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1.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genomic imprinting disorder with lack of expression of genes inherited from the paternal chromosome 15q11-q13 region usually from paternal 15q11-q13 deletions (about 60%) or maternal uniparental disomy 15 or both 15s from the mother (about 35%). An imprinting center controls the expression of imprinted genes in the chromosome 15q11-q13 region. Key findings include infantile hypotonia, a poor suck, failure to thrive and hypogonadism/hypogenitalism. Short stature and small hands/feet due to growth and other hormone deficiencies, hyperphagia and marked obesity occurs in early childhood, if uncontrolled. Cognitive and behavioral problems (tantrums, compulsions, compulsive skin picking) are common. OBJECTIVE: Hyperphagia and obesity with related complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in PWS. This report will describe an accurate diagnosis with determination of specific genetic subtypes, appropriate medical management, and best practice treatment approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: An extensive literature review was undertaken related to genetics, clinical findings and laboratory testing, clinical and behavioral assessments and summary of updated health-related information addressing the importance of early PWS diagnosis and treatment. A searchable, bulleted and formatted list of topics is provided utilizing a Table of Contents approach for the clinical practitioner. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians and other health care providers can use this review with clinical, genetic and treatment summaries divided into sections pertinent in the context of clinical practice. Frequently asked questions by clinicians, families and other interested participants or providers will be addressed.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331040

RESUMO

Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) monitors the ongoing health and welfare of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) through active communication with members by membership surveys and data registries. Thromboembolism and blood clots have emerged in clinical studies as significant risk factors for injury and death in PWS. A 66-item questionnaire was developed by a panel of PWS medical and scientific experts, with input from Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) leadership, so as to probe their membership on the frequency, risk, and protective factors for venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, and related findings. The characteristics of those with and without a reported history of blood clots and related health factors were tabulated and analyzed. Responses were obtained for 1067 individuals with PWS (554 females and 513 males), and 38 (23 females and 15 males) had a history of blood clots. The individuals with clots did not differ by gender, but were significantly older 32.8 ± 15 years vs 20.4 ± 13 years, and were more likely to have a reported history of obesity (76%), edema (59%), hypertension (24%), vasculitis (33%), and family history of blood clots (33%) than those without clots. Growth hormone treatment was more common in individuals without clots. The risk factors for thromboembolism in PWS overlap those commonly observed for the general population.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323913

RESUMO

We describe a 7-year-old male with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and maternally-inherited rare missense variant of Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (SYTL4) gene (Xq22.1; c.835C>T; p.Arg279Cys) and an unknown missense variant of Transmembrane protein 187 (TMEM187) gene (Xq28; c.708G>T; p. Gln236His). Multiple in-silico predictions described in our study indicate a potentially damaging status for both X-linked genes. Analysis of predicted atomic threading models of the mutant and the native SYTL4 proteins suggest a potential structural change induced by the R279C variant which eliminates the stabilizing Arg279-Asp60 salt bridge in the N-terminal half of the SYTL4, affecting the functionality of the protein's critical RAB-Binding Domain. In the European (Non-Finnish) population, the allele frequency for this variant is 0.00042. The SYTL4 gene is known to directly interact with several members of the RAB family of genes, such as, RAB27A, RAB27B, RAB8A, and RAB3A which are known autism spectrum disorder genes. The SYTL4 gene also directly interacts with three known autism genes: STX1A, SNAP25 and STXBP1. Through a literature-based analytical approach, we identified three of five (60%) autism-associated serum microRNAs (miRs) with high predictive power among the total of 298 mouse Sytl4 associated/predicted microRNA interactions. Five of 13 (38%) miRs were differentially expressed in serum from ASD individuals which were predicted to interact with the mouse equivalent Sytl4 gene. TMEM187 gene, like SYTL4, is a protein-coding gene that belongs to a group of genes which host microRNA genes in their introns or exons. The novel Q236H amino acid variant in the TMEM187 in our patient is near the terminal end region of the protein which is represented by multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models, preventing comparative structural analysis of the variant harboring region. Like SYTL4, the TMEM187 gene is expressed in the brain and interacts with four known ASD genes, namely, HCFC1; TMLHE; MECP2; and GPHN. TMM187 is in linkage with MECP2, which is a well-known determinant of brain structure and size and is a well-known autism gene. Other members of the TMEM gene family, TMEM132E and TMEM132D genes are associated with bipolar and panic disorders, respectively, while TMEM231 is a known syndromic autism gene. Together, TMEM187 and SYTL4 genes directly interact with recognized important ASD genes, and their mRNAs are found in extracellular vesicles in the nervous system and stimulate target cells to translate into active protein. Our evidence shows that both these genes should be considered as candidate genes for autism. Additional biological testing is warranted to further determine the pathogenicity of these gene variants in the causation of autism.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1826-1835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313492

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genomic imprinting disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia with a poor suck and failure to thrive, hypogenitalism/hypogonadism, behavior and cognitive problems, hormone deficiencies, hyperphagia, and obesity. The Stanford Binet and Wechsler (WAIS-R; WISC-III) intelligence (IQ) tests were administered on 103 individuals with PWS from two separate cohorts [University of California, Irvine (UCI) (N = 56) and Vanderbilt University (N = 47)] and clinical information obtained including growth hormone (GH) treatment, PWS molecular classes, weight and height. Significantly higher IQ scores (p < .02) were found representing the vocabulary section of the Stanford Binet test in the growth hormone (GH) treated group when compared with non-GH treatment in the pediatric-based UCI PWS cohort with a trend for stabilization of vocabulary IQ scores with age in the GH treated maternal disomy (UPD) 15 subject group. Significant differences (p = .05) were also found in the adult-based Vanderbilt PWS cohort with 15q11-q13 deletion subjects having lower Verbal IQ scores compared with UPD 15. No difference in body mass index was identified based on the PWS molecular class or genetic subtype. Medical care and response to treatment with growth hormone may influence intelligence impacted by PWS genetic subtypes and possibly age, but more studies are needed.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207912

RESUMO

The 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion (Burnside-Butler) syndrome is an emerging disorder that encompasses four genes (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYFIP1, and TUBGCP5). When disturbed, these four genes can lead to cognitive impairment, language and/or motor delay, psychiatric/behavioral problems (attention-deficit hyperactivity, autism, dyslexia, schizophrenia/paranoid psychosis), ataxia, seizures, poor coordination, congenital anomalies, and abnormal brain imaging. This microdeletion was reported as the most common cytogenetic finding when using ultra-high- resolution chromosomal microarrays in patients presenting for genetic services due to autism with or without additional clinical features. Additionally, those individuals with Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes having the larger typical 15q11-q13 type I deletion which includes the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 region containing the four genes, show higher clinical severity than those having the smaller 15q11-q13 deletion where these four genes are intact. Two of the four genes (i.e., NIPA1 and NIPA2) are expressed in the brain and encode magnesium transporters. Magnesium is required in over 300 enzyme systems that are critical for multiple cellular functions, energy expenditure, protein synthesis, DNA transcription, and muscle and nerve function. Low levels of magnesium are found in those with seizures, depression, and acute or chronic brain diseases. Anecdotally, parents have administered magnesium supplements to their children with the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion and have observed improvement in behavior and clinical presentation. These observations require more attention from the medical community and should include controlled studies to determine if magnesium supplements could be a treatment option for this microdeletion syndrome and also for a subset of individuals with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1531-1534, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225937

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is generally due to sporadic paternal deletions of the chromosome 15q11-q13 region followed by maternal disomy 15. Advanced maternal age is more commonly seen in those with maternal disomy 15. Environmental factors (e.g., drug use, occupational chemical exposure, infectious agents, and irradiation) could account for chromosome changes. Previous evidence of differences in male and female gametogenesis could suggest an environmental role in the causation of the paternal 15q11-q13 deletion seen in PWS. Certain occupations such as hydrocarbon-exposing occupations (e.g., landscaping, farming, and painting) and viral exposure (e.g., human coronavirus 229E causing upper respiratory infections in adults with an incorporation site in the human genome at chromosome 15q11) can be seasonal in nature and contribute to chromosome damage. To assess, we reviewed birth seasonality data in a large cohort of individuals with PWS recruited nationally (N = 355) but no significant differences were seen by month between those with the 15q11-q13 deletion compared with maternal disomy 15 when analyzing quarterly seasonal patterns. Although early evidence supported birth seasonality differences in PWS, a larger number of individuals in our recent study using advanced genetic testing methods did not find this observation.

7.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(3): 491-493, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250196

RESUMO

Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders classified into six major types with a variable collection of findings and different inheritance patterns. Although complications occur in about one-half of pregnancies in women with EDS, the majority can have a good outcome if managed appropriately. Classic EDS is characterized by joint hypermobility, loose skin with poor healing and easy bruising, musculoskeletal problems with chronic pain and at risk for pre-term delivery. In addition, the vascular form of EDS can have cardiac anomalies, aneurysms, gastrointestinal perforation and uterine rupture during pregnancy. Due to overlapping features among the connective tissue disorders, it is difficult to categorize the disorder into specific types without detailed genetic testing which is now available through advanced genomic technology using next-generation DNA sequencing, searching genomic databases and bioinformatics approach. Therefore, obstetrical complications are variable but relate to specific connective tissue disorders requiring an exact diagnosis. There are several dozen genes causing connective tissue disorders that are currently available for testing using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics to provide pertinent care, treatment and surveillance of the affected pregnant woman but also for her at-risk fetus related to the specific heritable condition.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909440

RESUMO

To identify whether parent-of-origin effects (POE) of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion are associated with differences in clinical features in individuals inheriting the deletion, we collected 71 individuals reported with phenotypic data and known inheritance from a clinical cohort, a research cohort, the DECIPHER database, and the primary literature. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test for differences in specific and grouped clinical symptoms based on parental inheritance and proband gender. Analyses controlled for sibling sets and individuals with additional variants of uncertain significance (VOUS). Among all probands, maternal deletions were associated with macrocephaly (p = 0.016) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; p = 0.02), while paternal deletions were associated with congenital heart disease (CHD; p = 0.004). Excluding sibling sets, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy as well as macrocephaly (p < 0.05), while paternal deletions were associated with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes (p < 0.05). Excluding sibling sets and probands with an additional VOUS, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy (p = 0.019) and paternal deletions associated with muscular phenotypes (p = 0.008). Significant gender-based differences were also observed. Our results supported POEs of this deletion and included macrocephaly, epilepsy and ASD in maternal deletions with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes seen in paternal deletions.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais , Irmãos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866437

RESUMO

Recent research revealed that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and cancer may share common genetic architecture, with evidence first reported with the PTEN gene. There are approximately 800 autism genes and 3500 genes associated with cancer. The VarElect phenotype program was chosen to identify genes jointly associated with both conditions based on genomic information stored in GeneCards. In total, 138 overlapping genes were then profiled with GeneAnalytics, an analysis pathway enrichment tool utilizing existing gene datasets to identify shared pathways, mechanisms, and phenotypes. Profiling the shared gene data identified seven significantly associated diseases of 2310 matched disease entities with factors implicated in shared pathology of ASD and cancer. These included 371 super-pathways of 455 matched entities reflecting major cell-signaling pathways and metabolic disturbances (e.g., CREB, AKT, GPCR); 153 gene ontology (GO) biological processes of 226 matched processes; 41 GO molecular functions of 78 matched functions; and 145 phenotypes of 232 matched phenotypes. The entries were scored and ranked using a matching algorithm that takes into consideration genomic expression, sequencing, and microarray datasets with cell or tissue specificity. Shared mechanisms may lead to the identification of a common pathology and a better understanding of causation with potential treatment options to lessen the severity of ASD-related symptoms in those affected.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias/genética , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00575, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed analysis of imprinting center (IC) defects in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is not readily available beyond chromosomal microarray (MA) analysis, and such testing is important for a more accurate diagnosis and recurrence risks. This is the first feasibility study of newly developed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) examining DNA copy number differences in the PWS IC region of those with IC defects. METHODS: The study cohort included 17 individuals without 15q11-q13 deletions or maternal disomy but with IC defects as determined by genotype analysis showing biparental inheritance. Seven sets of parents and two healthy, unrelated controls were also analyzed. RESULTS: Copy number differences were distinguished by comparing the number of positive droplets detected by IC probes to those from a chromosome 15 reference probe, GABRß3. The ddPCR findings were compared to results from other methods including MA, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) with 100% concordance. The study also estimated the frequency of IC microdeletions and identified gene variants by WES that may impact phenotypes including CPT2 and NTRK1 genes. CONCLUSION: Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction is a cost-effective method that can be used to confirm the presence of microdeletions in PWS with impact on genetic counseling and recurrence risks for families.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Impressão Genômica , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Testes Genéticos/economia , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/economia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/normas
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 196-205, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569567

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multi-system disorder resulting from a lack of paternal gene expression in the 15q11.2-q13 region. Using databases compiled through response questionnaires completed by families known to the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), this study tested the hypothesis that PWS genetic subtype, BMI, age of diagnosis, clinical symptoms, and growth hormone treatment differ among deceased and living individuals with PWS. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using chi-square and two-group t tests, respectively. Deceased individuals had higher rates of clinical features, including increased weight concerns, heart problems, sleep apnea, other respiratory complications, diabetes, osteoporosis, high pain tolerance, and severe skin picking, when compared to living individuals. Meanwhile, living individuals had higher rates of growth hormone use and early puberty. Obesity and subsequent consequences are the primary contributors to increased mortality in PWS. Additional emphasis on areas to decrease mortality is needed.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 29-36, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556641

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), is a complex genetic disease affecting 1/15,000 individuals, characterized by lack of expression of genes on the paternal chromosome 15q11-q13 region. Clinical features include central hypotonia, poor suck, learning and behavior problems, growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Despite significant advances in genetic testing, the mean age for diagnosis in PWS continues to lag behind. Our goal was to perform a pilot feasibility study to confirm the diagnosis utilizing different genetic technologies in a cohort of 34 individuals with genetically confirmed PWS and 16 healthy controls from blood samples spotted and stored on newborn screening (NBS) filter paper cards. DNA was isolated from NBS cards, and PWS testing performed using DNA methylation-specific PCR (mPCR) and the methylation specific-multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) chromosome 15 probe kit followed by DNA fragment analysis for methylation and copy number status. DNA extraction was successful in 30 of 34 PWS patients and 16 controls. PWS methylation testing was able to correctly identify all PWS patients and MS-MLPA was able to differentiate between 15q11-q13 deletion and non-deletion status and correctly identify deletion subtype (i.e., larger Type I or smaller Type II). mPCR can be used to diagnose PWS and MS-MLPA testing to determine both methylation status as well as the type of deletion or non-deletion status from DNA extracted from NBS filter paper. We propose that PWS testing in newborns is possible and could be included in the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel after establishing a validated cost-effective method.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289596

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem disorder because of errors in genomic imprinting with severe hypotonia, decreased muscle mass, poor suckling, feeding problems and failure to thrive during infancy, growth and other hormone deficiency, childhood-onset hyperphagia, and subsequent obesity. Decreased energy expenditure in PWS is thought to contribute to reduced muscle mass and physical activity but may also relate to cellular metabolism and disturbances in mitochondrial function. We established fibroblast cell lines from six children and adults with PWS and six healthy controls for mitochondrial assays. We used Agilent Seahorse XF extracellular flux technology to determine real-time measurements of several metabolic parameters including cellular substrate utilization, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)-linked respiration, and mitochondrial capacity in living cells. Decreased mitochondrial function was observed in the PWS patients compared to the healthy controls with significant differences in basal respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, and ATP-linked respiration. These results suggest disturbed mitochondrial bioenergetics in PWS although the low number of studied subjects will require a larger subject population before a general consensus can be reached to identify if mitochondrial dysfunction is a contributing factor in PWS.

15.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postsecondary students in Western countries exhibit a high prevalence of cannabis and tobacco use disorders. The etiology of these problems is contributed by several psychosocial factors, including childhood adversity and trauma; however, the mechanisms whereby these environmental determinants predispose to the use of these substances remain elusive, due to our poor knowledge of genetic and biological moderators. Converging evidence points to the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene as a moderator of the effects of lifetime stress on the initiation of substance use. AIMS: Building on these premises, in this study, we analyzed whether MAOA upstream variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR) alleles interact with child maltreatment history to predict for lifetime cannabis and tobacco consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred college students (age: 18-25 years) from a large Midwestern University were surveyed for their child maltreatment history (encompassing emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect) and lifetime consumption of cannabis and tobacco. Saliva samples were obtained to determine the MAOA uVNTR genotype of each participant. RESULTS: In female students, lifetime tobacco and cannabis use was predicted by the interaction of physical and emotional abuse with high-activity MAOA allelic variants; conversely, in males, the interaction of low-activity MAOA alleles and physical abuse was associated with lifetime use of tobacco, but not cannabis. DISCUSSION: These findings collectively suggest that the vulnerability to smoke tobacco and cannabis is predicted by sex-dimorphic interactions of MAOA gene with childhood abuse. CONCLUSION: These biosocial underpinnings of tobacco and cannabis use may prove important in the development of novel personalized preventive strategies for substance use disorders in adolescents.

16.
J Med Genet ; 2018 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is due to errors in genomic imprinting. PWS is recognised as the most common known genetic cause of life-threatening obesity. This report summarises the frequency and further characterises the PWS molecular classes and maternal age effects. METHODS: High-resolution microarrays, comprehensive chromosome 15 genotyping and methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification were used to describe and further characterise molecular classes of maternal disomy 15 (UPD15) considering maternal age. RESULTS: We summarised genetic data from 510 individuals with PWS and 303 (60%) had the 15q11-q13 deletion; 185 (36%) with UPD15 and 22 (4%) with imprinting defects. We further characterised UPD15 findings into subclasses based on the presence (size, location) or absence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Additionally, significantly older mothers (mean age=32.5 years vs 27.7 years) were found in the UPD15 group (n=145) compared with the deletion subtype (n=200). CONCLUSIONS: We report on molecular classes in PWS using advanced genomic technology in the largest cohort to date. LOH patterns in UPD15 may impact the risk of having a second genetic condition if the mother carries a recessive mutant allele in the isodisomic region on chromosome 15. The risk of UPD15 may also increase with maternal age.

17.
J Med Genet ; 55(9): 594-598, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776967

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder associated with three different genetic subtypes: deletion of the paternal copy of 15q11-q13, maternal UPD for chromosome 15 and imprinting defect. Patients are typically diagnosed because of neonatal hypotonia, dysmorphism and feeding difficulties; however, data on the prenatal features of PWS are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify and compare frequencies of prenatal and neonatal clinical features of PWS among the three genetic subtypes. METHODS: Data from 355 patients with PWS from the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network PWS registry were used to analyse multiple maternal and neonatal factors collected during an 8-year multisite study. RESULTS: Among our cohort of 355 patients with PWS (61% deletion, 36% UPD and 3% imprinting defect) 54% were born by caesarean section, 26% were born prematurely and 34% with a low birth weight (frequencies 32%, 9.6% and 8.1%, respectively, in the general population). Fetal movements were reported as decreased in 72%. All babies were hypotonic, and 99% had feeding difficulties. Low Apgar scores (<7) were noted in 17.7% and 5.6% of patients, respectively, compared with 1% and 1.4%, respectively, in the general population. Maternal age and pre-pregnancy weight were significantly higher in the UPD group (p=0.01 and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: We found a higher rate of perinatal complications in PWS syndrome compared with the general population. No significant differences in the genetic subtypes were noted except for a higher maternal age and pre-pregnancy weight in the UPD subgroup.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 886-895, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437285

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic imprinting disorder characterized by childhood obesity, short stature, hypogonadism/hypogenitalism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Usually PWS occurs sporadically due to the loss of paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 with the majority of individuals having the 15q11-q13 region deleted. Examples of familial PWS have been reported but rarely. To date 13 families have been reported with more than one child with PWS and without a 15q11-q13 deletion secondary to a chromosome 15 translocation, inversion, or uniparental maternal disomy 15. Ten of those 13 families were shown to carry microdeletions in the PWS imprinting center. The microdeletions were found to be of paternal origin in nine of the ten cases in which family studies were carried out. Using a variety of techniques, the microdeletions were identified in regions within the complex SNRPN gene locus encompassing the PWS imprinting center. Here, we report the clinical and genetic findings in three adult siblings with PWS caused by a microdeletion in the chromosome 15 imprinting center inherited from an unaffected father that controls the activity of genes in the 15q11-q13 region and summarize the 13 reported cases in the literature.

19.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 41: 48-53, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459141

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. DESIGN: Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3). Selected growth parameters were collected and GHR genotype data examined for previously reported associations (e.g., height, weight or bone mass density) or novel findings (e.g., % body water and index finger length). RESULTS: We found 219 participants (48%) homozygous for fl/fl, 203 (44%), heterozygous fl/d3 and 37 (8%) homozygous d3/d3. The distribution of GHR genotypes in our participants was consistent with previous reports of non-US populations. Several anthropometric measures differed by sex. The distribution of GHR genotypes did not significantly differ by sex, weight, or other anthropometric measures. However, the fl/d3 genotype was more common among African-Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Composição Corporal/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 11-18, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178241

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, typically due to CGG-repeat expansions in the FMR1 gene leading to lack of expression. We identified a rare FMR1 gene mutation (c.413G>A), previously reported in a single patient and reviewed the literature for other rare FMR1 mutations. Our patient at 10 years of age presented with the classical findings of FXS including intellectual disability, autism, craniofacial findings, hyperextensibility, fleshy hands, flat feet, unsteady gait, and seizures but without the typical CGG-repeat expansion. He had more features of FXS than the previously reported patient with the same mutation. Twenty individuals reported previously with rare missense or nonsense mutations or other coding disturbances of the FMR1 gene ranged in age from infancy to 50 years; most were verbal with limited speech, had autism and hyperactivity, and all had intellectual disability. Four of the 20 individuals had a mutation within exon 15, three within exon 5, and two within exon 2. The FMR1 missense mutation (c.413G>A) is the same as in a previously reported male where it was shown that there was preservation of the post-synaptic function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the encoded protein of the FMR1 gene was preserved. Both patients with this missense mutation had physical, cognitive, and behavioral features similarly seen in FXS.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Facies , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
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