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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263982, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the primary method for tissue acquisition of intra-abdominal masses. However, the main limitation of cytology alone is the lack of tissue architecture and inadequate samples. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combined conventional cytology and cell block preparation obtained from EUS-FNA of intra-abdominal masses without Rapid On-site Evaluation (ROSE). METHODS: Cytologic smears and cell block slides of 166 patients undergoing EUS-FNA during 2010-2015 were reviewed by an experienced cytopathologist blinded to clinical data. RESULTS: 125 patients had neoplastic lesions. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was the most common etiology (35.5%), followed by lymph node metastasis (27.7%). The mean mass size was 2.5±1.3 cm. The mean number of passes was 1.9±1.28. Tissue adequacy for conventional cytology and cell block preparation was 78.9% and 78.1%, respectively. Factors associated with tissue adequacy were assessed. For cytology, lesions of > 2.1 cm, masses in the pancreatic body or tail, malignancy, and pancreatic cancer were positively associated with adequate cellularity. For cell block preparation, lesions of > 3 cm and malignancy were associated with increased tissue adequacy. The conventional cytology alone had a sensitivity of 68.5%, a specificity of 95.7%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.821. The cell block preparation alone had a sensitivity of 65.4%, a specificity of 96%, and an AUROC of 0.807. The combined conventional cytology and cell block preparation performed significantly better than either method alone (p<0.05), as demonstrated by an increased AUROC of 0.853. Furthermore, cell block detected malignancy in 9.3% of cases where the cytologic smears failed to identify malignant cells. CONCLUSIONS: The combined conventional cytology and cell block preparation increased the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA compared to either method alone. This approach should be implemented in routine practice, especially where ROSE is unavailable.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Humanos , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
World J Hepatol ; 14(1): 158-167, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126845

RESUMO

Recently, a single letter change has taken the world by storm. A group of experts have developed a consensus to upgrade the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), suggesting that MAFLD would more accurately reflect not only the disease pathogenesis but would also help in patient stratification for management with NAFLD. However, the difference of opinion exists, which has made the NAFLD vs MAFLD debate the current talk of the town. This review will focus on the plausibility and implications of redefining NAFLD as MAFLD.

3.
Hepatol Int ; 16(1): 171-182, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is considered a main prognostic event in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We analyzed the 28-day and 90-day mortality in ACLF patients with or without underlying cirrhosis enrolled in the ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. METHODS: A total of 1,621 patients were prospectively enrolled and 637 (39.3%) of these patients had cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, complications and mortality were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was more common in cirrhosis than non-cirrhosis (66.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.0001), while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/cryptogenic CLD (10.9% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001) and chronic HBV reactivation (18.8% vs 11.8%, p < 0.0001) were more common in non-cirrhosis. Only 0.8% of patients underwent liver transplantation. Overall, 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were 39.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had a greater chance of survival compared to those without cirrhosis both at 28-day (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36-0.63, p < 0.0001) and 90-day (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.72, p < 0.0001), respectively. In alcohol CLD, non-cirrhosis patients had a higher 28-day (49.9% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001) and 90-day (58.4% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) mortality rate than cirrhosis patients. ACLF patients with cirrhosis had longer mean survival than non-cirrhosis patients (25.5 vs. 18.8 days at 28-day and 65.2 vs. 41.2 days at 90-day). Exaggerated systemic inflammation might be the reason why non-cirrhosis patients had a poorer prognosis than those with cirrhosis after ACLF had occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates of ACLF patients without cirrhosis were significantly higher than those with cirrhosis in alcoholic CLD. The presence of cirrhosis and its stage should be evaluated at baseline to guide for management. Thai Clinical Trials Registry, TCTR20191226002.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Prognóstico
5.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Clin Endosc ; 54(5): 678-687, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the training of medical trainees internationally. The aim of this study was to assess the global impact of COVID-19 on endoscopy training from the perspective of endoscopy trainers and to identify strategies implemented to mitigate the impact on trainee education. METHODS: Teaching faculty of gastroenterology (GI) training programs globally were invited to complete a 36-question web-based survey to report the characteristics of their training programs and the impact of COVID-19 on various aspects of endoscopy training, including what factors decisions were based on. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 52.6% (305 out of 580 individuals); 92.8% reported a negative impact on endoscopy training, with suspension of elective procedures (77.1%) being the most detrimental factor. Geographic variations were noted, with European programs reporting the lowest percentage of trainee participation in procedures. A higher proportion of trainees in the Americas were allowed to continue performing procedures, and trainers from the Americas reported receiving the greatest support for endoscopy teaching. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on GI endoscopy training internationally, as reported by endoscopy trainers. Focus-optimizing endoscopy training and assessment of competencies are necessary to ensure adequate endoscopy training.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The discrepancy between admission and discharge diagnosis can lead to possible adverse patient outcomes. There are gaps in integrated studies, and less is understood about its characteristics and effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of diagnostic discrepancies at admission and discharge. DESIGN AND DATA SOURCES: This retrospective study reviewed the admitting and discharge diagnoses of adult patients admitted at Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Internal Medicine Department between October 2018 and February 2019. The frequency and outcomes of discrepancies in patient diagnoses were noted among Emergency Department (ED) physician versus admitting physician, admitting physician versus discharge physician, and ED physician versus discharge physician for the full match, partial match, and mismatch diagnoses. The studied outcomes included interdepartmental transfer, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer, in-hospital mortality, readmission within 30 days, and the length of stay. For simplicity, we only analyzed the factors for the discrepancy among ED physicians and discharge physicians. RESULTS: Out of 537 admissions, there were 25.3-27.2% admissions with full match diagnoses while 18.6-19.4% and 45.3-47.9% had mismatch and partial match diagnoses respectively. The discrepancy resulted in an increased number of interdepartmental transfers (5-5.8%), ICU transfers (5.6-8.7%), in-hospital mortality (8-11%), and readmissions within 30 days in ED (14.4%-16.7%). A statistically significant difference was observed for the ward's length of stay with the most prolonged stay in partially matched diagnoses (6.3 ± 5.4 days). Among all the factors that were evaluated for the diagnostic discrepancy, older age, multi-morbidities, level of trainee clerking the patient, review by ED faculty, incomplete history, and delay in investigations at ED were associated with significant discrepant diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic discrepancies are a relevant and significant healthcare problem. Fixed patient or physician characteristics do not readily predict diagnostic discrepancies. To reduce the diagnostic discrepancy, emphasis should be given to good history taking and thorough physical examination. Patients with older age and multi-morbidity should receive significant consideration.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 150-157, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors may impact the severity and outcome of alcoholic liver disease. The present study evaluated this effect in patients with alcohol-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODOLOGY: One thousand two hundred and sixteen prospectively enrolled patients with ACLF (males 98%, mean age 42.5 ± 9.4 years, mean CTP, MELD and AARC scores of 12 ± 1.4, 29.7 ± 7 and 9.8 ± 2 respectively) from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database were analysed retrospectively. Patients with or without metabolic risk factors were compared for severity (CTP, MELD, AARC scores) and day 30 and 90 mortality. Information on overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidaemia were available in 1028 (85%), 1019 (84%), 1017 (84%) and 965 (79%) patients respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 392 (32%) patients died at day 30 and 528 (43%) at day 90. Overweight/obesity, T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were present in 154 (15%), 142 (14%), 66 (7%) and 141 (15%) patients, respectively, with no risk factors in 809 (67%) patients. Patients with overweight/obesity had higher MELD scores (30.6 ± 7.1 vs 29.2 ± 6.9, P = .007) and those with dyslipidaemia had higher AARC scores (10.4 ± 1.2 vs 9.8 ± 2, P = .014). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased day 30 mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24, P = .023). None of other metabolic risk factors, alone or in combination, had any impact on disease severity or mortality. On multivariate analysis, overweight or obesity was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (aHR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.59, P < .001), independent of age, CTP, MELD and AARC scores. CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia increase the severity of alcohol-associated ACLF, and the former also increases the short-term mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 21(3): 156-161, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & STUDY AIMS: Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has markedly impacted routine medical services including gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. We aim to report the real-life performance in high volume GI endoscopy units during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A web-based survey covering all aspects of daily performance in GI endoscopy units was sent to endoscopy units worldwide. Responses were collected and data were analyzed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on endoscopy practice. RESULTS: Participants from 48 countries (n = 163) responded to the survey with response rate of 67.35%. The majority (85%) decreased procedure volume by over 50%, and four endoscopy units (2.45%) completely stopped. The top three indications for procedures included upper GI bleeding (89.6%), lower GI bleeding (65.6%) and cholangitis (62.6%). The majority (93.9%) triaged patients for COVID-19 prior to procedure. N95 masks were used in (57.1%), isolation gowns in (74.2%) and head covers in (78.5%). Most centers (65%) did not extend use of N95 masks, however 50.9% of centers reused N95 masks. Almost all (91.4%) centers used standard endoscopic decontamination and most (69%) had no negative pressure rooms. Forty-two centers (25.8%) reported positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients and 50 (30.7%) centers reported positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among their healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Most GI endoscopy centers had a significant reduction in their volume and most procedures performed were urgent. Most centers used the recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) by GI societies however there is still a possibility of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in GI endoscopy units.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(6): 929-937, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute insults from viruses, infections, or alcohol are established causes of decompensation leading to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Information regarding drugs as triggers of ACLF is lacking. We examined data regarding drugs producing ACLF and analyzed clinical features, laboratory characteristics, outcome, and predictors of mortality in patients with drug-induced ACLF. METHODS: We identified drugs as precipitants of ACLF among prospective cohort of patients with ACLF from the Asian Pacific Association of Study of Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. Drugs were considered precipitants after exclusion of known causes together with a temporal association between exposure and decompensation. Outcome was defined as death from decompensation. RESULTS: Of the 3,132 patients with ACLF, drugs were implicated as a cause in 329 (10.5%, mean age 47 years, 65% men) and other nondrug causes in 2,803 (89.5%) (group B). Complementary and alternative medications (71.7%) were the commonest insult, followed by combination antituberculosis therapy drugs (27.3%). Alcoholic liver disease (28.6%), cryptogenic liver disease (25.5%), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (16.7%) were common causes of underlying liver diseases. Patients with drug-induced ACLF had jaundice (100%), ascites (88%), encephalopathy (46.5%), high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) (30.2), and Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (12.1). The overall 90-day mortality was higher in drug-induced (46.5%) than in non-drug-induced ACLF (38.8%) (P = 0.007). The Cox regression model identified arterial lactate (P < 0.001) and total bilirubin (P = 0.008) as predictors of mortality. DISCUSSION: Drugs are important identifiable causes of ACLF in Asia-Pacific countries, predominantly from complementary and alternative medications, followed by antituberculosis drugs. Encephalopathy, bilirubin, blood urea, lactate, and international normalized ratio (INR) predict mortality in drug-induced ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/induzido quimicamente , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
World J Hepatol ; 10(2): 267-276, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527262

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the most common cause of HCC in many European countries, Japan and Pakistan. Introduction of the new direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the management of HCV worldwide, with high rates of sustained virologic response in patients who could not have tolerated the previous interferon based treatments. However, recently there have been reports raising caution about the long term effects of DAAs, particularly a possible increased risk of HCC. Therefore this review explores the current molecular studies as well as clinical data that investigate the impact of DAAs on occurrence and recurrence of HCC.

13.
Virol J ; 14(1): 228, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies assessing HEV infection in HIV-infected populations have been performed in developed countries that are usually affected by HEV genotype 3. The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and risk of acquiring HEV among HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 459 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals from Nepal, an endemic country for HEV, for seroprevalence of HEV and assessed risk factors associated with HEV infection. All individuals were on antiretroviral therapy and healthy blood donors were used as controls. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of HEV IgG (39.4%) and HEV IgM (15.3%) in HIV-positive subjects when compared to healthy HIV-negative controls: 9.5% and 4.4%, respectively (OR: 6.17, 95% CI 4.42-8.61, p < 0.001 and OR: 3.7, 95% CI 2.35-5.92, p < 0.001, respectively). Individuals residing in the Kathmandu area showed a significantly higher HEV IgG seroprevalance compared to individuals residing outside of Kathmandu (76.8% vs 11.1%, OR: 30.33, 95% CI 18.02-51.04, p = 0.001). Mean CD4 counts, HIV viral load and presence of hepatitis B surface antigen correlated with higher HEV IgM rate, while presence of hepatitis C antibody correlated with higher rate of HEV IgG in serum. Overall, individuals with HEV IgM positivity had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than IgM negative subjects, suggesting active acute infection. However, no specific symptoms for hepatitis were identified. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive subjects living in Kathmandu are at higher risk of acquiring HEV infection as compared to the general population and to HIV-positive subjects living outside Kathmandu.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Liver Int ; 37(10): 1497-1507, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is limited data on predictors of acute kidney injury in acute on chronic liver failure. We developed a PIRO model (Predisposition, Injury, Response, Organ failure) for predicting acute kidney injury in a multicentric cohort of acute on chronic liver failure patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 2360 patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analysed. Multivariate logistic regression model (PIRO score) was developed from a derivation cohort (n=1363) which was validated in another prospective multicentric cohort of acute on chronic liver failure patients (n=997). RESULTS: Factors significant for P component were serum creatinine[(≥2 mg/dL)OR 4.52, 95% CI (3.67-5.30)], bilirubin [(<12 mg/dL,OR 1) vs (12-30 mg/dL,OR 1.45, 95% 1.1-2.63) vs (≥30 mg/dL,OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2)], serum potassium [(<3 mmol/LOR-1) vs (3-4.9 mmol/L,OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.05-1.97) vs (≥5 mmol/L,OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.67-11.3)] and blood urea (OR 3.73, 95% CI 2.5-5.5); for I component nephrotoxic medications (OR-9.86, 95% CI 3.2-30.8); for R component,Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome,(OR-2.14, 95% CI 1.4-3.3); for O component, Circulatory failure (OR-3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.5). The PIRO score predicted acute kidney injury with C-index of 0.95 and 0.96 in the derivation and validation cohort. The increasing PIRO score was also associated with mortality (P<.001) in both the derivation and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The PIRO model identifies and stratifies acute on chronic liver failure patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury. It reliably predicts mortality in these patients, underscoring the prognostic significance of acute kidney injury in patients with acute on chronic liver failure.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/complicações , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/sangue , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Adulto , Ásia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nomogramas , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201731

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a rising cause for concern in Asian countries. Weather it is blood borne or water/food borne hepatotropic virus, increasing burden is alarming for Asian countries. In this review we have evaluated the existing data to estimate the burden of viral hepatitis in populations of all age groups nationwide, along with an assessment of the risk factors and preventive and management strategies currently employed in Pakistan. The aim of our work is to consolidate and supplement the present knowledge regarding viral hepatitis in light of past and present trends and to provide future direction to the existing health policies. How to cite this article: Butt AS, Sharif F. Viral Hepatitis in Pakistan: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):70-81.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201686

RESUMO

Pakistan is among ten most populous countries in world. All sorts of hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. Due to lack of proper mechanisms to handle sewerage, disinfection and lack of clean water supply across the country, hepatitis A and E are endemic in Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan ranked in intermediate prevalence zone for hepatitis B and C. Also, prevailing socioeconomic conditions, political statuses and unstable healthcare delivery system are not suitable for tackling further progression of hepatitis viruses and its complications. The notable factors related to epidemiology of different hepatitis viruses have been described in this communication. How to cite this article: Butt AS. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Pakistan. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):43-48.

17.
Hepatol Int ; 8(4): 453-71, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26202751

RESUMO

The first consensus report of the working party of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) set up in 2004 on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) was published in 2009. Due to the rapid advancements in the knowledge and available information, a consortium of members from countries across Asia Pacific, "APASL ACLF Research Consortium (AARC)," was formed in 2012. A large cohort of retrospective and prospective data of ACLF patients was collated and followed up in this data base. The current ACLF definition was reassessed based on the new AARC data base. These initiatives were concluded on a 2-day meeting in February 2014 at New Delhi and led to the development of the final AARC consensus. Only those statements which were based on the evidence and were unanimously recommended were accepted. These statements were circulated again to all the experts and subsequently presented at the annual conference of the APASL at Brisbane, on March 14, 2014. The suggestions from the delegates were analyzed by the expert panel, and the modifications in the consensus were made. The final consensus and guidelines document was prepared. After detailed deliberations and data analysis, the original proposed definition was found to withstand the test of time and identify a homogenous group of patients presenting with liver failure. Based on the AARC data, liver failure grading, and its impact on the "Golden therapeutic Window," extra-hepatic organ failure and development of sepsis were analyzed. New management options including the algorithms for the management of coagulation disorders, renal replacement therapy, sepsis, variceal bleed, antivirals, and criteria for liver transplantation for ACLF patients were proposed. The final consensus statements along with the relevant background information are presented here.

18.
BMC Res Notes ; 6: 137, 2013 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23566475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HCC is the fifth most common cancer globally. Our study was conducted to (1)investigate the trends and clinico-pathological characteristics of Hepatocellular carcinoma among native South Asian patients in Pakistan, (2)to estimate the prevalence as well as the trends of viral marker negative HCC and (3) to compare the clinico-pathological, radiological characteristics, applicability of treatment at diagnosis and prognostic factors among patients with both viral marker negative and viral marker positive-HCC being consulted at Aga Khan University Hospital(AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. METHOD: Patients ≥18 years, already diagnosed to have HCC and visiting AKUH during 1999-2009 were identified using ICD code 1550. The diagnosis of HCC was made in the presence of characteristic features of HCC on triple-phasic CT scan/MRI or with histological findings on biopsy. RESULTS: 645 patients were enrolled. Of these 546(84.7%) were viral-HCC and 99(15.3%) were viral marker negative HCC. Among viral-HCC group underlying etiology of cirrhosis was HCV in 67.9%, HBV in 21.8% and concomitant HBV with HCV or HDV in 10.3% cases. Majority (62.8%) patients had advanced HCC. Larger tumor size (p < 0.001), shorter duration between diagnosis of cirrhosis and HCC (p 0.03), concomitant Diabetes Mellitus (p < 0.001) were found significant factors associated with viral marker negative HCC. CONCLUSION: The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma is rising among native South Asian Pakistani population and the viral marker negative HCC are not uncommon in our population. Viral marker negative HCC tend not to be under surveillance as compared to viral-HCC and are diagnosed mostly at advanced stage & when they became symptomatic.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hepat Mon ; 12(10 HCC): e6023, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23166534

RESUMO

CONTEXT: From the 1970s till the mid 1990s, hepatitis B was the most common etiological factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Pakistan. Afterwards, a shift in HCC etiology was observed with a steady rise in hepatitis C virus (HCV) related HCC cases. HCV-3a, which is the most prevalent genotype, is also most frequent in HCV related HCC. There was an increase in the proportion of non-B non-C (NBNC) HCC cases as well, which might be attributed to an increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The age-standardized rate for HCC is 7.64/100 000 in males and 2.8/100 000 in females. Male to female ratio is 3.6:1. Usual age of presentation is in the fifth and sixth decade. Most patients present with advanced disease, as they are not in a regular surveillance program. This is more so for patients with NBNC chronic liver disease. As many sonologists in Pakistan are practicing without sufficient training to pick up early lesions, alpha-fetoprotein is still recommended to compliment ultrasound in the surveillance of HCC. RESULTS: Majority of HCC patients present with nonresectable disease. Interventions such as transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, resection and chemotherapy including sorafenib are available in selected centers. Pakistan appears to be in an area of intermediate endemicity for HCC. There is a need for population based epidemiological studies to estimate the exact disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to prevent the spread of hepatitis C and B can slow down the epidemic rise in the incidence of HCC in the coming decades. There is a need to implement a proper surveillance program to identify HCC cases at an early stage.

20.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2012: 291452, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22505882

RESUMO

Background. The psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression could have a profound influence on onset, expression, and course of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Aim. To estimate the frequency and strength of association of common mental disorders (CMDs) in patients with IBS and patients with other chronic diseases, that is, migraine and hypertension. Method. This was a case control study. Individuals aged 18-70 years diagnosed as IBS were enrolled as cases. The control groups consisted of patients without IBS but diagnosed to have a chronic disease, that is, migraine or HTN. Self-Reporting Questonnaire-20(SRQ-20) was used as a screening tool for the detection of CMD. Results. 82 patients were enrolled in each group. Mean SRQ score was significantly higher in IBS group than controls (9.9 ± 4.5 versus 4.9 ± 3.6, P < 0.001). CMDs were more frequent (67.1% versus 22%) and the odds of CMD were 7.24 times higher among IBS patients than controls (95% CI 3.6-14.5, P < 0.001). No difference was found in frequency of CMDs among various subtypes of IBS. Conclusion. We found that CMDs are more common and strongly associated with IBS as compared to other chronic diseases. Early screening for CMDs might be useful for an effective management of IBS.

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