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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 514-529, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509122

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: 'Bridge splitting' is considered in the case of capillary adhesion: a fixed total volume of liquid is split into multiple capillary bridges. Previous studies have shown that bridge splitting only enhances the capillary-induced adhesion force between two planar surfaces in specific circumstances. We hypothesise that bridge splitting significantly enhances the total adhesion force between rough surfaces, since mobile wetting bridges can naturally migrate to narrower gaps. This migration of capillary bridges should also provide a resistance to shear. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS: We theoretically consider an idealized system of many liquid bridges confined between two solid surfaces. By numerically calculating the shape of a single bridge, the total adhesion force is found as the number of bridges and roughness are varied. The resistance to shear is also calculated in the limit of strong surface tension or small shears. FINDINGS: Bridge splitting on a rough surface significantly enhances the adhesion force, with an enhancement that increases with the amplitude of the roughness; maximising over the number of bridges can increase the total adhesion force by an order of magnitude. Resistance to shear is shown to increase linearly with the translation velocity, and the behaviour of many such shearing bridges is quantified.


Assuntos
Molhabilidade , Fenômenos Físicos , Tensão Superficial
3.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A correlation between impacted maxillary third molars on the eruption potential of the maxillary second molar has been identified. There is little published evidence available in the literature regarding a treatment modality for this presentation. AIMS  : The aim of this case series is to propose a joint surgical and orthodontic approach for the management of such cases. METHOD  : A retrospective search of all patients treated for impacted second and third maxillary molars from 2014 to 2020 revealed 24 cases. Surgical planning was facilitated with the use of a CBCT to help orientate the teeth in 3-D and assess any associated pathology to nearby structures. Twenty-three cases were treated via surgical removal of the impacted third molar and subsequently monitored for spontaneous maxillary second molar eruption. CONCLUSION:  All treated cases showed complete or partial spontaneous eruption followed by orthodontic repositioning if required.

4.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the association of inflammation and respiratory failure with delirium in COVID-19 patients. We compare the inflammatory and arterial blood gas markers between patients with COVID-19 delirium and delirium in other medical disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the CHART-DEL, a validated research tool, to screen patients for delirium retrospectively from clinical notes. Inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and white cell count (WBC), and the partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) were compared between patients with COVID-19 delirium and delirium in other medical disorders. RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, CRP (mg/L) was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group, (81.7 ± 80.0 vs. 58.8 ± 87.7, p = 0.04), and WBC (109/L) was significantly lower (7.44 ± 3.42 vs. 9.71 ± 5.45, p = 0.04). The geometric mean of CRP in the COVID-19 group was 140% higher in multiple linear regression (95% CI = 7-439%, p = 0.03) with age and sex as covariates. There were no significant differences in pO2 or pCO2 across groups. CONCLUSION: The association between higher CRP and COVID-19 in patients with delirium may suggest an inflammatory basis for delirium in COVID-19. Our findings may assist clinicians in establishing whether delirium is due to COVID-19, which may improve management and outcomes of infected patients.

5.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1641-1651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588831

RESUMO

Purpose: Sleep efficiency is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk. Brachial artery diameter and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are noninvasive cardiovascular disease markers. We assessed the associations between sleep efficiency and these vascular markers in midlife adults, including people with sleep apnea. Patients and Methods: Thirty (18 males) participants completed an in-laboratory 8-hour sleep opportunity beginning at their habitual bedtimes. Polysomnography was used to assess sleep patterns and sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed). We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and baseline diameter, and FMD immediately upon awakening in the morning. Mixed model analyses, adjusting for apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices, were used to assess the relationship between overnight sleep efficiency and cardiovascular markers. We also explored sex differences. Results: Sleep efficiency was negatively associated with baseline brachial artery diameter (p = 0.005), systolic BP (p = 0.01), and diastolic BP (p = 0.02), but not flow-mediated dilation or heart rate (p > 0.05). These relationships were confirmed with correlations between sleep efficiency and baseline diameter (r = -0.52, p = 0.004), systolic BP (r = -0.43, p = 0.017), and diastolic BP (r = -0.43, p = 0.019). There was a sex-specific interaction trend for sleep efficiency and arterial diameter (p = 0.07) and a significant sex-specific interaction (p < 0.05) for BP, such that the relationships between sleep efficiency and cardiovascular markers were significant in women but not in men. Conclusion: In midlife adults, poor sleep efficiency is associated with increased brachial artery diameter and blood pressure, effects that were primarily driven by significant associations in women. These associations could underlie the observed increase in cardiovascular risk in adults with poor sleep and cardiovascular disease.

6.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(22): 3126-3136, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382417

RESUMO

Common methods for evaluating history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) include self-report, electronic medical record review (EMR), and structured interviews such as the Head Trauma Events Characteristics (HTEC). Each has strengths and weaknesses, but little is known regarding how TBI diagnostic rates or the associated symptom profile differ among them. This study examined 200 Veterans recruited within the VA Portland Health Care System, each evaluated for TBI using self-report, EMR, and HTEC. Participants also completed validated questionnaires assessing chronic symptom severity in broad health-related domains (pain, sleep, quality of life, post-concussive symptoms). The HTEC was more sensitive (80% of participants in our cohort) than either self-report or EMR alone (40%). As expected from the high sensitivity, participants screening positive for TBI through the HTEC included many people with mild or no post-concussive symptoms. Participants were grouped according to degree of concordance across these diagnostic methods: no TBI, n = 43; or TBI-positive in any one method (TBI-1dx, n = 53), positive in any two (TBI-2dx, n = 45), or positive in all three (TBI-3dx, n = 59). The symptom profile of the TBI-1dx group was indistinguishable from the no TBI group. The TBI-3dx group had the most severe symptom profile. Our results show that understanding the exact methods used to ascertain TBI is essential when interpreting results from other studies, given that results and conclusions may differ dramatically depending on the method. This issue will become even more critical when interpreting data merged from multiple sources within newer, centralized repositories (e.g., Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research [FITBIR]).

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215138

RESUMO

Functional neurological disorder (FND) was of great interest to early clinical neuroscience leaders. During the 20th century, neurology and psychiatry grew apart - leaving FND a borderland condition. Fortunately, a renaissance has occurred in the last two decades, fostered by increased recognition that FND is prevalent and diagnosed using "rule-in" examination signs. The parallel use of scientific tools to bridge brain structure - function relationships has helped refine an integrated biopsychosocial framework through which to conceptualize FND. In particular, a growing number of quality neuroimaging studies using a variety of methodologies have shed light on the emerging pathophysiology of FND. This renewed scientific interest has occurred in parallel with enhanced interdisciplinary collaborations, as illustrated by new care models combining psychological and physical therapies and the creation of a new multidisciplinary FND society supporting knowledge dissemination in the field. Within this context, this article summarizes the output of the first International FND Neuroimaging Workgroup meeting, held virtually, on June 17th, 2020 to appraise the state of neuroimaging research in the field and to catalyze large-scale collaborations. We first briefly summarize neural circuit models of FND, and then detail the research approaches used to date in FND within core content areas: cohort characterization; control group considerations; task-based functional neuroimaging; resting-state networks; structural neuroimaging; biomarkers of symptom severity and risk of illness; and predictors of treatment response and prognosis. Lastly, we outline a neuroimaging-focused research agenda to elucidate the pathophysiology of FND and aid the development of novel biologically and psychologically-informed treatments.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3591-3602, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional neurological disorder (FND) is common, and symptoms can be severe. There have been no international large-scale studies of patient experiences of FND. METHODS: A patient questionnaire was created to assess FND patient characteristics, symptom comorbidities and illness perceptions. Respondents were recruited internationally through an open access questionnaire via social media and patient groups over a month-long period. RESULTS: In total, 1048 respondents from 16 countries participated. Mean age was 42 years (86% female). Median FND symptom duration was 5 years, and median time from first symptom to diagnosis was 2 years. Mean number of current symptoms (core FND and associated) was 9.9. Many respondents had associated symptoms, for example fatigue (93%), memory difficulties (80%) and headache (70%). Self-reported psychiatric comorbidities were relatively common (depression, 43%; anxiety, 51%; panic, 20%; and post-traumatic stress disorder, 22%). Most respondents reported that FND had multiple causes, including physical and psychological. CONCLUSIONS: This large survey adds further evidence that people with FND typically have high levels of multiple symptom comorbidity with resultant distress. It also supports the notion that associated physical symptoms are of particular clinical significance in FND patients. Dualistic ideas of FND were not supported by respondents, who generally preferred to conceptualize the disorder as one at the interface of mind and brain. The need for a broad approach to this poorly served patient group is highlighted. Potential selection and response biases due to distribution of the survey online, mostly via FND patient groups, are a key limitation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Adulto , Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045014, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test if participation in the Health Start Programme, an Arizona statewide Community Health Worker (CHW) maternal and child health (MCH) home visiting programme, reduced rates of low birth weight (LBW), very LBW (VLBW), extremely LBW (ELBW) and preterm birth (PTB). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental retrospective study using propensity score matching of Health Start Programme enrolment data to state birth certificate records for years 2006-2016. SETTING: Arizona is uniquely racially and ethnically diverse with comparatively higher proportions of Latino and American Indian residents and a smaller proportion of African Americans. PARTICIPANTS: 7212 Health Start Programme mothers matched to non-participants based on demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics, health conditions and previous birth experiences. INTERVENTION: A statewide CHW MCH home visiting programme. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: LBW, VLBW, ELBW and PTB. RESULTS: Using Health Start Programme's administrative data and birth certificate data from 2006 to 2016, we identified 7212 Health Start Programme participants and 53 948 matches. Programme participation is associated with decreases in adverse birth outcomes for most subgroups. Health Start participation is associated with statistically significant lower rates of LBW among American Indian women (38%; average treatment-on-the-treated effect (ATT): 2.30; 95% CI -4.07 to -0.53) and mothers with a pre-existing health risk (25%; ATT: -3.06; 95% CI -5.82 to -0.30). Among Latina mothers, Health Start Programme participation is associated with statistically significant lower rates of VLBW (36%; ATT: 0.35; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.01) and ELBW (62%; ATT: 0.31; 95% CI (-0.52 to -0.10)). Finally, Health Start Programme participation is associated with a statistically significant lower rate of PTB for teen mothers (30%; ATT: 2.81; 95% CI -4.71 to -0.91). Other results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: A state health department-operated MCH home visiting intervention that employs CHWs as the primary interventionist may contribute to the reduction of LBW, VLBW, ELBW and PTB and could improve birth outcomes statewide, especially among women and children at increased risk for MCH inequity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro , Adolescente , Arizona/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 687615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177670

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is a natural psychoactive brew, used in traditional ceremonies in the Amazon basin. Recent research has indicated that ayahuasca is pharmacologically safe and its use may be positively associated with improvements in psychiatric symptoms. The mechanistic effects of ayahuasca are yet to be fully established. In this prospective naturalistic study, 63 self-selected participants took part in ayahuasca ceremonies at a retreat centre in the Peruvian Amazon. Participants undertook the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Self-compassion Scale (SCS), Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), as well as secondary measures, pre- and post-retreat and at 6-months. Participants also provided saliva samples for pre/post epigenetic analysis. Overall, a statistically significant decrease in BDI-II (13.9 vs. 6.1, p < 0.001), STAI (44.4 vs. 34.3 p < 0.001) scores, and CORE-OM scores were observed (37.3 vs. 22.3 p < 0.001) at post-retreat, as well as a concurrent increase in SCS (3.1 vs. 3.6, p < 0.001). Psychometric improvements were sustained, and on some measures values further decreased at 6-month follow-up, suggesting a potential for lasting therapeutic effects. Changes in memory valence were linked to the observed psychometric improvements. Epigenetic findings were equivocal, but indicated that further research in candidate genes, such as sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1), is warranted. This data adds to the literature supporting ayahuasca's possible positive impact on mental health when conducted in a ceremonial context. Further investigation into clinical samples, as well as greater analyses into the mechanistic action of ayahuasca is advised.

12.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(9): 932-941, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083395

RESUMO

There is accumulating evidence of the neurological and neuropsychiatric features of infection with SARS-CoV-2. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to describe the characteristics of the early literature and estimate point prevalences for neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 18 July 2020 for randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies and case series. Studies reporting prevalences of neurological or neuropsychiatric symptoms were synthesised into meta-analyses to estimate pooled prevalence.13 292 records were screened by at least two authors to identify 215 included studies, of which there were 37 cohort studies, 15 case-control studies, 80 cross-sectional studies and 83 case series from 30 countries. 147 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The symptoms with the highest prevalence were anosmia (43.1% (95% CI 35.2% to 51.3%), n=15 975, 63 studies), weakness (40.0% (95% CI 27.9% to 53.5%), n=221, 3 studies), fatigue (37.8% (95% CI 31.6% to 44.4%), n=21 101, 67 studies), dysgeusia (37.2% (95% CI 29.8% to 45.3%), n=13 686, 52 studies), myalgia (25.1% (95% CI 19.8% to 31.3%), n=66 268, 76 studies), depression (23.0% (95% CI 11.8% to 40.2%), n=43 128, 10 studies), headache (20.7% (95% CI 16.1% to 26.1%), n=64 613, 84 studies), anxiety (15.9% (5.6% to 37.7%), n=42 566, 9 studies) and altered mental status (8.2% (95% CI 4.4% to 14.8%), n=49 326, 19 studies). Heterogeneity for most clinical manifestations was high.Neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 in the pandemic's early phase are varied and common. The neurological and psychiatric academic communities should develop systems to facilitate high-quality methodologies, including more rapid examination of the longitudinal course of neuropsychiatric complications of newly emerging diseases and their relationship to neuroimaging and inflammatory biomarkers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Neurologia/tendências , Neuropsiquiatria/tendências , Pandemias , Biomarcadores , Humanos
13.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(6): 557-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atogepant is an oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist in development for preventive treatment of migraine. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs), safety and tolerability of atogepant co-administered with acetaminophen or naproxen in healthy participants. METHODS: This open-label, randomized, five-way crossover, single-center, phase 1 DDI trial randomized healthy adult participants to one of ten intervention sequences to receive single-dose 60 mg atogepant, 1000 mg acetaminophen, 500 mg naproxen, or co-administrations of atogepant with acetaminophen or naproxen, with 7-day washout periods between interventions. Potential DDIs were assessed using geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated from maximum plasma drug concentrations (Cmax) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) for co-administered medications versus medications administered alone. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters [time to Cmax (tmax), terminal elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution during terminal phase (VZ/F), total body clearance (CL/F)], and safety were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty participants enrolled; 35 (87.5%) completed the trial. Atogepant Cmax was unchanged, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both increased 13%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with acetaminophen; and acetaminophen Cmax decreased 11%, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 6%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with atogepant. Atogepant mean (SD) Vz/F and CL/F were 369.45 (255.68) L and 18.88 (9.28) L/h, respectively, when administered alone and 297.56 (196.01) L and 16.33 (6.11) L/h when co-administered with acetaminophen. Atogepant Cmax was unchanged, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 1%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with naproxen; and naproxen Cmax decreased 6%, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 2%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with atogepant. Atogepant mean (SD) Vz/F and CL/F were 359.61 (247.99) L and 18.80 (7.78) L/h, respectively, when co-administered with naproxen. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred at rates of 5.6-21.1% across interventions. The most commonly reported TEAEs were oropharyngeal pain (n = 2, with atogepant; not treatment related) and nausea (n = 2, with atogepant/acetaminophen; treatment related). CONCLUSION: Co-administration of 60 mg atogepant with 1000 mg acetaminophen or 500 mg naproxen was safe and well tolerated in healthy participants, and no DDIs were observed.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Naproxeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgésicos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(9): 1099-1107, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942560

RESUMO

Atogepant is a selective, oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist in development for preventive treatment of migraine. This randomized, double-blind, phase 1 crossover study evaluated the cardiac repolarization effect of a single supratherapeutic (300 mg) atogepant dose vs placebo in healthy adults. Moxifloxacin 400 mg was the open-label active control. The primary end point was a change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QT intervals (ΔQTcF). Sixty participants were randomized to atogepant 300 mg, placebo, and moxifloxacin; 59 (98.3%) completed all interventions. Assay sensitivity was confirmed: lower 90% confidence interval limit for QTcF interval change from baseline (ΔΔQTcF) for moxifloxacin was >5 millisecond vs placebo at prespecified 2-, 3-, and 4-hour time points. Following single-dose atogepant 300 mg, mean atogepant ΔΔQTcF and upper 90% confidence interval limits were lower than the 10-millisecond threshold at all time points. Atogepant mean peak plasma concentration was 3197 ng/mL, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to time t was 16 640 ng • h/mL, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 hours was 16 607 ng • h/mL, and median time to peak plasma concentration was 2.1 hours. The incidence of adverse events was low; no serious adverse events or elevations of liver enzymes were reported. Overall, a single supratherapeutic dose of atogepant was safe and did not impact cardiac repolarization in healthy participants.

15.
Headache ; 61(4): 642-652, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of two calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), erenumab and galcanezumab, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, safety, and tolerability of ubrogepant. BACKGROUND: People taking CGRP-targeted mAbs for migraine prevention sometimes take ubrogepant, an oral small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonist, for acute treatment of breakthrough migraine attacks. DESIGN: In this two-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 1b trial, adults with migraine were randomized to arm 1 (ubrogepant ± erenumab) or arm 2 (ubrogepant ± galcanezumab). The PK profile of ubrogepant was characterized for administration before and 4 days after CGRP-targeted mAb injection. Participants received single-dose ubrogepant 100 mg on day 1, subcutaneous erenumab 140 mg (arm 1) or galcanezumab 240 mg (arm 2) on day 8, and ubrogepant 100 mg once daily on days 12-15. In each study arm, serial blood samples were drawn on days 1 and 12 for measurement of plasma ubrogepant concentrations. The primary outcomes were area under the plasma ubrogepant concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to t post-dose (AUC0- t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf ), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of ubrogepant when ubrogepant was administered before or after a single dose of erenumab or galcanezumab. Vital signs and laboratory parameters were monitored. RESULTS: Forty participants enrolled (20 per arm; mean [standard deviation] ages, 32.2 [8.9] and 38.4 [8.8] years; 50% [10/20] and 60% [12/20] female in arms 1 and 2, respectively). There were no significant differences in ubrogepant Cmax after versus before erenumab administration (geometric least-squares mean [LSM] ratio, 1.04 [90% CI, 0.93-1.16]), and no significant differences in AUC0- t (1.06 [0.96-1.16]) or AUC0-inf (1.05 [0.96-1.15]). Similarly, ubrogepant Cmax (1.00 [90% CI, 0.82-1.20]), AUC0- t (1.05 [0.90-1.23]), and AUC0-inf (1.05 [0.90-1.22]) geometric LSM ratios were statistically equivalent after galcanezumab versus ubrogepant alone. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were similar to those reported with each treatment alone. No serious TEAEs, TEAEs leading to discontinuation, or clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters or vital signs were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The PK profile of ubrogepant was not significantly changed and no safety concerns were identified when ubrogepant was coadministered with erenumab or galcanezumab.

16.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(2): 8-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729921

RESUMO

We argue that visualization research has overwhelmingly focused on users from the economically developed world. However, billions of people around the world are rapidly emerging as new users of information technology. Most of the next billion users of visualization technologies will come from parts of the world that are extremely populous but historically ignored by the visualization research community. Their needs may be different to the types of users that researchers have targeted in the past, but, at the same time, they may have even more to gain in terms of access to data potentially affecting their quality of life. We propose a call to action for the visualization community to identify opportunities and use cases where users can benefit from visualization; develop universal design principles; extend evaluations by including the general population; and engage with a wider global population.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 619550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603687

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in the way that healthcare was accessed and delivered in the United Kingdom (UK), particularly during the peak of the first lockdown period (the "first wave") beginning in March 2020. In some patients, COVID-19 is associated with acute neuropsychiatric manifestations, and there is suggestion that there may also be longer term neuropsychiatric complications. Despite this, at the time of writing there are only emerging data on the direct effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychiatric care. Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed referrals to an inpatient liaison psychiatry department of a large acute teaching hospital during the first wave of covid-19 in the UK and compared this data to the same period in 2019. Results: We saw a 40% reduction in the number of referrals in 2020, with an increase in the proportion of referrals for both psychosis or mania and delirium. Almost one third (28%) of referred patients tested positive for COVID-19 at some point during their admission, with 40% of these presenting with delirium as a consequence of their COVID-19 illness. Save delirium, we did not find evidence for high prevalence of new-onset acute mental illness in COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: Our data indicate decreased clinical activity in our inpatient psychiatry liaison department during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, although a relative increase in relative increase in referrals for psychosis or mania, suggesting less of a relative decrease in more severe cases of mental illness. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including structural changes in the NHS and patient reluctance to present to emergency departments (ED) due to infection fears and Government advice. Our data also supports the literature suggesting the high relative prevalence of delirium in COVID-19, and we support integration of psychiatry liaison teams in acute general hospital wards to optimize delirium management. Finally, consideration should be given to adequate staffing of community and crisis mental health teams to safely manage the mental health of people reluctant to visit EDs.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 148(12): 3032-3040, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521927

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy has improved the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, inevitably, primary or acquired resistance to PIs leads to disease progression; resistance mechanisms are unclear. Obesity is a risk factor for MM mortality. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL), a central mediator of atherosclerosis that is elevated in metabolic syndrome (co-occurrence of obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension), has been linked to an increased risk of solid cancers and shown to stimulate pro-oncogenic/survival signaling. We hypothesized that OxLDL is a mediator of chemoresistance and evaluated its effects on MM cell killing by PIs. OxLDL potently suppressed the ability of the boronic acid-based PIs bortezomib (BTZ) and ixazomib, but not the epoxyketone-based PI carfilzomib, to kill human MM cell lines and primary cells. OxLDL suppressed BTZ-induced inhibition of proteasome activity and induction of pro-apoptotic signaling. These cytoprotective effects were abrogated when lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) associated with OxLDL were enzymatically reduced. We also demonstrated the presence of OxLDL in the MM bone marrow microenvironment as well as numerous granulocytes and monocytes capable of cell-mediated LDL oxidation through myeloperoxidase. Our findings suggest that OxLDL may be a potent mediator of boronic acid-based PI resistance, particularly for MM patients with metabolic syndrome, given their elevated systemic levels of OxLDL. LDL cholesterol-lowering therapy to reduce circulating OxLDL, and pharmacologic targeting of LOOH levels or resistance pathways induced by the modified lipoprotein, could deepen the response to these important agents and offer clinical benefit to MM patients with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxidos Lipídicos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico
19.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(7): 726-733, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501783

RESUMO

Atogepant is a selective oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist in development for migraine prevention. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single-dose 60 mg atogepant in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment and matched participants with normal hepatic function from an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose phase 1 trial. Thirty-two participants aged 45 to 72 years were enrolled, which included 8 each with severe, moderate, mild, or no hepatic impairment. All participants completed the study. Atogepant was rapidly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration, ∼2 hours) with an apparent terminal elimination half-life of ∼11 hours. Compared with participants with normal hepatic function, the change in maximum plasma concentrations of atogepant were -4%, -12%, and +9% in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment, respectively. Overall systemic exposures to atogepant were 15% to 38% higher in participants with hepatic impairment compared with those with normal hepatic function, but these differences are not expected to be clinically relevant given the established safety profile of atogepant. Only 1 adverse event was reported: mild rhinorrhea in a participant with moderate hepatic impairment. Overall, atogepant was safe and not associated with any clinically relevant change in PK in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment.

20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(9): 1173-1182, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285084

RESUMO

Rationale: Symptoms and morbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary across individuals and are not predicted by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Respiratory event duration is a heritable trait associated with mortality that may further characterize OSA.Objectives: We evaluated how hypopnea and apnea durations in non-REM (NREM) sleep vary across demographic groups and quantified their associations with physiological traits (loop gain, arousal threshold, circulatory delay, and pharyngeal collapsibility).Methods: Data were analyzed from 1,546 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with an AHI ≥5. Physiological traits were derived using a validated model fit to the polysomnographic airflow signal. Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of event duration with demographic and physiological factors.Measurements and Main Results: Participants had a mean age ± SD of 68.9 ± 9.2 years, mean NREM hypopnea duration of 21.73 ± 5.60, and mean NREM apnea duration of 23.87 ± 7.44 seconds. In adjusted analyses, shorter events were associated with younger age, female sex, higher body mass index (P < 0.01, all), and Black race (P < 0.05). Longer events were associated with Asian race (P < 0.01). Shorter event durations were associated with lower circulatory delay (2.53 ± 0.13 s, P < 0.01), lower arousal threshold (1.39 ± 0.15 s, P < 0.01), reduced collapsibility (-0.71 ± 0.16 s, P < 0.01), and higher loop gain (-0.27 ± 0.11 s, P < 0.05) per SD change. Adjustment for physiological traits attenuated age, sex, and obesity associations and eliminated racial differences in event duration.Conclusions: Average event duration varies across population groups and provides information on ventilatory features and airway collapsibility not captured by the AHI.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Nível de Alerta , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
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