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1.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 595-600, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584772

RESUMO

Introduction: The HapMap and the 1000 Genomes projects have been important for understanding the genetic component of common diseases and normal phenotypes. However, the Colombian genetic variability included in these projects is not fully representative of our country. Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of the Colombian genetic variability through the genomic study of a sample of individuals from Bogotá. Materials and methods: A total of 2,372,784 genetic markers were genotyped in 32 individuals born in Bogotá whose parents are from the same region, using the Illumina™ platform. The genetic variability levels were determined and compared with the data available from other populations of the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: The genetic variability detected in the individuals from Bogotá was similar to those with shared ancestry. However, despite the low levels of genetic differentiation between Bogotá and Medellín, populations the principal component analysis suggested a different genetic composition in them. Conclusions: Our genomic analysis of a Bogotá sample allowed us to detect similarities and differences with other American populations. The increase of the Bogotá sample and the inclusion of samples from other regions of the country will improve our understanding of the genetic variability in Colombia, essential for studies of human health and the prevention and treatment of common diseases in our country.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cidades/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Projeto Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 595-600, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038818

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. Los proyectos del mapa de haplotipos (HapMap) y de los 1.000 genomas han sido fundamentales para la compresión del componente genético de las enfermedades comunes y los fenotipos normales. Sin embargo, la variabilidad genética colombiana incluida en estos proyectos no es representativa del país. Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la variabilidad genética de la población colombiana a partir del estudio genómico de una muestra de individuos de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se genotipificaron 2'372.784 marcadores genéticos de 32 individuos nacidos en Bogotá y de padres originarios de la misma ciudad utilizando la plataforma Illumina™. Los niveles de variabilidad genética se determinaron y se compararon con los datos disponibles de otras poblaciones del proyecto de los 1.000 genomas. Resultados. Los individuos analizados presentaron una variabilidad genética semejante a la de poblaciones con las que comparten ancestros. No obstante, a pesar de la poca diferenciación genética detectada en la población de Bogotá y en la de Medellín, el análisis de los componentes principales sugiere una composición genética diferente en las dos poblaciones. Conclusiones. El análisis genómico de la muestra de Bogotá permitió detectar similitudes y diferencias con otras poblaciones americanas. El aumento de tamaño de la muestra bogotana y la inclusión de muestras de otras regiones del país permitirán una mejor compresión de la variabilidad genética en Colombia, lo cual es fundamental para los estudios de salud humana, y la prevención y el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes en el país.


Abstract Introduction: The HapMap and the 1000 Genomes projects have been important for understanding the genetic component of common diseases and normal phenotypes. However, the Colombian genetic variability included in these projects is not fully representative of our country. Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of the Colombian genetic variability through the genomic study of a sample of individuals from Bogotá. Materials and methods: A total of 2,372,784 genetic markers were genotyped in 32 individuals born in Bogotá whose parents are from the same region, using the Illumina™ platform. The genetic variability levels were determined and compared with the data available from other populations of the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: The genetic variability detected in the individuals from Bogotá was similar to those with shared ancestry. However, despite the low levels of genetic differentiation between Bogotá and Medellín, populations the principal component analysis suggested a different genetic composition in them. Conclusions: Our genomic analysis of a Bogotá sample allowed us to detect similarities and differences with other American populations. The increase of the Bogotá sample and the inclusion of samples from other regions of the country will improve our understanding of the genetic variability in Colombia, essential for studies of human health and the prevention and treatment of common diseases in our country.

3.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(4): 321-326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is the most common dementia worldwide. APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 and BIN1 (Bridging Integrator 1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, but, although DNA methylation of dinucleotide CpGs in the BIN1 gene influences alterations, it has not been studied in Hispanics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the BIN1 3' intergenic region DNA methylation patterns in a Colombian sample of LOAD patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 50 individuals with LOAD and 50 age-sex matched controls to determine associations of LOAD with DNA methylation. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and methylation levels of 8 CpGs were estimated by bisulfite conversion followed by Sanger sequencing with direct PCR analysis. Logistic regression models adjusted by age, sex, and APOE were used to calculate risk associations between methylation levels and LOAD. RESULTS: Overall, participants with LOAD had significantly lower methylation levels on CpG26 (0.86±0.11 vs. 0.95±0.05; P>0.001), CpG44 (0.84±0.09 vs. 0.94±0.06; P=0.001), and CpG87 (0.64±0.12 vs. 0.82±0.10; P>0.001). Adjusted regression models showed that decreased methylation levels of these CpGs remained as risk factors for LOAD (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hypomethylation of CpGs in BIN1 might play an important role in the expression of BIN1 and may be a biomarker for identifying individuals at high risk of developing LOAD.

4.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 93(6): 1117-1128, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693676

RESUMO

In recent years, the design, development, and evaluation of several inhibitors of the BACE1 enzyme, as part of Alzheimer's treatment, have gathered the scientific community's interest. Here, a linear regression model was built using binding free energy calculations through the Bennett acceptance ratio method for 20 known inhibitors of the BACE1 enzyme, with a Pearson coefficient of R = 0.88 and R2  = 0.78. The validation of this model was verified employing eight additional random inhibitors, which also gave a linear correlation with R = 0.97 and R2  = 0.93. Furthermore, this linear regression model was also used for proposing the structure of four potential BACE1 inhibitors, and the most active of them gave a theoretical Kd  = 10 nM. However, these molecules have not been synthesized yet. Our team used a total time of more than 800 ns for the Molecular Dynamics to carry out this study, and all the software used were freely available.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Med Genet ; 55(12): 837-846, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a form of segmental progeria presenting neonatally, characterised by growth retardation, sparse scalp hair, generalised lipodystrophy with characteristic local fatty tissue accumulations and unusual face. We aimed to understand its molecular cause. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in two families, targeted sequencing in 10 other families and performed in silico modelling studies and transcript processing analyses to explore the structural and functional consequences of the identified variants. RESULTS: Biallelic POLR3A variants were identified in eight affected individuals and monoallelic variants of the same gene in four other individuals. In the latter, lack of genetic material precluded further analyses. Multiple variants were found to affect POLR3A transcript processing and were mostly located in deep intronic regions, making clinical suspicion fundamental to detection. While biallelic POLR3A variants have been previously reported in 4H syndrome and adolescent-onset progressive spastic ataxia, recurrent haplotypes specifically occurring in individuals with WRS were detected. All WRS-associated POLR3A amino acid changes were predicted to perturb substantially POLR3A structure/function. CONCLUSION: Biallelic mutations in POLR3A, which encodes for the largest subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III, underlie WRS. No isolated functional sites in POLR3A explain the phenotype variability in POLR3A-related disorders. We suggest that specific combinations of compound heterozygous variants must be present to cause the WRS phenotype. Our findings expand the molecular mechanisms contributing to progeroid disorders.


Assuntos
Alelos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Progéria/diagnóstico , Progéria/genética , RNA Polimerase III/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , RNA Polimerase III/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 32(4): 305-308, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene in a Colombian sample of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). METHODS: The p.Q33* (rs104894002), p.R47H (rs75932628), p.R62H (rs143332484), and p.D87N (rs142232675) variants of TREM2 gene were directly genotyped using KASPar technology in 358 cases and 329 healthy controls. Sanger sequencing was used to validate >10% of KASPar's results. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the distribution of allelic and genotype frequency between cases and controls, and the Bonferroni correction was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: The minor allele frequency of rs75932628-T was 0.009 in cases and was not found in any healthy controls which suggests a significant association between rs75932628-T and LOAD risk in our sample (P=0.010). The rs143332484-T variant did not exhibit a significant association (P=0.160), whereas rs104894002 and rs142232675 were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the rs75932628-T variant of TREM2 is an important risk factor for LOAD in the Colombian population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
7.
Biomedica ; 38(0): 86-92, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874711

RESUMO

Introduction: Gliomas are the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system and, according to their malignancy, they are graded from I to IV. Recent studies have found that there is an association between gliomas and mutations in exon 4 of genes that codify for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1: codon 132; IDH2: codon 172). Objective: To establish the frequency of mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 in a sample of gliomas from Colombian population. Materials and methods: DNA was extracted from tumor tissue. The exon 4 of IDH1 and IDH2 was amplified by PCR using specific primers and subsequently sequenced. Mutations were determined using the 4Peaks MAFFT programs. Results: We found mutations in the IDH1 gene in 34% of the glioma samples, with a predominance of the nonsynonymous mutation R132H. Mutations in the IDH2 gene were found in 7.5% of cases, with a predominance of the nonsynonymous R172K and R172W mutations. Conclusions: The frequency of mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes in the sample was similar to that reported in other studies. The analysis of these mutations may be important to establish prognostic factors and for the development of future therapeutic targets in gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Glioma/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(supl.1): 86-92, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950957

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. Los gliomas son los tumores primarios más comunes del sistema nervioso central y se clasifican de I a IV según su grado de malignidad. En recientes investigaciones se ha encontrado que su aparición está relacionada con mutaciones en el exón 4 de los genes que codifican las deshidrogenasas de isocitrato 1 y 2 (IDH1: codón 132; IDH2: codón 172). Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 en una muestra de gliomas de pacientes colombianos. Materiales y métodos. La extracción de ADN se hizo a partir de tejido tumoral. El exón 4 de los genes IDH1 e IDH2 se amplificó mediante PCR utilizando iniciadores específicos y, posteriormente, se secuenciaron. Para la determinación de las mutaciones, se emplearon los programas 4Peaksy MAFFT. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de mutaciones en el gen IDH1 en el 34 % de las muestras, con predominio de la mutación no sinónima R132H. En el 7,5 % de los casos se detectaron mutaciones en el gen IDH2, principalmente las mutaciones no sinónimas R172K y R172W. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 en la muestra fue similar a la reportada en otros estudios. El análisis de estas mutaciones puede ser importante como factor pronóstico y para su uso como potenciales blancos terapéuticos en gliomas.


Abstract Introduction: Gliomas are the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system and, according to their malignancy, they are graded from I to IV. Recent studies have found that there is an association between gliomas and mutations in exon 4 of genes that codify for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1: codon 132; IDH2: codon 172). Objective: To establish the frequency of mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 in a sample of gliomas from Colombian population. Materials and methods: DNA was extracted from tumor tissue. The exon 4 of IDH1 and IDH2 was amplified by PCR using specific primers and subsequently sequenced. Mutations were determined using the 4Peaks MAFFT programs. Results: We found mutations in the IDH1 gene in 34% of the glioma samples, with a predominance of the nonsynonymous mutation R132H. Mutations in the IDH2 gene were found in 7.5% of cases, with a predominance of the nonsynonymous R172K and R172W mutations. Conclusions: The frequency of mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes in the sample was similar to that reported in other studies. The analysis of these mutations may be important to establish prognostic factors and for the development of future therapeutic targets in gliomas.

9.
Cuad. méd.-soc. (Santiago de Chile) ; 58(1): 19-26, mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-42841

RESUMO

El artículo comienza por identificar los requisitos para pensar en una política de salud e intentar construir un diagrama de las etapas de un proceso de planificación en salud. Presenta algunas notas de nustra chilean memory, eventos más relevantes y marcos de la política de salud en cada estadio firmado. Reflexionar sobre la influencia del contexto civico-militar de la ditadura, comentando los sétimos dias de salud de Chile, finalizando con conclusiones sobre qué hacer en la política de salud de Chile.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Chile
10.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 46(4): 222-228, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-960142

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es una perturbación con elevada prevalencia en población infantil de Bogotá. Entre las causas de este trastorno se encuentran factores genéticos y ambientales, pero pocos estudios han tratado de abordar el componente genético en población colombiana. Objetivos: Realizar un estudio de asociación genética entre diferentes polimorfismos y el TDAH en la población de Bogotá. Métodos: Múltiples polimorfismos de los genes DAT1, SERT, COMT y BDNF fueron genotipificados empleando las técnicas de PCR convencional y RFLP en 97 tríos de Bogotá. El test de desequilibrio de trasmisión (TDT) se empleó para determinar la asociación entre las diferentes variantes y el TDAH. Resultados: El análisis de TDT no identificó una transmisión preferencial de alelos de ninguna de las variantes estudiadas. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados indican que la etiología del TDAH es heterogénea e involucra diversos factores genéticos. Futuros estudios enfocados en otros polimorfismos candidatos en una muestra más grande ayudarán a comprender el TDAH en la población colombiana.


Abstract Background: Attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among children in Bogota City. Both genetic and environmental factors play a very important role in the etiology of ADHD. However, to date few studies have addressed the association of genetic variants and ADHD in the Colombian population. Objectives: To test the genetic association between polymorphisms in the DAT1, HTTLPR, COMT and BDNF genes and ADHD in a sample from Bogota City. Methods: We genotyped the most common polymorphisms in DAT1, SERT, COMT and BDNF genes associated with ADHD using conventional PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 97 trios recruited in a medical center in Bogota. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to determine the association between such genetic variants and ADHD. Results: The TDT analysis showed that no individual allele of any variant studied has a preferential transmission. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the etiology of the ADHD maybe complex and involves several genetic factors. Further studies in other candidate polymorphisms in a larger sample size will improve our knowledge of the ADHD in Colombian population.

11.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 46(4): 222-228, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among children in Bogota City. Both genetic and environmental factors play a very important role in the etiology of ADHD. However, to date few studies have addressed the association of genetic variants and ADHD in the Colombian population. OBJECTIVES: To test the genetic association between polymorphisms in the DAT1, HTTLPR, COMT and BDNF genes and ADHD in a sample from Bogota City. METHODS: We genotyped the most common polymorphisms in DAT1, SERT, COMT and BDNF genes associated with ADHD using conventional PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 97 trios recruited in a medical center in Bogota. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to determine the association between such genetic variants and ADHD. RESULTS: The TDT analysis showed that no individual allele of any variant studied has a preferential transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the etiology of the ADHD may be complex and involves several genetic factors. Further studies in other candidate polymorphisms in a larger sample size will improve our knowledge of the ADHD in Colombian population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Colômbia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
12.
Dalton Trans ; 45(42): 16653-16660, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778004

RESUMO

Polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry has recently offered excellent examples of single ion magnets (SIMs) and molecular spin qubits. Compared with conventional coordination compounds, POMs provide rigid and highly symmetric coordination sites. However, all POM-based SIMs reported to date exhibit a very limited range of possibilities for chemical processability. We present herein two new families of POM-based SIMs which are soluble in organic solvents: [Ln(ß-Mo8O26)2]5- {LnIII = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb} and the functionalised POMs [Ln{Mo5O13(OMe)4NNC6H4-p-NO2}2]3- {LnIII = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Nd}. In addition, these two families represent the first SIMs based on polyoxomolybdates. A magneto-structural analysis of these families is presented, which is based on an effective crystal field model, and compared with the results reported in analogous lanthanoid SIMs based on polyoxotungstates.

13.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 30(4): 305-309, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in different genes including APOE, TOMM40, CR1, PVRL2, SORL1, PICALM, and GWA_14q32.13 in a Colombian sample of Late-Onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 362 individuals (181 LOADs and 181 controls) to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in APOE (e2, e3, and e4), TOMM40 (rs2075650), CR1 (rs665640), PVRL2 (rs6859), SORL1 (rs11218304), PICALM (rs3851179), and GWA_14q32.13 (rs11622883) with LOAD in a sample from Colombia. RESULTS: We were able to confirm the previously reported association of the APOE4 allele with AD. In addition, we report a new significant association with rs2075650 of TOMM40 for LOAD in our sample. We did not detect any significant interaction between TOMM40 and APOE4 carriers (heterozygous or homozygous) for disease risk development. However, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses suggest that AD patients with TOMM40 allele rs2075650-G have an average age of disease onset of 6 years earlier compared with carriers of the A allele. In addition, the age of disease onset is earlier if APOE4/4 is present. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that rs2075650 of TOMM40 could be involved in earlier presentation of LOAD in the Colombian population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Nectinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Complemento 3b/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colômbia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 71(Pt 12): 1106-13, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26632840

RESUMO

The compounds (2'E,2'E)-2,2'-(propane-1,2-diylidene)bis[1-(2-nitrophenyl)hydrazine], C15H14N6O4, (I), and (2Z,3Z)-ethyl 3-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)hydrazinylidene]-2-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinylidene]butanoate tetrahydrofuran hemisolvate, C18H18N6O6·0.5C4H8O, (II), are puzzling outliers deviating from a general synthetic route aimed at the preparation of substituted pyrazoles. Possible reasons for this outcome, which is exceptional in an otherwise firmly established synthetic procedure, are analyzed. Compound (I) is unsolvated, while compound (II) crystallizes with a tetrahydrofuran solvent molecule lying on an inversion centre. The ethoxycarbonyl chain of (II), in turn, appears disordered into two equally populated (50%) moieties. In both structures, a plethora of different commonly occurring weak intermolecular interactions [viz. π(phenyl)...π(phenyl), π(C=N)...π(C=N), π(phenyl)...π(C=N), N-H...O and C-H...O] appear responsible for the crystal stability. Much less common are the short O(nitro)...O(nitro) contacts which are observed in the structure of (I), an example of unusual `electron donor-acceptor' (EDA) interactions.

15.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 71(Pt 1): 53-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25567576

RESUMO

The molecular structures of (E)-1-(4-{[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]diazenyl}phenyl)ethanone, C19H17FN4O, (III), and (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-4-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]-1H-pyrazole, C17H14ClN5O2, (IV), prepared by reaction of the corresponding ß-diketohydrazones with substituted arylhydrazines in acid media, are nonplanar, with the planes of the lateral phenyl rings forming dihedral angles with that of the central pyrazole ring varying from 2.71 (7) to 45.22 (7)°. The crystal structures are supported by C-H...O, C-H...π and π-π weak intermolecular interactions together with some unusual trifurcated C-Cl...Cl-C contacts, which are discussed in detail.

16.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 70(Pt 9): 837-42, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25186353

RESUMO

The title substituted pyrazole derivatives, C17H15N5O3 and C18H15F3N4O, share most of their molecular features, in particular the hydrazinylidene (-HN-N=) rather than the diazene (-N=N-) tautomeric form, and differ only in the substituents (NO2 and CF3) on one of the outer phenyl rings. The molecular units are basically planar, with the rotation of the phenyl rings being hindered by the presence of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds having the keto O atom as acceptor. In both structures, the packing is governed by weak C-H...O, C-H...π and π-π interactions. The subtle way in which minor structural differences lead to rather different supramolecular structures is analysed.


Assuntos
Imidas/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Pirazóis/química , Pirazolonas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular
17.
NOVA publ. cient ; 12(21): 15-21, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-729499

RESUMO

La enfermedad de Parkinson es un desorden neurodegenerativo complejo, caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva de las neuronas dopaminérgicas de la sustancia nigra pars compacta. Factores tanto ambientales como genéticos se ha determinado que contribuyen a su desarrollo. Mutaciones en los genes PINK1 y PARKIN han sido asociadas con la enfermedad de inicio temprano e historia familiar. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar mutaciones en los genes PINK1 (exones 4 y 6) y PARKIN (exones 2 y 7) en 22 pacientes colombianos con EP de inicio temprano y/o antecedentes familiares, mediante amplificación por PCR y secuenciamiento. Las secuencias se compararon con la secuencia consenso de referencia. Se detectó una mutación homocigota de cambio en el marco de lectura ( frameshift) c.155 delA en el exón 2 del gen PARKIN en una paciente con inicio temprano de la enfermedad e historia familiar. Además se identificó la presencia de un polimorfismo en el intrón 2 del gen PARKIN en siete pacientes, uno de ellos en estado homocigoto. No se encontraron mutaciones en los exones 4 y 6 del gen PINK1. Se encontró una mutación homocigota c.155 delA en el exón 2 de PARKIN de una paciente con la enfermedad de Parkinson de inicio temprano con historia familiar. No se encontraron cambios el gen PINK1.


Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substance nigra pars compacta. It has been determined that factors both environmental and genetic contribute to its development. Mutations in the genes PINK1 and PARKIN have been associated with the early onset of disease and family history. The goal of this study was to identify mutations in the PINK1 genes (exons 4 and 6) and PARKIN (exons 2 and 7) in 22 Colombian patients with EP of early onset and/or family history, by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequences were compared with the reference consensus sequence. A homozygous change mutation was detected in the reading frame (frame shift) c.155 de la in exon 2 of the PAR-KIN gene in a patient with early onset of the disease and family history. In addition, the presence of a polymorphism in intron 2 of the PARKIN gene was identified in seven patients, one of them in homozygous state. Mutations were not found in exons 4 and 6 of the gene PINK1. A homozygous mutation c.155 de la in exon 2 of PARKIN was found in a female patient with Parkinson's disease early onset with family history. No changes to the gene PINK1 were found.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson , Polimorfismo Genético , Tauopatias , Doença de Alzheimer
18.
Acta Crystallogr C ; 69(Pt 10): 1200-4, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24096516

RESUMO

The title compound, C17H11F5N4O, is described and compared with two closely related analogues in the literature. There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, linked by N-H···O hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions into dimeric entities, presenting a noticeable noncrystallographic C2 symmetry. These dimers are in turn linked by a medium-strength type-I C-F···F-C interaction into elongated tetramers. Much weaker C-H···F contacts link the tetramers into broad two-dimensional substructures parallel to (101).


Assuntos
Hidrazinas/química , Pirazolonas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Acta Crystallogr C ; 69(Pt 1): 101-4, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23282925

RESUMO

The title compound, C(17)H(10)F(5)N(5)O(2), is described and compared with its 4-nitrophenyl isomer [Bustos, Sánchez, Schott, Alvarez-Thon & Fuentealba (2007). Acta Cryst. E63, o1138-o1139]. The title molecule presents its nitro group split into two rotationally disordered components, which in conjunction with the rotation of the `unclamped' rings constitute the main molecular differences. Packing is directed by a head-to-tail type `I' C-F...F-C interaction, generating double-chain strips running along [100]. These substructures are interlinked by a variety of weak F...F, O...F, F...π and O...π interactions.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Pirazóis/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular
20.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e45454, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23056204

RESUMO

Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1) velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process)/ΔG(ATP), depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative method for analyzing similar phenomena in other cell types.


Assuntos
Exocitose , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas , Estimulação Elétrica , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Cinética , Sanguessugas , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Corpos Multivesiculares/metabolismo , Corpos Multivesiculares/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Piridínio/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Sinápticas/ultraestrutura
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