicus. Moreover, we also observed some plants for instance, Fragaria nubicola, Betula utilis and Juniperus communis have spiritual significance (i.e., amulets and scrolls) for this part of the Himalayan region. The present study provides a useful tool for resource management and can help in developing scientifically informed strategies for the conservation of plant resources.

9.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 89, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have always played an important role in the history of human health. However, the populations and sustainable use of medicinal plants have been severely affected by human activities and climate change. Little is known about the current conservation status and distribution pattern of medicinal plants. In this study, based on accurate geographical distribution information of 9756 medicinal plants, we identified diversity hotspots and conservation gaps, evaluated conservation effectiveness of nature reserves, and predicted suitable habitat areas for medicinal plants in China to provide scientific guidance for their long-term conservation and sustainable use. RESULTS: A total of 150 diversity hotspot grid cells, mainly concentrated in central and southern China, were identified. These only accounted for 5% of the total distribution area but contained 96% of the medicinal plants of the country. The hotspot grid cells included all traditional hotspot areas, but we also detected three new hotspots, namely Mufu-Lushan Mountains, Tianshan-Altai Mountains, and Changbai Mountains. The current national and provincial nature reserves protect 125 hotspot grid cells, which harbor 94% of all medicinal plants. However, 25 hotspot grid cells, distributed in the Tianshan-Altai Mountains and Hengduan Mountains, are located outside the national and provincial nature reserves. An analysis of the predicted effects of climate change indicated that the suitable habitat areas will shift from southern to northern China, and that southern China will face a considerable loss of suitable habitat areas, while the east and west parts of China will encompass remarkably more suitable habitat areas in the future. CONCLUSIONS: The current conservation networks have achieved high conservation effectiveness with regard to medicinal plants; however, the conservation gaps we identified should not be neglected, and conservation planning needs to take into account the predicted shifts of some hotspots of medicinal plants due to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Plantas Medicinais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos
10.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 34, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of losing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and their use and conservation is very high. Documenting knowledge on distribution and use of medicinal plants by different ethnic groups and at spatial scale on a single platform is important from a conservation planning and management perspective. The sustainable use, continuous practice, and safeguarding of traditional knowledge are essential. Communication of such knowledge among scientists and policy makers at local and global level is equally important, as the available information at present is limited and scattered in Nepal. METHODS: In this paper, we aimed to address these shortcomings by cataloguing medicinal plants used by indigenous ethnic groups in Nepal through a systematic review of over 275 pertinent publications published between 1975 and July 2021. The review was complemented by field visits made in 21 districts. We determined the ethnomedicinal plants hotspots across the country and depicted them in heatmaps. RESULTS: The heatmaps show spatial hotspots and sites of poor ethnomedicinal plant use documentation, which is useful for evaluating the interaction of geographical and ethnobotanical variables. Mid-hills and mountainous areas of Nepal hold the highest number of medicinal plant species in use, which could be possibly associated with the presence of higher human population and diverse ethnic groups in these areas. CONCLUSION: Given the increasing concern about losing medicinal plants due to changing ecological, social, and climatic conditions, the results of this paper may be important for better understanding of how medicinal plants in use are distributed across the country and often linked to specific ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Nepal , Fitoterapia/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192648

RESUMO

Ethnobotanical field surveys were carried out in the Tanawal area of the Lesser Himalayan Region, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Province from April 2016 to October 2017. The area is located between 34.36 (34° 21' 30 N) latitude and 73.07 (73° 4' 0 E) longitude with an average elevation of 1374 meters above sea level. Ethnomedicinal data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and participants were selected through the snow-boll technique. Semi-structured, in-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted. The data were quantitatively evaluated using ethnomedicinal indices i.e. Relative frequency of citation (RFCs), Fidelity level (FL), and Use Value (UV). The ethnobotanical data were also comparatively analyzed through the Jaccard Index (JI). The study yielded 66 medicinal plants in 62 genera and 43 families. Asteraceae and Solanaceae were the most important families with five medicinal taxa each. Regarding medicinal plant part utilization, leaves (43.28%) were used predominantly, followed by whole plant (14.92%) and fruits (14.92%). Decoction was the main drug formulation applied to 21 species (31.15%) and the oral route was most common (56.1%) while 31.2% of medicinal plants were used for both oral and topical applications. Fifty health disorders were recorded and grouped in 15 categories. Maximum species were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders i.e. 13 species, dermal problems (12 species), and respiratory tract ailments (9). The calculated RFCs ranged between 81 to 31. The most important medicinal plants were Acacia modesta, Citrullus vulgaris, Tamarindus indica, and Momordica charantia with an RGFC of 81 each. The UV ranged between 0.58 and 3.6. Medicinal taxa with the highest UV were Dioscorea deltoidea (3.6), Withania coagulans (3.3), Momordica charantia (3.5), Silybum marianum and Pyrus pashia (3.2). FL values showed that 28 (41.79%) species had a FL value below 50 (74.62%) while 39 (58.20%) had higher FL values. Momordica charantia, Tamarindus indica, Acacia modesta and Citrullus vulgaris were 95.2 each. The Jaccard Index (JI) values ranged from16.77 to 0.98. The current study also reported 16 medicinal plants, commonly used around the globe, have been rarely documented for their medicinal values in the local ethnomedicinal literature i.e. Althaea officinalis, Plantanus orientalis, Jasminum sombac, Maytenus royleana, Cucurbita maxima, Phyllanthus emblica, Citrullus vulgaris. Polygonatum verticilliatum, Caseria tomentosa, Cistanche tubulosa, Bambusa arundinacea, Schinus molle, Tamarindus indica, Pongamia pinnata, Citrus limon and Catharanthus roseus. However, 48 medicinal plants had been reported in the literature but the current study reported their novel medicinal uses. Important taxa should be established in botanical gardens for in-situ conservation, chemical investigation and sustainable utilization. It would also be effective to improve the livelihoods of the local population.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Etnobotânica/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Solanaceae/química , Acacia/química , Asteraceae/classificação , Citrullus/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Momordica charantia/química , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Solanaceae/classificação , Tamarindus/química
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 288: 114985, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032582

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional medicine has a long history and plays an important role in the Kurdish community in Sarvabad county, Kurdistan province, Iran. Despite the great diversity of medicinal plants, cultural history, and variety of herbal medicine uses among Kurdish tribes, very few cohesive ethnopharmacological studies of this unique region are available in the scientific literature. Our study tried to gather medicinal plant species and document the associated indigenous knowledge of the ethnic groups in the Sarvabad district for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were collected from 92 local informants through semi-structured questionnaires, open interviews, and field surveys during a period of two years (2018-2020). The statistical analysis included use reports (UR) for each species, and informant consensus factor (FIC) to evaluate the data. RESULTS: In the present study a total of 156 plant species belonging to 58 botanical families, were recorded for the treatment of 16 diseases categories. The most represented families were Lamiaceae, followed by Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. The most frequently cited plant species with the highest use report (UR) were Pistacia atlantica (161), Hymenocrater longiflorus (128), Melissa officinalis (124), Cyperus rotundus (114), Thymus transcaspicus (112), and Quercus brantii (109). Psychological (ICF = 0.96), musculoskeletal (ICF = 0.94), and digestive (ICF = 0.93), followed by respiratory problems (ICF = 0.92) showed the highest informant consensus factors among all ailment categories. Most herbal remedies were consumed as decoction. Leaves (28.5%) were the most widely used plant parts, followed by flowers (18.7%), aerial parts (14.5%), seeds (13.2%), and terrestrial parts (8.41%). Some interesting new medicinal uses for native and common species were reported. Species such as Cyperus rotundus, Hymenocrater longiflorus, Anthriscus nemorosa, Pistacia atlantica and Quercus brantii would be interesting targets for drug discovery and are suggested for further investigations. CONCLUSION: The plant use reports, and quantitative data analyzed demonstrate that the relative importance of plant species and shared knowledge of herbal therapies among Kurdish communities of the Sarvabad county is still rich. A systematic study and evaluation of the biological activity of highly consumed plants, could identify the possible mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Persa/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adulto , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Ambio ; 51(1): 84-92, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008095

RESUMO

The Convention on Biological Diversity is defining the goals that will frame future global biodiversity policy in a context of rapid biodiversity decline and under pressure to make transformative change. Drawing on the work of Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars, we argue that transformative change requires the foregrounding of Indigenous peoples' and local communities' rights and agency in biodiversity policy. We support this argument with four key points. First, Indigenous peoples and local communities hold knowledge essential for setting realistic and effective biodiversity targets that simultaneously improve local livelihoods. Second, Indigenous peoples' conceptualizations of nature sustain and manifest CBD's 2050 vision of "Living in harmony with nature." Third, Indigenous peoples' and local communities' participation in biodiversity policy contributes to the recognition of human and Indigenous peoples' rights. And fourth, engagement in biodiversity policy is essential for Indigenous peoples and local communities to be able to exercise their recognized rights to territories and resources.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Povos Indígenas , Humanos
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1043155, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36712683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnic communities have relied on animals and their derived products for ages, and their use is often intricately related to many cultural features. In remote regions across the globe, indigenous peoples have been using invertebrates and herptiles for a variety of purposes (medicine, food, culture, and spiritual importance); however, related scientific research is sparse, particularly in the western Himalayas. In this respect, we collected useful information on invertebrates and herpetofauna from Jammu and Kashmir, India, across different ethnic groups, i.e., Gujjar, Bakarwal, Dogra, Kashmiri, and Pahari. METHODOLOGY: The data were gathered using semi-structured interviews followed by group discussions. The information gathered was analyzed using ordination techniques (principal component analysis). The Venn diagram was used to investigate cross-cultural similarities and differences between ethnic groups. RESULTS: We documented 30 species belonging to five classes and 20 families used for different ethnozoological practices (medicinal, magico-religious, food, costume, omen, poultry, and agricultural purposes). The use of fauna resources varied across ethnic groups, and cross-cultural examination revealed that Kashmiri and Pahari populations were more similar in their species utilization. The maximum number of species (27%) was uniquely used by Kashmiri, followed by Pahari (17%), and the least by Dogra and Gujjar (3% each). The ethnozoological use of all documented species is unprecedented. In addition to ethnozoological usage, various documented species (Apis cerana, Apis mellifera, Hirudinaria granulosa, and Bombyx mori) were also important for the local population's livelihoods. CONCLUSION: Our findings can be considered the baseline for understanding the relationship of invertebrates and herptiles with specific ethnic groups and will aid in the development of future research projects that can assess the interaction between local fauna and the diverse ethnic groups.

17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 70, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open and public markets are the main providers of medicinal plants in urban environments. The present study evaluated the medicinal plants sold in public markets in different municipalities in the mesoregions of the state of Paraíba, northeast of Brazil, and the possible variations in the supply of these plants in the markets over the course of a year. METHODS: Interviews with medicinal plant traders were conducted in four mesoregions of different climatic and phytophysiognomic characteristics (ranging from Caatinga to Atlantic Forest). The versatility of the species sold was elucidated using the relative importance (RI) index, and the set of species sold by each informant in each mesoregion was compared with each other by one-way Anosim  and by the analysis of main coordinates. RESULTS: Thirty-five plant traders identified 163 medicinal plant species (151 genders and 76 families) and more 17 non identified species. The most frequent families were Fabaceae (19 species), Asteraceae (12), Lamiaceae (11), and Myrtaceae (6). Punica granatum, Zingiber officinale, and Myracrodruon urundeuva were the species with the highest RI. The analysis of similarity showed distinct differences between the Sertão and all other mesoregions. The Agreste, an ecotone area, was also the area where more species of other regions was found. The absence of 88 species in at least one of the trading locations at some stage of the fieldwork was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and absence of the commercialized species do not seem to be related to the period of the year or the mesoregion. There were differences in the inventory of plants commercialized in markets in recent years. We identified an intermediate zone of knowledge and use of species commercialized between the studied localities.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Fabaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Brasil , Humanos
19.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834735

RESUMO

The ecotonal zones support populations that are acclimated to changing, fluctuating, and unstable conditions, and as a result, these populations are better equipped to adjust to expected change. In this context, a hypothesis was tested that there must be vegetation dominated by unique indicator plant species under the influence of ecological gradients in the ecotonal zone of Manoor Valley (northwestern Himalaya), Pakistan. Keeping the aforementioned hypothesis in mind, detailed field studies were conducted during different seasons in 2015-18. Line transect sampling and phytosociological characteristics (density, frequency, cover, and their relative values and Importance Value) were implemented as ecological methods. This investigation documented 97 plant species recorded from seven sampling sites. The community distribution modelling revealed that the ecological variables separate the seven sampling sites into two major plant communities (Indigofera-Parrotiopsis-Bistorta and Ziziphus-Leptopus-Quercus) recognized by TWINSPAN. The IBP communities showed a positive and significant correlation with altitude (1789.6-1896.3 m), sandy soil texture with a slightly acidic pH (6.4-6.5), and higher phosphorous (9-13 mg kg-1). In contrast with this, the ZLQ community was recognized on the southern slope under the strong influence of high electrical conductivity (2.82-5.4 dsm-1), organic matter (1.08-1.25%), calcium carbonate (5.8-7.6 mg kg-1), potassium (202-220 mg kg-1), and temperature (28.8-31.8 °C). Hence, both communities were found on opposite axes with clear differences based on the ecological gradients. NMDS clustered different species with similar habitats and different stands with common species, showing that plant species and stands were in a linear combination with ecological gradients. The IPB community has the maximum number of plant species (87 species), Shannon value (H' = 4), Simpson value (0.98), and Pielou's evenness value (0.96). Thus, the multivariate approaches revealed unique vegetation with sharp boundaries between communities which might be due to abrupt environmental changes.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wetlands are biologically diverse and highly productive ecosystems that support one-third of all threatened and endangered plants of the world. Wetland plants have been studied ethnobotanically much less than terrestrial plants, including in Pakistan, thus information about the uses of local wetland plants in traditional healthcare system is scare. Head Maralla is a non-recognized wetland with diversified flora that has been focused of the current study. METHODS: The ethnobotanical data were collected from four sites viz., River Tavi, Upstream Chenab, River Manawarwala Tavi, and Bhalolpur through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (ICF), cultural significant indext (CSI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: On the whole, 119 plant species were identified belonging to 54 families, of which 87 species were dicot, 12 monocots, 11 aquatic, 5 ferns, and 4 species were bryophytes. Of these, 50% of the plant species were utilized for therapeutic purposes, followed by leaves which had more than 20% usage of total consumption. Herbs were the primary source of medicine (73 spp) followed by trees (22 spp), weeds (11 spp), shrubs (9 spp), foliose (2 spp) and thaloids (2 spp) in the area. Fic ranged from 0.66 to 0.93 for constipation and respiratory disorders with an average Fic of 0.87 reflecting a high consensus among the informants about the use of plants to treat particular ailment. Major ailments viz., urination (14%), cough (8.40%), cold (6.70%), stomach (5.90%), asthma (5.90%), skin infection (5%), constipation (5%), and diarrhea (4%) etc., were treated with local plant recipes. The highest CSI value was found for A. vesica (7.55) widely used in respiratory disorders and in digestive problems. RFC ranged from 0.92 to 0.15 with the maximum value obtained for R. communis (0.95). The use values ranged from 0.03 to 0.90 with the maximum use value for R. communis (0.90). A positive correlation was found between CSI and RFC (r = 0.29), and CSI and UV (r = 0.29). The JI values ranged from 7.14 to 0.14 indicating strong affinity with Samahani valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Unique species Osmunda regalis was first time reported from Pakistan with novel uses for renal and blood purifier. Fifteen percent (15%) plants contribute as fodder species consumed by local community for livestock while almost 6.7% species were utilized for timber and fuel purposes. CONCLUSION: The ecosystem of Head Maralla provide a complex habitat for aqauatic, terrestrial, and agriculture wetland vegetation. It is suggested that conservation efforts should be made to conserve the ethnoecological knowledge of these areas and pharmacological studies should be conducted for noval drug synthesis in future.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas , Áreas Alagadas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biodiversidade , Cultura , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Saúde Pública , Publicações
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