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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effect of vericiguat in relation to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at randomization. BACKGROUND: Vericiguat compared with placebo reduced the primary outcome of cardiovascular death (CVD) or heart failure hospitalization (HFH) in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the VICTORIA (A Study of Vericiguat in Participants With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction) trial. Because an interaction existed between treatment and the primary outcome according to pre-specified quartiles of NT-proBNP at randomization, we examined this further. METHODS: This study evaluated the NT-proBNP relationship with the primary outcome in 4,805 of 5,050 patients as a risk-adjusted, log-transformed continuous variable. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. RESULTS: Median NT-proBNP was 2,816 pg/ml (25th to 75th percentile: 1,556 to 5,314 pg/ml). The study treatment effect varied across the spectrum of NT-proBNP at randomization (with log2 transformation, p for interaction = 0.002). A significant association between treatment effects existed in patients with levels <4,000 pg/ml and remained evident up to 8,000 pg/ml. A 23% relative risk reduction occurred in the primary endpoint with NT-proBNP ≤4,000 pg/ml (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.88). For NT-proBNP values ≤4,000 pg/ml (n = 3,100), the HR was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67 to 0.90) for HFH and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.94) for CVD. For NT-proBNP ≤8,000 pg/ml (n = 4,133), the HR was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76 to 0.95) for the primary outcome, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.95) for HFH, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71 to 0.99) for CVD. For NT-proBNP >8,000 pg/ml (n = 672), the HR was 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94 to 1.41) for the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the primary composite endpoint and its CVD and HFH components was observed in patients on vericiguat compared with subjects on placebo with NT-proBNP levels up to 8,000 pg/ml. This provided new insight into the benefit observed in high-risk patients with worsening HFrEF. (A Study of Vericiguat in Participants With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction [HFrEF] [MK-1242-001] [VICTORIA]; NCT02861534).

2.
Circ Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016100

RESUMO

Background: Among patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, left ventricular [LV] EF ≤40%) sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) treatment is associated with improved health status and reverse cardiac remodeling. Data regarding racial and ethnic differences in response to S/V are lacking. Methods: This was an analysis from the Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement and Ventricular Remodeling During Entresto Therapy for Heart Failure Study. Longitudinal changes in N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac reverse remodeling, and health status scores were compared between groups using multivariate latent growth curve modeling. Results: Among the 782 patients included in this study, 22.7% were Non-Hispanic Black (from herein referred to as Black), 14.9% were Hispanic, and 62.4% were Non-Hispanic White (from herein referred to as White). At baseline, compared to White patients, Black and Hispanic patients had lower NT-proBNP (g = 0.34) and differences between groups in baseline values for LVEDVi and LVESVi were negligible (g<0.10). Following S/V initiation, NT-proBNP decreased in all three groups (p<.0001) associated with improvements in LVEF, LVEDVi, and LVESVi. Although total improvement in LV measures was similar between groups, Black patients averaged larger gains in the first half of the trial while White patients averaged larger gains in the second half. Improvements in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-23 Total Symptom scores were seen in all three groups. Treatment with S/V was well-tolerated. Conclusions: Among Black, Hispanic, and White patients with HFrEF, treatment with S/V was associated with similar reduction in NT-proBNP, improvement in health status, and reverse remodeling. More data regarding racial and ethnic responses to HFrEF treatment are needed. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02887183.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Certain antihyperglycemic therapies modify cardiovascular and kidney outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes, but early uptake in practice appears restricted to particular demographics. We examine the association of Medicaid expansion with use of and expenditures related to antihyperglycemic therapies among Medicaid beneficiaries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We employed a difference-in-difference design to analyze the association of Medicaid expansion on prescription of noninsulin antihyperglycemic therapies. We used 2012-2017 National and State Medicaid data to compare prescription claims and costs between states that did (n = 25) and did not expand (n = 26) Medicaid by January 2014. RESULTS: Following Medicaid expansion in 2014, average noninsulin antihyperglycemic therapies per state/1,000 enrollees increased by 4.2%/quarter in expansion states and 1.6%/quarter in nonexpansion states. For sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), quarterly growth rates per 1,000 enrollees were 125.3% and 20.7% for expansion states and 87.6% and 16.0% for nonexpansion states, respectively. Expansion states had faster utilization of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA than nonexpansion states. Difference-in-difference estimates for change in volume of prescriptions after Medicaid expansion between expansion versus nonexpansion states was 1.68 (95% CI 1.09-2.26; P < 0.001) for all noninsulin therapies, 0.125 (-0.003 to 0.25; P = 0.056) for SGLT2i, and 0.12 (0.055-0.18; P < 0.001) for GLP-1RA. CONCLUSIONS: Use of noninsulin antihyperglycemic therapies, including SGLT2i and GLP-1RA, increased among low-income adults in both Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states, with a significantly greater increase in overall use and in GLP-1RA use in expansion states. Future evaluation of the population-level health impact of expanded access to these therapies is needed.

4.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875490

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 which binds and enters the host cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2. While the potential for benefit with the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) and the risks from stopping them is more evident, potential harm by RAΑSi may also be caused by the increase in the activity of the ACE2 receptor, the inefficient counter regulatory axis in the lungs in which the proinflammatory prolyloligopeptidase (POP) is the main enzyme responsible for the conversion of deleterious angiotensin (ANG) II to protective ANG [1-7] and the proinflammatory properties of ACE2(+) cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Acknowledging the proven RAΑSi benefit in patients with several diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, coronary disease, and diabetic kidney disease in the non-COVID-19 era, it is a reasonable strategy in this period of uncertainty to use these agents judiciously with careful consideration and to avoid the use of RAASi in select patients whenever possible, until definitive evidence becomes available.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909376

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly prevalent in the general population and especially in patients with heart failure (HF). It is not only a risk factor for incident HF, but is also associated with worse outcomes in prevalent HF. Therefore, antihyperglycaemic management in patients at risk of or with established HF is of importance to reduce morbidity/mortality. Following revision of the drug approval process in 2008 by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, several cardiovascular outcome trials on antihyperglycaemic drugs have recently investigated HF endpoints. Signals of harm in terms of increased risk of HF have been identified for thiazolidinediones and the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor saxagliptin, and therefore, these drugs are not currently recommended in HF. Sulfonylureas also have an unfavourable safety profile and should be avoided in patients at increased risk of/with HF. Observational studies have assessed the use of metformin in patients with HF, showing potential safety and potential survival/morbidity benefits. Overall use of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists has not been linked with any clear benefit in terms of HF outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have consistently shown to reduce risk of HF-related outcomes in T2DM with and without HF and are thus currently recommended to lower risk of HF hospitalization in T2DM. Recent findings from the DAPA-HF trial support the use of dapagliflozin in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and, should ongoing trials with empagliflozin, sotagliflozin, and canagliflozin prove efficacy, will pave the way for SGLT2i as HF treatment regardless of T2DM.

6.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs) typically set composite endpoints as the primary outcome to enhance statistical power. However, influence of individual component endpoints on overall composite outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for RCTs published in 6 high impact journals (the Lancet, the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and the European Heart Journal) from 2011 to 2017. 2-armed, parallel-design cardiovascular RCTs which reported composite outcomes were included. All-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure and stroke were deemed "hard" endpoints, whereas hospitalization, angina, and revascularization were identified as "soft" endpoints. Type of outcome (primary or secondary), event rates in treatment and control groups for the composite outcome and of its components according to predefined criteria. RESULTS: Of the 45.8% (316/689) cardiovascular RCTs which utilized a composite outcome, 79.4% set the composite as the primary outcome. Death was the most common component (89.8%), followed by MI (66.1%). About 80% of the trials reported complete data for each component. 147 trials (46.5%) incorporated a "soft" endpoint as part of their composite. Death contributed the least to the estimate of effects (R2 change=0.005) of the composite, while revascularization contributed the most (R2 change=0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular RCTs frequently employ composite endpoints, which include "soft" endpoints as components in nearly 50% of studies. Higher event rates in composite endpoints may create a misleading interpretation of treatment impact due to large contributions from endpoints with less clinical significance.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e017018, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873113

RESUMO

Background Measures of vascular dysfunction are related to adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in non-Hispanic, White populations; however, data from Black individuals are limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between novel hemodynamic measures and prevalent CVD in a sample of Black individuals. Methods and Results Among older Black participants of the Jackson Heart Study, we assessed noninvasive vascular hemodynamic measures using arterial tonometry and Doppler ultrasound. We assessed 5 measures of aortic stiffness and wave reflection (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, pulse wave velocity ratio, forward pressure wave amplitude, central pulse pressure, and augmentation index), and 2 measures of microvascular function (baseline and hyperemic brachial flow velocity). Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the relations between vascular hemodynamic measures and prevalent CVD. In models adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors, higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (odds ratio [OR],1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55; P=0.04), lower augmentation index (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P=0.05), and lower hyperemic brachial flow velocity (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90; P=0.001) were associated with higher odds of CVD. After further adjustment for hypertension treatment, lower augmentation index (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P=0.04) and hyperemic brachial flow velocity (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94; P=0.006), but not carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99-1.051; P=0.06), were associated with higher odds of CVD. Conclusions In a sample of older Black individuals, more severe microvascular damage and aortic stiffness were associated with prevalent CVD. Further research on hemodynamic mechanisms that contribute to cardiovascular risk among older Black individuals is merited.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946164

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to determine sex-based differences in biomarkers, self-reported health status, and magnitude of longitudinal changes in measures of reverse cardiac remodelling among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) treated with sacubitril/valsartan (S/V). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients initiated on S/V in the Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement and Ventricular Remodeling During Entresto Therapy for Heart Failure (PROVE-HF) study. There were 226 (28.5%) women in the study. Though women had lower baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), they had more rapid early reduction in the biomarker after initiation of S/V. Compared to men, women had lower average baseline Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ)-23 Total Symptom score (67.6 vs. 71.9; P = 0.003) but showed greater linear improvement (7.4 vs. 5.5 points; P < 0.001) and faster pace of KCCQ change (P < 0.001) over the course of the trial. Women and men demonstrated similar degrees of reverse left ventricular remodelling following S/V initiation; however, women did so earlier than men with more consistent changes. These results remained unchanged with adjustment for relevant covariates. Reduction in NT-proBNP was associated with reverse cardiac remodelling in both women and men. Treatment with S/V was well tolerated in all. CONCLUSIONS: In women with HFrEF, treatment with S/V was associated with significant NT-proBNP reduction, health status improvement and reverse cardiac remodelling.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1192, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937055
11.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1129-1131, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955935
12.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1205-1218, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955939

RESUMO

With worsening epidemiological trends for both the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF) worldwide, it is critical to implement optimal prevention and treatment strategies for patients with these comorbidities, either alone or concomitantly. Several guidelines and consensus statements have recommended glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors as add-ons to lifestyle interventions with or without metformin in those at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. However, these recommendations are either silent about HF or fail to differentiate between the prevention of HF in those at risk versus the treatment of individuals with manifest HF. Furthermore, these documents do not differentiate among those with different HF phenotypes. This distinction, even though important, may not be critical for sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors in view of the consistent data for benefit for both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease- and HF-related outcomes that have emerged from the regulatory-mandated cardiovascular outcome trials for all sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and the recent DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction)demonstrating the benefit of dapagliflozin on HF-related outcomes in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction with or without T2DM. However, the distinction may be crucial for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and other antihyperglycemic agents. Indeed, in several of the new statements, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are suggested treatment not only for patients with T2DM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but also in those with manifest HF, despite a lack of evidence for the latter recommendation. Although glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may be appropriate to use in patients at risk for HF, mechanistic insights and observations from randomized trials suggest no clear benefit on HF-related outcomes and even uncertainty regarding the safety in those with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Conversely, theoretical rationales suggest that these agents may benefit patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Considering that millions of patients with T2DM have HF, these concerns have public health implications that necessitate the thoughtful use of these therapies. Achieving this aim will require dedicated trials with these drugs in both patients who have HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction with T2DM to assess their efficacy, safety, and risk-benefit profile.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).

14.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 819-829, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin) trials showed that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes. However, neither trial was powered to assess effects on cardiovascular death or all-cause death or to characterise effects in clinically important subgroups. Using study-level published data from DAPA-HF and patient-level data from EMPEROR-Reduced, we aimed to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal and non-fatal heart failure events and renal outcomes in all randomly assigned patients with HFrEF and in relevant subgroups from DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. METHODS: We did a prespecified meta-analysis of the two single large-scale trials assessing the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with HFrEF with or without diabetes: DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin). The primary endpoint was time to all-cause death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. These subgroups were based on type 2 diabetes status, age, sex, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, race, history of hospitalisation for heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body-mass index, and region (post-hoc). We used hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-first event endpoints and Cochran's Q test for treatment interactions; the analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model. FINDINGS: Among 8474 patients combined from both trials, the estimated treatment effect was a 13% reduction in all-cause death (pooled HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·98; p=0·018) and 14% reduction in cardiovascular death (0·86, 0·76-0·98; p=0·027). SGLT2 inhibition was accompanied by a 26% relative reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74, 0·68-0·82; p<0·0001), and by a 25% decrease in the composite of recurrent hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular death (0·75, 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001). The risk of the composite renal endpoint was also reduced (0·62, 0·43-0·90; p=0·013). All tests for heterogeneity of effect size between trials were not significant. The pooled treatment effects showed consistent benefits for subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes, treatment with an ARNI and baseline eGFR, but suggested treatment-by-subgroup interactions for subgroups based on NYHA functional class and race. INTERPRETATION: The effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on hospitalisations for heart failure were consistent in the two independent trials and suggest that these agents also improve renal outcomes and reduce all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910930

RESUMO

There is no clear consensus on a lower cutoff value for normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and the prognostic implications of low normal EF (LNEF) are poorly understood, particularly in Blacks. Therefore, we investigated the association of LNEF and incident heart failure (HF) in a community-based cohort of Blacks. We studied 3,669 participants (mean age 54 years, 63% women) of the Jackson Heart Study without prevalent HF or coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were divided into three groups: (1) Reduced EF (<50%), (2) LNEF (≥50%, <55%), and (3) Normal EF (≥55%). There were 197 cases of incident HF hospitalizations over a median follow-up of 10 years (interquartile range 9.4 to 10). After adjustment for conventional risk factors and incident CHD, the LNEF group had a higher rate of incident HF hospitalization than the Normal EF group (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, this relation remained statistically significant after additionally adjusting for LV mass index but was not significant after adjusting for LV diastolic dysfunction grade. In participants with LNEF with incident HF, 63% developed HF with reduced EF and 37% developed HF with preserved EF. In conclusion, LNEF is associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in comparison with normal EF in a community-based cohort of Blacks. In those with LNEF who went on to develop HF, most cases were HF with reduced EF. These findings suggest that strategies are needed for risk stratification and management to improve outcomes in patients with LNEF.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(8): e006605, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender disparities in authorship of heart failure (HF) guideline citations and clinical trials have not been examined. METHODS: We identified authors of publications referenced in Class I Recommendations in United States (n=173) and European (n=100) HF guidelines and of publications of all HF trials with >400 participants (n=118) published between 2001 and 2016. Authors' genders were determined, and changes in authorship patterns over time were evaluated with linear regression and nonparametric testing. RESULTS: The median proportion of women authors per publication was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 8%-33%) in United States guidelines, 14% (IQR, 2%-20%) in European guidelines, and 11% (IQR, 4%-20%) in HF trials. The proportion of women authors increased modestly over time in United States and European guidelines' references (ß=0.005 and 0.003, respectively, from 1986 to 2016; P<0.001) but not in HF trials (12.5% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2001-2004 to 8.9% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2013-2016; P>0.50). Overall proportions of women as first or last authors in HF trials (16%) did not change significantly over time (P=0.60). North American HF trials had the highest likelihood of having a woman as first or senior author (24%). HF trials with a woman first or senior author were associated with a higher proportion of enrolled female participants (39% versus 26%, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In HF practice guidelines and trials, few women are authors of pivotal publications. Higher number of women authors is associated with higher enrollment of women in HF trials. Barriers to authorship and representation of women in HF guidelines and HF trial leadership need to be addressed.

19.
Circulation ; 142(8): 790-798, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833519

RESUMO

Patient access to a drug after US regulatory approval is controlled by complex interactions between governmental and third-party payers, pharmacy benefit managers, distributers, manufacturers, health systems, and pharmacies that together mediate the receipt of goods by patients after prescription by clinicians. Recent medication approvals highlight why and how the distribution of clinically beneficial novel therapies is controlled. Although imposed limitations on availability may be rational considering the fiduciary responsibilities of payers and escalating spending on health care and pharmaceuticals, transparency and communication are lacking, and some utilization management may disproportionately affect vulnerable populations. Analysis of the current health insurance landscape suggests mechanisms by which patient access to appropriate medications can be improved and patient and clinician frustration reduced while acknowledging the financial realities of the pharmaceutical marketplace. We propose creation of a shared, standardized, and transparent process for coverage decisions that minimizes administrative barriers and is defensible on the basis of clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence. These reforms would benefit patients and improve the efficiency of the pharmaceutical system.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2012469, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756927

RESUMO

Importance: Interpreting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and their clinical relevance is challenging when P values are either marginally above or below the P = .05 threshold. Objective: To use the concept of reverse fragility index (RFI) to provide a measure of confidence in the neutrality of RCT results when assessed from the clinical perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, a MEDLINE search was conducted for RCTs published from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2018, in JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), and The Lancet. Eligible studies were phase 3 and 4 trials with 1:1 randomization and statistically nonsignificant binary primary end points. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2019, to August 31, 2019. Exposures: Single vs multicenter enrollment, total number of events, private vs government funding, placebo vs active control, and time to event vs frequency data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the median RFI with interquartile range (IQR) at the P = .05 threshold. Secondary outcomes were the number of RCTs in which the number of participants lost to follow-up was greater than the RFI; the median RFI with IQR at different P value thresholds; the median reverse fragility quotient with IQR; and the correlation between sample sizes, number of events, and P values of the RCT and RFI. Results: Of the 167 RCTs included, 76 (46%) were published in the NEJM, 50 (30%) in JAMA, and 41 (24%) in The Lancet. The median (IQR) sample size was 970 (470-3427) participants, and the median (IQR) number of events was 251 (105-570). The median (IQR) RFI at the P = .05 threshold was 8 (5-13). Fifty-seven RCTs (34%) had an RFI of 5 or lower, and in 68 RCTs (41%) the number of participants lost to follow-up was greater than the RFI. Trials with P values ranging from P = .06 to P = .10 had a median (IQR) RFI of 3 (2-4). When compared, median (IQR) RFIs were not statistically significant for single-center vs multicenter enrollment (5 [4-13] vs 8 [5-13]; P = .41), private vs government-funded studies (9 [5-13] vs 8 [5-13]; P = .34), and time-to-event primary end points vs frequency data (9 [5-14] vs 7 [4-13]; P = .43). The median (IQR) RFI at the P = .01 threshold was 12 (7-19) and at the P = .005 threshold was 14 (9-21). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that a relatively small number of events (median of 8) had to change to move the primary end point of an RCT from nonsignificant to statistically significant. These findings emphasize the nuance required when interpreting trial results that did not meet prespecified significance thresholds.

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