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1.
J Sports Sci ; 39(23): 2746-2754, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344271

RESUMO

The design of the junior sport competition environment plays a critical role in attracting and retaining children as life-long participants. Critically, however, the guidelines governing the design of junior sport are rarely scrutinized. With this in mind, our aim is to offer sports authorities a method to systematically assess the suitability of guidelines. The most popular junior ball sport competitions in Australia were assessed in relation to the scaling of task constraints and compared to children's corresponding physical maturation and/or performance measures. This assessment enabled the calculation of pi ratios, which were then used to categorise constraints as either (1) undersized, (2) appropriately sized or (3) oversized. Results revealed that most sports' ask children to play in oversized conditions, particularly in the under 9 to under 12 age groups and in boys' competitions. The task constraints that had the highest percentage of pi ratios appropriately sized were match duration and goal size. Comparatively, ball size and field length had the highest percentage of pi ratios classified as oversized. We contend that the systematic approach applied in this article should be used by sports authorities to understand the extent of scaling constraints in junior sport.

2.
J Sports Sci ; 39(4): 412-420, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951536

RESUMO

There has been a growing interest in using virtual reality (VR) for training perceptual-cognitive skill in sport. For VR training to effectively simulate real-world tennis performance, it must recreate the contextual information and movement behaviours present in the real-world environment. It is therefore critical to assess the representativeness of VR prior to implementing skill training interventions. We constructed a VR tennis environment designed for training perceptual-cognitive skill, with the aim of assessing its representativeness and validating its use. Participants movement behaviours were compared when playing tennis in VR and real-world environments. When performing groundstrokes, participants frequently used the same stance in VR as they did in the real-world condition. Participants experienced a high sense of presence in VR, evident through the factors of spatial presence, engagement and ecological validity being high, with minimal negative effects found. We conclude that Tennis VR is sufficiently representative of real-world tennis. Our discussion focuses on the opportunity for training perceptual-cognitive skill and the potential for skill transfer.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Adolescente , Inteligência Artificial , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Tênis , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21003, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273515

RESUMO

Children's movement coordination is significantly influenced by the equipment used when performing multi-articular actions. Previously we reported that scaled equipment (smaller racket and a softer ball), but not full-sized equipment, promoted a functional coupling between upper arm and forearm angles in children performing a forehand. However, it remains unclear whether the shoulder-racket distance-which is controlled by this coupling-is a performance variable. This study therefore advanced previous research by examining whether the shoulder-racket distance is associated with performance. We also improved our understanding of how the shoulder-racket distance is controlled by including the hand-racket segment in our biomechanical model. Twenty-one children performed 40 forehands in a hitting for accuracy task. Participants were randomly divided into two groups-a scaled equipment group and a full-sized equipment group. Results revealed that the shoulder-racket distance was a performance variable, as evidenced by: (a) its variance reduced closer to ball impact, (b) its distance at ball impact, but not at the start of the forward swing, differentiated good from poor performance, and (c) its distance was similar for both groups, implying that there was a "sweet spot" for striking a ball, regardless of racket size. We also showed that it is the shoulder-racket vector in state-space (i.e., distance and angle) that differentiates good from poor performance. Finally, the manner in which the shoulder-racket distance was controlled differed between the groups, with scaled equipment promoting a more distal control than full-sized equipment. Implications for skill acquisition are discussed.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Tênis/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ombro/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos/normas
4.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625143

RESUMO

Background: There is a need for interdisciplinary research to better understand how pedagogical approaches in primary physical education (PE) can support the linked development of physical, cognitive and affective aspects of physical literacy and physical activity behaviors in young children living in deprived areas. The Skill Acquisition Methods fostering Physical Literacy in Early-Physical Education (SAMPLE-PE) study aims to examine the efficacy of two different pedagogies for PE, underpinned by theories of motor learning, to foster physical literacy. Methods: SAMPLE-PE will be evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting 5-6 year old children from schools located in areas of high deprivation in Merseyside, North-West England. Schools will be randomly allocated to one of three conditions: Linear Pedagogy, Non-linear Pedagogy, or Control. Non-linear and Linear Pedagogy intervention primary schools will receive a PE curriculum delivered by trained coaches over 15 weeks, while control schools will follow their usual practice. Data will be collected at baseline (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and 6 months after the intervention has finished (T2). Children's movement competence is the primary outcome in this trial. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, perceived competence, motivation, executive functions, and self-regulation. An extensive process evaluation will also examine implementation factors such as intervention context, reach, dose, fidelity and acceptability. Discussion: The SAMPLE-PE project will enable better understanding surrounding how to operationalise physical literacy through enrichment of PE practices in early PE. The study will provide robust scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of underpinning PE pedagogy with theories of motor learning to promote the development of physical literacy. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered on 5th September 2018 at ClinicalTrials.gov, a resource provided by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (Identifier: NCT03551366).

5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(8): 945-952, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172671

RESUMO

Modified sports, whereby equipment and rules are manipulated to facilitate skill performance, have been shown to promote skill learning and potentially increase participation. However, it is currently unexplored how key stakeholders - coaches and key figures working in National associations - who are critical stakeholders in implementing and delivering sport programmes, perceive modified sport. This study explored how tennis coaches and key figures working within tennis National associations perceived the impact of implementing a modified tennis campaign on participation and skill development in children and adults. Key figures and coaches around the world completed an online questionnaire. Both groups considered that modified tennis was positively associated with increasing and sustaining participation, skill learning, talent development and people's attitude towards tennis. Furthermore, participants thought that a rule change (i.e., use of a low-compression ball in children competitions) and the campaign's core messages (i.e., "serve, rally, score" and "easy, fun, and healthy") have been critical for the success of the campaign. These results support previous research on the positive impact of modified tennis on skill development and provide a further impetus on implementing modified sports to increase participation. Other sports can adopt similar strategies to improve their modified programmes.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Tênis/fisiologia , Adulto , Aptidão , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações , Percepção , Equipamentos Esportivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3111, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080214

RESUMO

Scaling sports equipment to match the physical development of children allows motor skills to be performed with greater success and with more desirable movement patterns. It is unknown, however, how scaled equipment affects movement variability - a key factor associated with coordination. Our aim was to identify whether scaled sports equipment facilitates coordination and functional movement variability in children when performing a hitting for accuracy task in tennis. Twenty-five children were asked to execute a forehand stroke with the aim of hitting the ball to a target located 10 metres away. Participants performed the task in two conditions - a scaled equipment condition and a full-sized equipment condition. Scaled equipment led to superior hitting accuracy and greater temporal stability of the swing compared to full-sized equipment. Scaled equipment also afforded the emergence of a functional coupling between upper arm and forearm movement variability which helped regulate the distance between the shoulder and the racket. Comparatively there was a lack of coupling when full-sized equipment was used. Hence, scaled equipment promoted functional movement variability, whereas full-sized equipment resulted in the freezing of mechanical degrees of freedom. This suggests that children's skill acquisition could be hindered and potentially regress when using inappropriately sized equipment.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Movimento , Equipamentos Esportivos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Tênis/fisiologia
7.
Hum Mov Sci ; 69: 102556, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989949

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of working memory capacity on implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in young children. To this end, a task was utilized that required a gross motor response (flexing the elbow) and that could differentiate between movement speed (i.e., reaction time and movement time) and movement accuracy. Children aged 7-9 years practiced a serial reaction time task that involved the production of a fixed sequence of elbow flexions of prescribed magnitude across two consecutive days. Children in the explicit group were informed about the presence of the sequence and were shown this sequence, while children in the implicit group were not made aware of the sequence. Additionally, children's verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity was assessed. Results of day 1 regarding movement speed revealed no evidence of sequence learning for either group, but movement accuracy results suggested that sequence learning occurred for the implicit group. For both groups, only improvements in movement accuracy were consolidated on day 2, indicating both general and sequence specific learning. Working memory capacity did not correlate with learning in either of the groups. Children in the explicit group accumulated more sequence knowledge compared to children in the implicit group, but this knowledge did not translate to more or better sequence learning. The minimal differences found between the implicit and explicit condition and the absence of a role for working memory capacity add to the increasing evidence that the observed differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning in adults may be less distinct in children.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Conhecimento , Destreza Motora , Tempo de Reação , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
J Sports Sci ; 37(24): 2818-2825, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533541

RESUMO

Practice tasks that more closely represent the demands of competition are thought to augment skill learning and transfer. This study observed the serve and return performances of junior grand slam tennis and used this benchmark to evaluate the representativeness of serve and return practice among elite junior tennis players. The serve and return behaviour of 26 junior tennis players competing in junior Australian Open grand slam matches were observed and compared with the serve and return practice behaviours of 12 elite junior tennis players over an 8-week period. The variables measured included the number of serves/returns landing in, serve/return type, serve direction and the variability of practised skills. Serve and return practice contributed to <13% of total practice time, with each skill predominately practised in isolation. Compared to the matchplay benchmark, players typically had less success (i.e., fewer serves/returns landing in the court), were less variable in shot selection and hit fewer serves to the extremities of the service box. As task representativeness increased fewer differences between practice and matchplay were observed. Tennis serve and return practice could be improved by better simulating specific competition affordances, providing greater opportunities to practice serve/return tactics and/or increasing the variability of practised skills.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Prática Psicológica , Tênis , Adolescente , Comportamento Competitivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2560-2568, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379253

RESUMO

Representative Learning Design advocates that practice should simulate the demands of competition. The effectiveness of increased task representativeness to improve serving skill of junior tennis players was assessed after a six-week intervention. Thirty-three participants (15.4 ± 1.9 years of age) were assigned to one of the three groups; "serve only" (participants served to no opponent), "serve return" (participants served to an opponent and hit no extra shots) or "serve +3rd" (participants served to an opponent and hit one extra shot). Using the validated representative practice assessment tool (RPAT) tasks were considered to be low, moderate and high in task representativeness, respectively. Participants hit 56 serves, twice weekly for 6-weeks. Pre and post serving performances were assessed via a skill test and in-situ matchplay using SportsCode and HawkEye ball tracking, respectively. Serve speed, landing locations, serve angle and positional advantage was obtained for 1st and 2nd serves. The relationship between increasing representativeness and increased skill acquisition was not linear, rather different behaviours emerged. For example, when hitting 2nd serves in matchplay, the low and moderate representative groups prioritised speed over placement while the high representative group prioritised placement over speed. Coaches therefore need to carefully individualise representativeness to an athletes' specific needs.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Generalização da Resposta , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tênis/fisiologia
10.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969846

RESUMO

In this mini-review, we draw attention to an important yet relatively untapped topic in the developmental pathway - the design of junior sport so that it appropriately matches the functional capacities of children. Junior sport is a regular weekend activity for many children across the world, yet many will be required to prematurely play on a field or with equipment that is designed for adults. Herein lies an opportunity for sport administrators to nurture children's development in sport by appropriately manipulating the rules and dimensions of the game. The aim of this mini-review is to (1) draw attention to the value of scaling junior sport, (2) highlight paradoxes within the current scaling sport literature, and (3) emphasize a way forward for junior sport research. If we are genuine in our endeavor to tailor sports experiences for children, more sophisticated approaches to scaling those experiences are a must.

12.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 89(1): 1-10, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The net height in tennis (0.91 m) is approximately 50% of a professional tennis player's height. Children are also expected to play with this net height, even though it is approximately 70% of the average 10-year-old's height. This study examined the immediate effect of lowering net height on the performance characteristics of skilled junior tennis players aged 10 years and younger. METHOD: Sixteen players were matched in 8 pairs of even tennis ability and same sex. Each pair played 25-min singles matches in 4 conditions that varied in net height (0.91 m, 0.78 m, 0.65 m, and 0.52 m). Match-play characteristics were analyzed via video replay. RESULTS: Results showed that lowering the net height to 0.65 m and 0.52 m led to players adopting a more attacking style of play, as evidenced by a significant increase in the number of winners without a commensurate increase in errors and more shots struck inside the baseline. Lower nets also led to a greater percentage of successful first serves. The lowest net (0.52 m), however, reduced rally length significantly and therefore decreased hitting opportunities. CONCLUSION: These results offer support for equipment scaling to enhance match-play performance for skilled junior tennis players. We propose that current net height recommendations for junior tennis should be revised.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Equipamentos Esportivos , Tênis/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo , Esportes Juvenis
13.
J Sports Sci ; 36(11): 1277-1286, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905685

RESUMO

Representative Learning Design (RLD) is a framework for assessing the degree to which experimental or practice tasks simulate key aspects of specific performance environments (i.e. competition). The key premise being that when practice replicates the performance environment, skills are more likely to transfer. In applied situations, however, there is currently no simple or quick method for coaches to assess the key concepts of RLD (e.g. during on-court tasks). The aim of this study was to develop a tool for coaches to efficiently assess practice task design in tennis. A consensus-based tool was developed using a 4-round Delphi process with 10 academic and 13 tennis-coaching experts. Expert consensus was reached for the inclusion of seven items, each consisting of two sub-questions related to (i) the task goal and (ii) the relevance of the task to competition performance. The Representative Practice Assessment Tool (RPAT) is proposed for use in assessing and enhancing practice task designs in tennis to increase the functional coupling between information and movement, and to maximise the potential for skill transfer to competition contexts.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tênis/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Tutoria , Prática Psicológica
14.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1931, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163306

RESUMO

The contextual interference effect is a well-established motor learning phenomenon. Most of the contextual interference effect literature has addressed simple skills, while less is known about the role of contextual interference in complex sport skill practice, particularly with respect to skilled performers. The purpose of this study was to assess contextual interference when practicing the tennis serve. Study 1 evaluated tennis serve practice of nine skilled youth tennis players using a novel statistical metric developed specifically to measure between-skill and within-skill variability as sources of contextual interference. This metric highlighted that skilled tennis players typically engaged in serve practice that featured low contextual interference. In Study 2, 16 skilled youth tennis players participated in 10 practice sessions that aimed to improve serving "down the T." Participants were stratified into a low contextual interference practice group (Low CI) and a moderate contextual interference practice group (Moderate CI). Pre- and post-tests were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the practice period. Testing involved a skill test, which assessed serving performance in a closed setting, and a transfer test, which assessed serving performance in a match-play setting. No significant contextual interference differences were observed with respect to practice performance. However, analysis of pre- and post-test serve performance revealed significant Group × Time interactions. The Moderate CI group showed no change in serving performance (service displacement from the T) from pre- to post-test in the skill test, but did display improvements in the transfer test. Conversely, the Low CI group improved serving performance (service displacement from the T) in the skill test but not the transfer test. Results suggest that the typical contextual interference effect is less clear when practicing a complex motor skill, at least with the tennis serve skill evaluated here. We encourage researchers and applied sport scientists to use our statistical metric to measure contextual interference.

15.
Prog Brain Res ; 234: 245-261, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031466

RESUMO

This study explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, corticocortical communication (EEG coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement during the performance of a complex far-aiming task. We were specifically interested in the role of these variables in predicting motor performance by novices. Forty-eight participants completed (a) an assessment of WM capacity (an adapted Rotation Span task), (b) a questionnaire that assessed the propensity to consciously control movement (the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale), and (c) a hockey push-pass task. The hockey push-pass task was performed in a single task (movement only) condition and a combined task (movement plus decision) condition. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine brain activity during the single task. WM capacity best predicted single task performance. WM capacity in combination with T8-Fz coherence (between the visuospatial and motor regions of the brain) best predicted combined task performance. We discuss the implied roles of visuospatial information processing capacity, neural coactivation, and propensity for conscious processing during performance of complex motor tasks.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Hóquei , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prog Brain Res ; 234: 69-83, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031473

RESUMO

This review will consider three key issues considered critical when determining the efficacy of the contextual interference effect when applied to sports practice. First, the issue of complexity is considered in relation to the amount of interference actually needed in the applied sports setting to create effective learning. Second, the traditional underpinning mechanism/s of contextual interference are discussed in relation to recent neurophysiological perspectives on their viability. A counter-position to these dominant theories is also presented drawing on an implicit learning framework. The final issue considers the typical measures of learning used within the contextual interference literature and scrutinizes them relative to the needs of bridging the apparent theory-practice divide. The concluding section then presents a model to measure the degree of contextual interference within the applied setting, which in turn offers both future research directions as well as guidelines for practitioners.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Esportes/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia
17.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1350, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878701

RESUMO

Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM) when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24) and higher WM capacity (n = 24) groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

18.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 16: 54-57, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813355

RESUMO

Working-memory capacity has been implicated as an influential variable when performing and learning sport-related skills. In this review, we critically evaluate evidence linking working-memory capacity with performing under pressure, tactical decision making, motor skill acquisition, and sport expertise. Laboratory experiments link low working-memory capacity with poorer performance under pressure and poorer decision making when required to inhibit distractions or resolve conflict. However, the generalizability of these findings remains unknown. While working-memory capacity is associated with the acquisition of simple motor skills, there is no such evidence from the available data for complex motor skills. Likewise, currently there is no evidence to suggest that a larger working-memory capacity facilitates the attainment of sport expertise.

19.
Prog Brain Res ; 232: 197-200, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648243

RESUMO

A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. STUDY: Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure. We discuss attention control from the perspective of working memory and hypothesize that a culture of striving trains individuals to maximize their working memory capacity.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Atenção , Memória de Curto Prazo , Motivação , Humanos
20.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 87(4): 414-420, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research supporting the skill acquisition benefits of scaling sports equipment for children in a real-world setting where child-to-coach ratios are high is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of scaling the tennis racquet on children's skill acquisition in a primary school setting. METHOD: Children aged 6 to 7 years old practiced for 5 weeks during physical education classes using either a small racquet (SR group; n = 23) or a large racquet (LR group; n = 23). Measures of hitting technique, hitting performance, and general hand-eye coordination were administered before and after the practice period. RESULTS: The high child-to-coach ratio (22:2) seemingly led to a small number of practice opportunities for children. Despite this finding, children in the SR group displayed greater improvements in hitting technique for the forehand and backhand. This finding did not translate to better hitting performance (i.e., skill outcome), however, with similar results found for both groups during the pretest and posttest. Conversely, the LR group showed greater improvements in the hand-eye coordination measure of bouncing the ball on the ground. CONCLUSION: Scaling equipment for children enhanced the acquisition of a more desirable technique in a real-world setting. We speculate that this technique acquisition would also lead to improved hitting performance following a longer practice period, whereby children are exposed to more practice opportunities.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Equipamentos Esportivos , Tênis/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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