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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
2.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003498, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can stratify populations into cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk groups. We aimed to quantify the potential advantage of adding information on PRSs to conventional risk factors in the primary prevention of CVD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from UK Biobank on 306,654 individuals without a history of CVD and not on lipid-lowering treatments (mean age [SD]: 56.0 [8.0] years; females: 57%; median follow-up: 8.1 years), we calculated measures of risk discrimination and reclassification upon addition of PRSs to risk factors in a conventional risk prediction model (i.e., age, sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, history of diabetes, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). We then modelled the implications of initiating guideline-recommended statin therapy in a primary care setting using incidence rates from 2.1 million individuals from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, was 0.710 (95% CI 0.703-0.717) for a CVD prediction model containing conventional risk predictors alone. Addition of information on PRSs increased the C-index by 0.012 (95% CI 0.009-0.015), and resulted in continuous net reclassification improvements of about 10% and 12% in cases and non-cases, respectively. If a PRS were assessed in the entire UK primary care population aged 40-75 years, assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ≥10% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), then it could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 5,750 individuals screened. By contrast, targeted assessment only among people at intermediate (i.e., 5% to <10%) 10-year CVD risk could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 340 individuals screened. Such a targeted strategy could help prevent 7% more CVD events than conventional risk prediction alone. Potential gains afforded by assessment of PRSs on top of conventional risk factors would be about 1.5-fold greater than those provided by assessment of C-reactive protein, a plasma biomarker included in some risk prediction guidelines. Potential limitations of this study include its restriction to European ancestry participants and a lack of health economic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that addition of PRSs to conventional risk factors can modestly enhance prediction of first-onset CVD and could translate into population health benefits if used at scale.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 42(12): 1160-1169, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351885

RESUMO

AIMS : Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement. METHODS AND RESULTS : Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS : Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.

4.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 703, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239738

RESUMO

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensorimotor disorder often described as an unpleasant sensation associated with an urge to move the legs. Here we report findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of RLS including 480,982 Caucasians (cases = 10,257) and a follow up sample of 24,977 (cases = 6,651). We confirm 19 of the 20 previously reported RLS sequence variants at 19 loci and report three novel RLS associations; rs112716420-G (OR = 1.25, P = 1.5 × 10-18), rs10068599-T (OR = 1.09, P = 6.9 × 10-10) and rs10769894-A (OR = 0.90, P = 9.4 × 10-14). At four of the 22 RLS loci, cis-eQTL analysis indicates a causal impact on gene expression. Through polygenic risk score for RLS we extended prior epidemiological findings implicating obesity, smoking and high alcohol intake as risk factors for RLS. To improve our understanding, with the purpose of seeking better treatments, more genetics studies yielding deeper insights into the disease biology are needed.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets rich in plant foods are associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is sparse information on fruit and vegetable subtypes and sources of dietary fibre. This study examined the associations of major plant foods, their subtypes and dietary fibre with risk of IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 490 311 men and women without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke at recruitment (12.6 years of follow-up, n cases = 8504), in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of IHD. RESULTS: There was a lower risk of IHD with a higher intake of fruit and vegetables combined [HR per 200 g/day higher intake 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.99, P-trend = 0.009], and with total fruits (per 100 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.021). There was no evidence for a reduced risk for fruit subtypes, except for bananas. Risk was lower with higher intakes of nuts and seeds (per 10 g/day 0.90, 0.82-0.98, P-trend = 0.020), total fibre (per 10 g/day 0.91, 0.85-0.98, P-trend = 0.015), fruit and vegetable fibre (per 4 g/day 0.95, 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.022) and fruit fibre (per 2 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.045). No associations were observed between vegetables, vegetables subtypes, legumes, cereals and IHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we found some small inverse associations between plant foods and IHD risk, with fruit and vegetables combined being the most strongly inversely associated with risk. Whether these small associations are causal remains unclear.

7.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

8.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1122-1131, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895551

RESUMO

The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here we estimated the effects of 1,002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium is widespread in naïve phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ( https://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/ ). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programs showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of this approach in identifying and prioritizing potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 703-714, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) integrate information from many common DNA variants into a single number. Because rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) are substantially higher among South Asians, a GPS to identify high-risk individuals may be particularly useful in this population. OBJECTIVES: This analysis used summary statistics from a prior genome-wide association study to derive a new GPSCAD for South Asians. METHODS: This GPSCAD was validated in 7,244 South Asian UK Biobank participants and tested in 491 individuals from a case-control study in Bangladesh. Next, a static ancestry and GPSCAD reference distribution was built using whole-genome sequencing from 1,522 Indian individuals, and a framework was tested for projecting individuals onto this static ancestry and GPSCAD reference distribution using 1,800 CAD cases and 1,163 control subjects newly recruited in India. RESULTS: The GPSCAD, containing 6,630,150 common DNA variants, had an odds ratio (OR) per SD of 1.58 in South Asian UK Biobank participants and 1.60 in the Bangladeshi study (p < 0.001 for each). Next, individuals of the Indian case-control study were projected onto static reference distributions, observing an OR/SD of 1.66 (p < 0.001). Compared with the middle quintile, risk for CAD was most pronounced for those in the top 5% of the GPSCAD distribution-ORs of 4.16, 2.46, and 3.22 in the South Asian UK Biobank, Bangladeshi, and Indian studies, respectively (p < 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: The new GPSCAD has been developed and tested using 3 distinct South Asian studies, and provides a generalizable framework for ancestry-specific GPS assessment.

10.
Blood Adv ; 4(15): 3495-3506, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750130

RESUMO

Each year, blood transfusions save millions of lives. However, under current blood-matching practices, sensitization to non-self-antigens is an unavoidable adverse side effect of transfusion. We describe a universal donor typing platform that could be adopted by blood services worldwide to facilitate a universal extended blood-matching policy and reduce sensitization rates. This DNA-based test is capable of simultaneously typing most clinically relevant red blood cell (RBC), human platelet (HPA), and human leukocyte (HLA) antigens. Validation was performed, using samples from 7927 European, 27 South Asian, 21 East Asian, and 9 African blood donors enrolled in 2 national biobanks. We illustrated the usefulness of the platform by analyzing antibody data from patients sensitized with multiple RBC alloantibodies. Genotyping results demonstrated concordance of 99.91%, 99.97%, and 99.03% with RBC, HPA, and HLA clinically validated typing results in 89 371, 3016, and 9289 comparisons, respectively. Genotyping increased the total number of antigen typing results available from 110 980 to >1 200 000. Dense donor typing allowed identification of 2 to 6 times more compatible donors to serve 3146 patients with multiple RBC alloantibodies, providing at least 1 match for 176 individuals for whom previously no blood could be found among the same donors. This genotyping technology is already being used to type thousands of donors taking part in national genotyping studies. Extraction of dense antigen-typing data from these cohorts provides blood supply organizations with the opportunity to implement a policy of genomics-based precision matching of blood.

11.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 631-643, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes. METHODS: This large prospective study-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-consisted of 338,325 participants who completed a dietary questionnaire. HRs with 95% CIs for a CHD event, in relation to intake of GI, GL, and carbohydrates, were estimated using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After 12.8 y (median), 6378 participants had experienced a CHD event. High GL was associated with greater CHD risk [HR 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.31) highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend 0.035; HR 1.18 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) per 50 g/day of GL intake]. The association between GL and CHD risk was evident in subjects with BMI (in kg/m2) ≥25 [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.35) per 50 g/d] but not in those with BMI <25 [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.22) per 50 g/d) (P-interaction = 0.022). The GL-CHD association did not differ between men [HR: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.30) per 50 g/d] and women [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40) per 50 g/d] (test for interaction not significant). GI was associated with CHD risk only in the continuous model [HR: 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 5 units/d]. High available carbohydrate was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) per 50 g/d]. High sugar intake was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) per 50 g/d]. CONCLUSIONS: This large pan-European study provides robust additional support for the hypothesis that a diet that induces a high glucose response is associated with greater CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008605, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150548

RESUMO

Circulating metabolite levels are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we studied, association of rare variants and 226 serum lipoproteins, lipids and amino acids in 7,142 (discovery plus follow-up) healthy participants. We leveraged the information from multiple metabolite measurements on the same participants to improve discovery in rare variant association analyses for gene-based and gene-set tests by incorporating correlated metabolites as covariates in the validation stage. Gene-based analysis corrected for the effective number of tests performed, confirmed established associations at APOB, APOC3, PAH, HAL and PCSK (p<1.32x10-7) and identified novel gene-trait associations at a lower stringency threshold with ACSL1, MYCN, FBXO36 and B4GALNT3 (p<2.5x10-6). Regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex was associated for the first time, in gene-set analyses also corrected for effective number of tests, with IDL and LDL parameters, as well as circulating cholesterol (pMETASKAT<2.41x10-6). In conclusion, using an approach that leverages metabolite measurements obtained in the same participants, we identified novel loci and pathways involved in the regulation of these important metabolic biomarkers. As large-scale biobanks continue to amass sequencing and phenotypic information, analytical approaches such as ours will be useful to fully exploit the copious amounts of biological data generated in these efforts.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Fenótipo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 800, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041957

RESUMO

Identifying biological correlates of late life cognitive function is important if we are to ascertain biomarkers for, and develop treatments to help reduce, age-related cognitive decline. Here, we investigated the associations between plasma levels of 90 neurology-related proteins (Olink® Proteomics) and general fluid cognitive ability in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936, N = 798), Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921, N = 165), and the INTERVAL BioResource (N = 4451). In the LBC1936, 22 of the proteins were significantly associated with general fluid cognitive ability (ß between -0.11 and -0.17). MRI-assessed total brain volume partially mediated the association between 10 of these proteins and general fluid cognitive ability. In an age-matched subsample of INTERVAL, effect sizes for the 22 proteins, although smaller, were all in the same direction as in LBC1936. Plasma levels of a number of neurology-related proteins are associated with general fluid cognitive ability in later life, mediated by brain volume in some cases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteômica
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2632-2640, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090257

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations between major foods and dietary fibre with subtypes of stroke in a large prospective cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data on 418 329 men and women from nine European countries, with an average of 12.7 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed using validated country-specific questionnaires which asked about habitual intake over the past year, calibrated using 24-h recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke associated with consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, cereals, fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, and dietary fibre. For ischaemic stroke (4281 cases), lower risks were observed with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR; 95% CI per 200 g/day higher intake, 0.87; 0.82-0.93, P-trend < 0.001), dietary fibre (per 10 g/day, 0.77; 0.69-0.86, P-trend < 0.001), milk (per 200 g/day, 0.95; 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.02), yogurt (per 100 g/day, 0.91; 0.85-0.97, P-trend = 0.004), and cheese (per 30 g/day, 0.88; 0.81-0.97, P-trend = 0.008), while higher risk was observed with higher red meat consumption which attenuated when adjusted for the other statistically significant foods (per 50 g/day, 1.07; 0.96-1.20, P-trend = 0.20). For haemorrhagic stroke (1430 cases), higher risk was associated with higher egg consumption (per 20 g/day, 1.25; 1.09-1.43, P-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Risk of ischaemic stroke was inversely associated with consumption of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and dairy foods, while risk of haemorrhagic stroke was positively associated with egg consumption. The apparent differences in the associations highlight the importance of examining ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke subtypes separately.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1036, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080192

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

19.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 5, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lifestyle factors have been studied in relation to individual non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their association with development of a subsequent NCD, defined as multimorbidity, has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between five lifestyle factors and incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 291,778 participants (64% women) from seven European countries, mostly aged 43 to 58 years and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) at recruitment, were included. Incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases was defined as developing subsequently two diseases including first cancer at any site, CVD, and T2D in an individual. Multi-state modelling based on Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of developing cancer, CVD, or T2D, and subsequent transitions to multimorbidity, in relation to body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and their combination as a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated to compute 10-year absolute risks for transitions from healthy to cancer at any site, CVD (both fatal and non-fatal), or T2D, and to subsequent multimorbidity after each of the three NCDs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years, 1910 men and 1334 women developed multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. A higher HLI, reflecting healthy lifestyles, was strongly inversely associated with multimorbidity, with hazard ratios per 3-unit increment of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81), 0.84 (0.79 to 0.90), and 0.82 (0.77 to 0.88) after cancer, CVD, and T2D, respectively. After T2D, the 10-year absolute risks of multimorbidity were 40% and 25% for men and women, respectively, with unhealthy lifestyle, and 30% and 18% for men and women with healthy lifestyles. CONCLUSION: Pre-diagnostic healthy lifestyle behaviours were strongly inversely associated with the risk of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases, and with the prognosis of these diseases by reducing risk of multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Multimorbidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5741, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844048

RESUMO

Socioeconomic position (SEP) is a multi-dimensional construct reflecting (and influencing) multiple socio-cultural, physical, and environmental factors. In a sample of 286,301 participants from UK Biobank, we identify 30 (29 previously unreported) independent-loci associated with income. Using a method to meta-analyze data from genetically-correlated traits, we identify an additional 120 income-associated loci. These loci show clear evidence of functionality, with transcriptional differences identified across multiple cortical tissues, and links to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. By combining our genome wide association study on income with data from eQTL studies and chromatin interactions, 24 genes are prioritized for follow up, 18 of which were previously associated with intelligence. We identify intelligence as one of the likely causal, partly-heritable phenotypes that might bridge the gap between molecular genetic inheritance and phenotypic consequence in terms of income differences. These results indicate that, in modern era Great Britain, genetic effects contribute towards some of the observed socioeconomic inequalities.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reino Unido
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