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1.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(2)2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467248

RESUMO

Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were measured for (25(OH)D), VDBP, and bioavailable 25(OH)D; body composition and bone mineral density (BMD); and skin pigmentation. Participants self-reported daily vitamin D intake and sun exposure. One-way analysis of variance analyzed mean differences in measures across sports. Linear regression examined relationships between 25(OH)D; VDBP; bioavailable 25(OH)D; and whole body, hip, and spine BMD. Participants' (mean ± SD, 19.4 ± 1.4 years, 172.75 ± 8.21 cm, 70.9 ± 13.2 kg, and 22.9 ± 4.1% body fat) overall mean 25(OH)D was 70.5 ± 32.25 nmol/L, and 28% of participants were deemed inadequate and 61% below thresholds identified as sufficient for athletes. Although WBB athletes consumed higher (p = 0.007) dietary vitamin D (760.9 ± 484.2 IU/d) than WVB (342.6 ± 257.8) and WTF (402.3 ± 376.4) athletes did, there were no differences across sport in serum 25(OH)D. WVB and WTF had higher bioavailable 25(OH)D than WBB. No relationships existed between vitamin D status and body composition. Vitamin D inadequacy was identified among 1/3 of women indoor sport athletes. Consistent monitoring of vitamin D status and diet are recommended to sustain athlete health and sport performance.

2.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752086

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L-1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L-1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L-1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L-1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes.

3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 13: 38, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance. The purposes were to examine the effect of a SD as a primary source of nutrition information, and the effect of gender on dietary habits in collegiate athletes. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-three women (n = 240) and men (n = 143) student-athletes (mean ± SD: age = 19.7 ± 1.4 years) from 10 collegiate sports took a 15-min survey consisting of questions on dietary habits and practices. Topics queried included eating habits, breakfast habits, hydration habits, nutritional supplementation use, pre-workout nutrition, post-workout nutrition, nutrition during team trips, and nutrient timing. Data were sorted by the athlete's source of nutritional information (i.e., sport dietitian, other). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and 2-way Pearson X2 analyses (p ≤ 0.10). RESULTS: When a SD was indicated as the primary nutrition information source, athletes appeared to have a greater understanding of nutrient periodization (47.12 % vs. 32.85 %), were more likely to have school-provided boxed meals while on team trips (21.29 % vs. 6.77 %), and also less likely to consume fast food while on team trips (9.90 % vs. 19.55 %). Men athletes consumed fast food or restaurant meals more frequently, had higher weekly and more frequent alcohol intake during the competitive season. Women athletes were more likely to prepare meals, eat breakfast 7 days a week, and have school-provided boxed meals. CONCLUSIONS: Positive effects on dietary habits were observed when a SD was the primary nutrition information source. Practitioners should be aware of the gender differences in alcohol intake, fast food consumption, and knowledge of nutrient periodization. Collegiate athletes and athletic staff members could benefit from SD access to safeguard against dietary habits detrimental to performance.


Assuntos
Atletas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Esportes , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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