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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, a small body of evidence suggests that sleep problems are positively associated with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). However, no studies on this topic exist from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between sleep problems and SCC in a large sample of middle-age and older adults from 45 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data were analyzed from the World Health Survey. Sleep problems (such as difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning) in the last 30 days were self-reported. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 (No SCC) to 100 (worse SCC). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep problems (exposure) and SCC (outcome). RESULTS: Data on 60,228 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 61.4 (9.9) years; 53.9% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those without sleep problems, the mean SCC score for the multivariable model was 13.32 (95% CI 12.01, 14.63), 19.46 (95% CI 17.95, 20.98), 24.17 (95% CI 22.02, 26.33), and 31.39 (95% CI 28.13, 34.65) points higher for mild, moderate, severe, and extreme sleep problems, respectively. Similar results were found for analyses stratified by age and country-income level. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems were positively associated in a dose-response manner with SCC among middle-aged and older adults in multiple LMICs. Addressing sleep problems may aid in the prevention of SCC and ultimately dementia, pending future longitudinal research.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 532-539, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs. METHODS: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58). CONCLUSION: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 865, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people living with dementia want to remain living in their own homes and are supported to do so by family carers. No interventions have consistently demonstrated improvements to people with dementia's life quality, functioning, or other indices of living as well as possible with dementia. We have co-produced, with health and social care professionals and family carers of people with dementia, a new intervention (NIDUS-family). To our knowledge, NIDUS-family is the first manualised intervention that can be tailored to personal goals of people living with dementia and their families and is delivered by facilitators without clinical training. The intervention utilizes components of behavioural management, carer support, psychoeducation, communication and coping skills training, enablement, and environmental adaptations, with modules selected to address dyads' selected goals. We will evaluate the effect of NIDUS-family and usual care on goal attainment, as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) rated by family carers, compared to usual care alone at 12-month follow-up. We will also determine whether NIDUS-family and usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone over 12 months. METHODS: A randomised, two-arm, single-masked, multi-site clinical trial involving 297 people living with dementia-family carer dyads. Dyads will be randomised 2:1 to receive the NIDUS-family intervention with usual care (n = 199) or usual care alone (n = 98). The intervention group will be offered, over 1 year, via 6-8 video call or telephone sessions (or face to face if COVID-19 restrictions allow in the recruitment period) in the initial 6 months, followed by telephone follow-ups every 1-2 months to support implementation, with a trained facilitator. DISCUSSION: Increasing the time lived at home by people living with dementia is likely to benefit lives now and in the future. Our intervention, which we adapted to include remote delivery prior to trial commencement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, aims to address barriers to living as well and as independently as possible that distress people living with dementia, exacerbate family carer(s) stress, negatively affect relationships, lead to safety risks, and frequently precipitate avoidable moves to a care home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number ISRCTN11425138 . Registered on 7 October 2019.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of weight modification on future dementia risk is currently a subject of debate and may be modified by age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a preclinical stage of dementia) in middle-aged and older adults residing in six low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analyzed. MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. BMI (kg/m2) was based on measured weight and height and categorized as: underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.7% females]. Among those aged 50-64 years, compared to normal weight, underweight (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.14-1.81), overweight (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.002-1.37), and obesity (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.09-1.94) were all significantly associated with higher odds for MCI. In those aged ≥65 years, underweight (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54-0.95) and overweight (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.55-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds for MCI, while obesity was not significantly associated with MCI. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that the association between BMI and MCI is likely moderated by age. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm or refute the present findings before recommendations for policy and practice can be made.

5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m2 (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m2 (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males. CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.

7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 45-53, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598008

RESUMO

Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide in young people aged 15-19 years. However, little is known about the correlates of multiple suicide attempts in adolescents, especially from a global perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of putative physical, behavioral, and social correlates with multiple suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 61 countries. Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (2009-2017) were analyzed. Multiple suicide attempts was classified as having attempted suicide at least twice in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential correlates. Data on 162,994 adolescents [mean (SD) age 13.8 (0.9) years; 50.8% boys] were analyzed. The overall prevalence of multiple suicide attempts was 4.4% [range 1.2% (Laos) to 13.8% (Ghana)]. Among those who had attempted suicide at least once in the past 12 months, in the overall sample, food insecurity, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, amphetamine use, sedentary behavior, sexual intercourse, sleep problems, loneliness, no close friends, and bullying victimization were all independently associated with higher odds for multiple suicide attempts although some regional differences were observed. Our study results indicate potential target factors that could be addressed amongst those who had attempted suicide in the past to reduce future suicide attempts and possibly completed suicides. Furthermore, it is possible that region-specific interventions are necessary.

8.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

9.
Exp Gerontol ; 154: 111513, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited available literature suggests that sleep problems are linked to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, this association has been little studied to date in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep problems and MCI in a large sample of adults from six low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SUBJECTS: 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [age range 50-114 years; 51.7% females]. METHODS: MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Sleep problems were assessed by the question "Overall in the last 30 days, how much of a problem did you have with sleeping, such as falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning?" and categorized as "None", "Mild", "Moderate", "Severe/Extreme". Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to no sleep problems, mild, moderate, and severe/extreme sleep problems were associated with significant 1.40, 1.83, and 2.69 times higher odds for MCI with similar associations being observed between age groups and sex. Severe/extreme sleep problems were positively associated with MCI (i.e., OR > 1) in the six countries studied with the overall estimate being OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.50-2.16), and a low level of between-country heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 28.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems were associated with higher odds for MCI. Interventions to improve sleep quality among middle-aged and older adults in LMICs may be an effective strategy in reducing risk of MCI and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439483

RESUMO

Anthocyanin-rich foods, such as berries, reportedly ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits in both animals and humans. Despite this, investigation into the mechanisms which underpin anthocyanin-mediated learning and memory benefits remains relatively limited. The present study investigates the effects of anthocyanin intake on a spatial working memory paradigm, assessed via the cross-maze apparatus, and relates behavioural test performance to underlying molecular mechanisms. Six-week supplementation with pure anthocyanins (2% w/w), administered throughout the learning phase of the task, improved both spatial and psychomotor performances in aged rats. Behavioural outputs were accompanied by changes in the expression profile of key proteins integral to synaptic function/maintenance, with upregulation of dystrophin, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and tyrosine hydroxylase, and downregulation of apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xL) and the phosphorylated rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (p-Raf). Separate immunoblot analysis supported these observations, indicating increased activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1), Akt Ser473, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Ser2448, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg 3.1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in response to anthocyanin treatment, whilst α-E-catenin, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) and p38 protein levels decreased. Together, these findings suggest that purified anthocyanin consumption enhances spatial learning and motor coordination in aged animals and can be attributed to the modulation of key synaptic proteins, which support integrity and maintenance of synaptic function.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 22: 100809, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195472

RESUMO

Background: Participation in physical activity has been found to be beneficial for mental and physical health outcomes among cancer survivors. However, to date no intervention exists specifically to promote physical activity among bladder cancer survivors. In light of this knowledge a home-based exercise intervention was co-created for those recently diagnosed with bladder cancer. Aim: The aim of the present study, financially supported by Action Bladder Cancer UK [1], is to pilot the home-based exercise intervention tailored specifically for bladder cancer survivors (i.e. from the point of diagnosis) to improve physical and mental health outcomes (during treatment and beyond) in this population. Methods: This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Arm one will consists of the 14 week home-based exercise intervention and arm two usual care (15 participants will be randomised to each arm). Baseline data collection will take place shortly after clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer, and follow-up approximately 7 weeks and then again approximately 14 weeks after commencement of the intervention. At each data collection point data will be collected from participants relating to demographics, physical and mental health. Participants will aslo be asked to wear an Actigraph Accelerometer at each data collection point for seven consecutive days. Immediately after baseline data collection participants in the intervention arm will be given the home-based exercise booklet. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained for the present study via The London- City and East Research Ethics Committee (ID:291676). Results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations.

12.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 7(1): e000960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192010

RESUMO

Objective: In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called 'lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown. Design data sources and eligibility criteria: Electronic databases were searched from November 2019 to October 2020 using terms and synonyms relating to physical activity, sedentary behaviour and COVID-19. The coprimary outcomes were changes in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour captured via device-based measures or self-report tools. Risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Sixty six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (total n=86 981). Changes in physical activity were reported in 64 studies, with the majority of studies reporting decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviours during their respective lockdowns across several populations, including children and patients with a variety of medical conditions. Conclusion: Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.

13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063827

RESUMO

A previous systematic review revealed that lutein intake leads to improved cognitive function among older adults. However, the association between lutein intake and brain health remains unclear. METHODS: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library for research papers. The criteria were (1) an intervention study using oral lutein intake or a cross-sectional study that examined lutein levels and the brain, (2) participants were older adults, and (3) brain activities or structures were measured using a brain imaging technique (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)). RESULTS: Seven studies using MRI (brain activities during rest, cognitive tasks, and brain structure) and two studies using EEG were included. We mainly focused on MRI studies. Three intervention studies using MRI indicated that 10 mg lutein intake over 12 months had a positive impact on healthy older adults' brain activities during learning, resting-state connectivity, and gray matter volumes. Four cross-sectional studies using MRI suggested that lutein was positively associated with brain structure and neural efficiency during cognitive tasks. CONCLUSION: Although only nine studies that used similar datasets were reviewed, this systematic review indicates that lutein has beneficial effects on healthy older adults' brain health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Luteína/farmacologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Verduras/química
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072669

RESUMO

Limited literature has investigated the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years in six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. In the past, 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The final sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.5) years; 55.0% females). The prevalence of sarcopenia among those with no food insecurity was 13.0% but this increased to 24.4% among those with severe food insecurity. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to no food insecurity, severe food insecurity was associated with 2.05 (95%CI = 1.12-3.73) times higher odds for sarcopenia. In this large representative sample of older adults from multiple LMICs, it was found that severe food insecurity is associated with higher odds for sarcopenia. Addressing food insecurity in such settings may be an effective strategy to curb the high prevalence of sarcopenia in LMICs.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 57-64, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023748

RESUMO

AIM: Anxiety may be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but there is a scarcity of data on this association especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between anxiety and MCI among older adults residing in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa), and the mediational effect of sleep problems in this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, meta-analysis, and mediation analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The final sample included 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [mean (standard deviation) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 48.3% males]. Country-wise analysis showed a positive association between anxiety and MCI in all countries (OR 1.35-14.33). The pooled estimate based on meta-analysis with random effects was OR=2.27 (95%CI=1.35-3.83). Sleep problems explained 41.1% of this association. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with anxiety had higher odds for MCI in LMICs. Future studies should examine whether preventing anxiety or addressing anxiety among individuals with MCI can lead to lower risk for dementia onset in LMICs, while the role of sleep problems in this association should be investigated in detail.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Ansiedade , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Vida Independente , Índia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa , África do Sul
16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814017

RESUMO

Food insecurity has been shown to be associated with fast-food consumption. However, to date, studies on this specific topic are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and fast-food consumption in adolescents aged 12-15 years from sixty-eight countries (seven low-income, twenty-seven lower middle-income, twenty upper middle-income, fourteen high-income countries). Cross-sectional, school-based data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analysed. Data on past 30-d food insecurity (hunger) and fast-food consumption in the past 7 d were collected. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. Models were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. There were 180 164 adolescents aged 12-15 years (mean age 13·8 (sd 1·0) years; 50·8 % boys) included in the analysis. Overall, severe food insecurity (i.e. hungry because there was not enough food in home most of the time or always) was associated with 1·17 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·26) times higher odds for fast-food consumption. The estimates pooled by country-income levels were significant in low-income countries (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1·30; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·60), lower middle-income countries (aOR = 1·15; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·29) and upper middle-income countries (aOR = 1·26; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·49), but not in high-income countries (aOR = 1·04; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·23). The mere co-occurrence of food insecurity and fast-food consumption is of public health importance. To tackle this issue, a strong governmental and societal approach is required to utilise effective methods as demonstrated in some high-income countries such as the implementation of food banks and the adoption of free school meals.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802825

RESUMO

Active travel may be an easily achievable form of physical activity for older people especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but there are currently no studies on how this form of physical activity is associated with a preclinical state of dementia known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between active travel and MCI among adults aged ≥50 years from six LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Active travel (minutes/week) was assessed with questions of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and presented in tertiles. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between active travel and MCI. Data on 32715 people aged ≥50 years (mean age 62.4 years; 52.1% females) were analyzed. Compared to the highest tertile of active travel, the lowest tertile was associated with 1.33 (95%CI = 1.14-1.54) times higher odds for MCI overall. This association was particularly pronounced among those aged ≥65 years (OR = 1.70; 95%CI = 1.32-2.19) but active travel was not associated with MCI among those aged 50-64 years. In conclusion, low levels of active travel were associated with a significantly higher odds of MCI in adults aged ≥65 years in LMICs. Promoting active travel among people of this age group in LMICs via tailored interventions and/or country-wide infrastructure investment to provide a safe environment for active travel may lead to a reduction in MCI and subsequent dementia.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of unhealthy foods may have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored how dietary fat intake was impacted in a sample of the UK public who were social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected from a UK COVID-19 online survey. Fat intake was measured using the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education questionnaire. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using Becks' Anxiety and Depression Inventories, while the short-form Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale assessed mental well-being. Differences between individuals who increased versus decreased fat intake were explored using chi-square or independent sample t-tests. Association between fat intake and mental health was explored using adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eighty-seven adults were included. Approximately, 34% recorded medium-to-high levels of fat consumption during social distancing. Around 48% reported decreased fat intake during social distancing compared to usual levels, while 41.3% documented increased fat intake. Fat intake was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with any measures of mental health. CONCLUSIONS: A higher proportion of a sample of UK adults social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic recorded decreased fat intake when compared to levels prior to social distancing. There appeared to be no associations between fat intake and mental health.

19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(10): 2695-2702, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661480

RESUMO

AIM: The association between visual impairment and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has not been investigated to date. Thus, we assessed this association among older adults from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa) using nationally representative datasets. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Visual acuity was measured using the tumbling ElogMAR chart, and vision impairment (at distance and near) was defined as visual acuity worse than 6/18 (0.48 logMAR) in the better-seeing eye. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥ 50 years [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.2% females] were analyzed. Compared to those without far or near vision impairment, those with near vision impairment but not far vision impairment (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.16-1.52), and those with both far and near vision impairment (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.27-2.29) had significantly higher odds for MCI. Only having far vision impairment was not significantly associated with MCI. CONCLUSIONS: Visual impairment is associated with increased odds for MCI among older adults in LMICs with the exception of far vision impairment only. Future longitudinal and intervention studies should examine causality and whether improvements in visual acuity, or early intervention, can reduce risk for MCI and ultimately, dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
20.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(9): 1345-1353, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness may be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment but studies on this topic are scarce, particularly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between loneliness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The final analytical sample consisted of 19,092 and 13,623 individuals aged 50-64 years (middle-aged adults) and ≥65 years (older adults), respectively. Among the middle-aged, overall, loneliness was associated with a non-significant 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-2.21) times higher odds for MCI although significant associations were observed in China (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.08-2.09) and South Africa (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.72-8.71). As for older adults, overall, there was a significant association between loneliness and MCI (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.12-2.07). CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of middle-aged and older adults from multiple LMICs, findings suggest that loneliness is associated with MCI. It may be prudent to consider reducing loneliness in low-economic settings to aid in the prevention of MCI and ultimately dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Solidão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
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