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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584231

RESUMO

Drugs that inhibit the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalizations for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes. In populations that largely did not have heart failure at the time of enrolment, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin decreased the risk of serious new-onset heart failure events by ≈30%. In addition, in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin reduced the risk of both pump failure and sudden deaths, the two most common modes of death among patients with heart failure. In none of the three trials could the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors on heart failure be explained by the actions of these drugs as diuretics or anti-hyperglycaemic agents. These observations raise the possibility that SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with established heart failure, including those without diabetes. The EMPEROR-Reduced trial is enrolling ≈3600 patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤ 40%), half of whom are expected not to have diabetes. Patients are being randomized to placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg daily, which is added to all appropriate treatment with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and neprilysin, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The primary endpoint is the time-to-first event analysis of the combined risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure, but the trial will also evaluate the effects of empagliflozin on renal function, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, and recurrent hospitalization events. By adjusting eligibility based on natriuretic peptide levels to the baseline ejection fraction, the trial will preferentially enrol high-risk patients. A large proportion of the participants is expected to have an ejection fraction < 30%, and the estimated annual event rate is expected to be at least 15%. The EMPEROR-Reduced trial is well-positioned to determine if the addition of empagliflozin can add meaningfully to current approaches that have established benefits in the treatment of chronic heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

3.
JAMA ; : 1-11, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475295

RESUMO

Importance: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), treatment with sacubitril-valsartan reduces N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations. The effect of sacubitril-valsartan on cardiac remodeling is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether NT-proBNP changes in patients with HFrEF treated with sacubitril-valsartan correlate with changes in measures of cardiac volume and function. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, 12-month, single-group, open-label study of patients with HFrEF enrolled in 78 outpatient sites in the United States. Sacubitril-valsartan was initiated and the dose adjusted. Enrollment commenced on October 25, 2016, and follow-up was completed on October 22, 2018. Exposures: NT-proBNP concentrations among patients treated with sacubitril-valsartan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the correlation between changes in log2-NT-proBNP concentrations and left ventricular (LV) EF, LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), left atrial volume index (LAVI), and ratio of early transmitral Doppler velocity/early diastolic annular velocity (E/e') at 12 months. Results: Among 794 patients (mean age, 65.1 years; 226 women [28.5%]; mean LVEF = 28.2%), 654 (82.4%) completed the study. The median NT-proBNP concentration at baseline was 816 pg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 332-1822) and 455 pg/mL (IQR, 153-1090) at 12 months (difference, P < .001). At 12 months, the change in log2-NT-proBNP concentration was correlated with changes in LVEF (r = -0.381 [IQR, -0.448 to -0.310]; P < .001), LVEDVI (r = 0.320 [IQR, 0.246 to 0.391]; P < .001), LVESVI (r = 0.405 [IQR, 0.335 to 0.470]; P < .001), LAVI (r = 0.263 [IQR, 0.186 to 0.338]; P < .001), and E/e' (r = 0.269 [IQR, 0.182 to 0.353]; P < .001). At 12 months, LVEF increased from 28.2% to 37.8% (difference, 9.4% [95% CI, 8.8% to 9.9%]; P < .001), while LVEDVI decreased from 86.93 to 74.15 mL/m2 (difference, -12.25 mL/m2 [IQR, -12.92 to -11.58]; P < .001) and LVESVI decreased from 61.68 to 45.46 mL/m2 (difference, -15.29 mL/m2 [95% CI, -16.03 to -14.55]; P < .001). LAVI and E/e' ratio also decreased significantly. The most frequent adverse events were hypotension (17.6%), dizziness (16.8%), hyperkalemia (13.2%), and worsening kidney function (12.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study of patients with HFrEF treated with sacubitril-valsartan, reduction in NT-proBNP concentration was weakly yet significantly correlated with improvements in markers of cardiac volume and function at 12 months. The observed reverse cardiac remodeling may provide a mechanistic explanation for the effects of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HFrEF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02887183.

5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the short-term health status benefits of angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: Although therapy with sacubitril/valsartan, a neprilysin inhibitor, improved patients' health status (compared with enalapril) at 8 months in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACE inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) study, the early impact of ARNI on patients' symptoms, functions, and quality of life is unknown. METHODS: Health status was assessed by using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) in 3,918 outpatients with HFrEF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% across 140 U.S. centers in the CHAMP-HF (Change the Management of Patients with Heart Failure) registry. ARNI therapy was initiated in 508 patients who were matched 1:2 to 1,016 patients who were not initiated on ARNI (no-ARNI), using a nonparsimonious time-dependent propensity score (6 sociodemographic factors, 23 clinical characteristics), prior KCCQ overall summary (KCCQ-OS) score and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker status. RESULTS: Multivariate linear regression demonstrated a greater mean improvement in KCCQ-OS in patients initiated on ARNI therapy (5.3 ± 19 vs. 2.5 ± 17.4, respectively; p < 0.001) over a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 57 (32, 104) days. The proportions of ARNI versus no-ARNI groups with ≥10-point (large) and ≥20-point (very large) improvements in KCCQ-OS were 32.7% versus 26.9%, respectively, and 20.5% versus 12.1%, respectively, consistent with numbers needed to treat of 18 and 12, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In routine clinical care, ARNI therapy was associated with early improvements in health status, with 20% experiencing a very large health status benefit compared with 12% who were not started on ARNI therapy. These findings support the use of ARNI to improve patients' symptoms, functions, and quality of life.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523892

RESUMO

AIMS: Neladenoson bialanate is a partial adenosine A1 receptor agonist with demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiac function in animal models. We aimed to assess the dose-response effect of neladenoson bialanate on cardiac structure and function, clinical outcome, and safety in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: PANTHEON was a dose-finding, phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 92 centres in 11 countries including 462 patients with chronic HFrEF, randomized to once daily oral dose of neladenoson bialanate (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg) or placebo. The primary endpoints were change from baseline to 20 weeks in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (echocardiography) and in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Mean age of the patients was 67 years, 17% were female, mean LVEF was 28%, mean NT-proBNP was 2085 ng/L. After 20 weeks of treatment, there was no dose-effect of neladenoson bialanate on changes in NT-proBNP or LVEF (primary endpoints). No effect of neladenoson bialanate was found on left ventricular volumes, high-sensitivity troponin T, or cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalization, and urgent visits for HF (secondary endpoints). There was a dose-dependent increase in creatinine and cystatin C, and a dose-dependent decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate and heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HFrEF, treatment with neladenoson bialanate was not associated with dose-dependent favourable effects on cardiac structure and function, cardiac risk markers, or clinical outcome but was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in renal function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02992288.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The principal biological processes that characterize heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are systemic inflammation, epicardial adipose tissue accumulation, coronary microcirculatory rarefaction, myocardial fibrosis and vascular stiffness; the resulting impairment of left ventricular and aortic distensibility (especially when accompanied by impaired glomerular function and sodium retention) causes increases in cardiac filling pressures and exertional dyspnoea despite the relative preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction. Independently of their actions on blood glucose, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert a broad range of biological effects (including actions to inhibit cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, antagonize sodium retention and improve glomerular function) that can ameliorate the pathophysiological derangements in HFpEF. Such SGLT2 inhibitors exert favourable effects in experimental models of HFpEF and have been found in large-scale trials to reduce the risk for serious heart failure events in patients with type 2 diabetes, many of whom were retrospectively identified as having HFpEF. STUDY DESIGN: The EMPEROR-Preserved Trial is enrolling ≈5750 patients with HFpEF (ejection fraction >40%), with and without type 2 diabetes, who are randomized to receive placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg/day, which is added to all appropriate treatments for HFpEF and co-morbidities. STUDY AIMS: The primary endpoint is the time-to-first-event analysis of the combined risk for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. The trial will also evaluate the effects of empagliflozin on renal function, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality and recurrent hospitalization events, and will assess a wide range of biomarkers that reflect important pathophysiological mechanisms that may drive the evolution of HFpEF. The EMPEROR-Preserved Trial is well positioned to determine if empagliflozin can have a meaningful impact on the course of HFpEF, a disorder for which there are currently few therapeutic options.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a novel, machine learning-derived model to predict the risk of heart failure (HF) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from 8,756 patients free at baseline of HF, with <10% missing data, and enrolled in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, we used random survival forest (RSF) methods, a nonparametric decision tree machine learning approach, to identify predictors of incident HF. The RSF model was externally validated in a cohort of individuals with T2DM using the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.9 years, 319 patients (3.6%) developed incident HF. The RSF models demonstrated better discrimination than the best performing Cox-based method (C-index 0.77 [95% CI 0.75-0.80] vs. 0.73 [0.70-0.76] respectively) and had acceptable calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic χ2 = 9.63, P = 0.29) in the internal validation data set. From the identified predictors, an integer-based risk score for 5-year HF incidence was created: the WATCH-DM (Weight [BMI], Age, hyperTension, Creatinine, HDL-C, Diabetes control [fasting plasma glucose], QRS Duration, MI, and CABG) risk score. Each 1-unit increment in the risk score was associated with a 24% higher relative risk of HF within 5 years. The cumulative 5-year incidence of HF increased in a graded fashion from 1.1% in quintile 1 (WATCH-DM score ≤7) to 17.4% in quintile 5 (WATCH-DM score ≥14). In the external validation cohort, the RSF-based risk prediction model and the WATCH-DM risk score performed well with good discrimination (C-index = 0.74 and 0.70, respectively), acceptable calibration (P ≥0.20 for both), and broad risk stratification (5-year HF risk range from 2.5 to 18.7% across quintiles 1-5). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a novel, machine learning-derived risk score that integrates readily available clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiographic variables to predict the risk of HF among outpatients with T2DM.

12.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(4): 435-445, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472879

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP) has a strong and continuous association with Stage B and C heart failure (HF) and carries the highest attributable risk for HF. Intensive treatment of hypertension is crucial, as progression from hypertension (Stage A HF) to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or other structural damage (Stage B HF) is common despite therapy. Echo cardiography is the modality of choice to detect Stage B HF. Ideally, Stage B HF should be prevented. However, regression of established LVH and other structural damage is feasible and improves prognosis. Despite differences among antihypertensive agents, control of BP remains the most important goal.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222868, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five guideline-recommended medication categories are available to treat patients who have heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. However, adherence to these medications is often suboptimal, which places patients at increased risk for poor health outcomes, including hospitalization. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to these medications and potentially preventable HF hospitalizations among younger insured adults with newly diagnosed HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the 2008-2012 IBM MarketScan Commercial database, we followed 26,439 individuals aged 18-64 years with newly diagnosed HF and calculated their adherence (using the proportion of days covered (PDC) algorithm) to the five guideline-recommended medication categories: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers; beta blockers; aldosterone receptor antagonists; hydralazine; and isosorbide dinitrate. We determined the association between PDC and long-term preventable HF hospitalizations (observation years 3-5) as defined by the United States (U.S.) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overall, 49.0% of enrollees had good adherence (PDC≥80%), which was more common among enrollees who were older, male, residing in higher income counties, initially diagnosed with HF in an outpatient setting, and who filled prescriptions for fewer medication categories assessed. Adherence differed by medication category and was lowest for isosorbide dinitrate (PDC = 60.7%). In total, 7.6% of enrollees had preventable HF hospitalizations. Good adherers, compared to poor adherers (PDC<40%), were 15% less likely to have a preventable hospitalization (HR 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.96). CONCLUSION: We found that approximately half of insured U.S. adults aged 18-64 years with newly diagnosed HF had good adherence to their HF medications. Patients with good adherence, compared to those with poor adherence, were less likely to have a potentially preventable HF hospitalization 3-5 years after their initial diagnosis. Because HF is a chronic condition that requires long-term management, future studies may want to assess the effectiveness of interventions in sustaining adherence.

14.
Am J Med ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419422

RESUMO

Restricting dietary sodium is a common recommendation given by clinicians to heart failure patients, one supported by current guidelines. However, the quality of evidence for this recommendation is suboptimal and there is no consensus on the optimal level of sodium intake. Though excessive sodium intake is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension, recent data have suggested that very low sodium intake is paradoxically associated with worse heart failure outcomes. This is possibly explained by the association between low sodium intake and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. Nevertheless, sodium restriction is routinely recommended and remains a cornerstone of heart failure and blood pressure therapy. In this editorial we discuss the pros and cons of sodium restriction for heart failure patients from the current literature.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422140

RESUMO

Interstitial heart disease, whether primarily from myocardial fibrosis or cardiac amyloidosis, indicates excess protein accumulation in the interstitium and constitutes a major source of heart failure with excess cardiac morbidity and mortality. Myocardial fibrosis (defined as excess myocardial collagen concentration that distorts myocardial architecture) is prevalent and causes cardiac symptoms and ultimately adverse cardiac events, such as heart failure, arrhythmia, and death. Conversely, cardiac amyloidosis is far less prevalent than myocardial fibrosis but represents a more extreme form of interstitial heart disease with marked interstitial expansion, profound architectural distortion, and then rapid clinical decline. Myocardial extracellular volume measures fundamentally advance the understanding of myocardium and specifically highlights the role of the interstitium. Rather than conceptualizing myocardium as a homogenous tissue, dichotomizing the myocardium into its interstitial (including the microvasculature) and cardiomyocyte phenotypes promotes additional understanding of heart failure pathophysiology that may spur the development of more effective therapies.

17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401097

RESUMO

The development of treatments for heart failure (HF) is challenged by burdensome clinical trials. Reducing the need for extensive data collection and increasing opportunities for data compatibility between trials may improve efficiency and reduce resource burden. The Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) multi-stakeholder consortium sought to create a lean case report form (CRF) for use in HF clinical trials evaluating cardiac devices. The HFC convened patients, clinicians, clinical researchers, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), payers, industry partners, and statisticians to create a consensus core CRF. Eight recent clinical trial CRFs for the treatment of HF from 6 industry partners were analyzed. All CRF elements were systematically reviewed. Those elements deemed critical for data collection in HF clinical trials were used to construct the final, harmonized CRF. The original CRFs included 176 distinct data items covering demographics, vital signs, physical examination, medical history, laboratory and imaging testing, device therapy, medications, functional and quality of life assessment, and outcome events. The resulting, minimally inclusive CRF device contains 75 baseline data items and 6 events, with separate modular additions that can be used depending on the additional detail required for a particular intervention. The consensus electronic form is now freely available for use in clinical trials. Creation of a core CRF is important to improve clinical trial efficiency in HF device development in the United States. This living document intends to reduce clinical trial administrative burden, increase evidence integrity, and improve comparability of clinical data between trials.

19.
Circulation ; 140(8): 621-623, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424994
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