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1.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 333-339, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains whether associations for psychological distress and sickness absence (SA) observed between and within individuals differ, and whether age, gender and work-related factors moderate these associations. METHODS: We analyzed SA records of 41,184 participants of the Finnish Public Sector study with repeated survey data between 2000 and 2016 (119,024 observations). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), while data on SA days were from the employers' registers. We used a hybrid regression estimation approach adjusting for time-variant confounders-age, marital status, occupational class, body mass index, job contract type, months worked in the follow-up year, job demand, job control, and workplace social capital-and time-invariant gender (for between-individual analysis). RESULTS: Higher levels of psychological distress were consistently associated with SA, both within- and between-individuals. The within-individual association (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.61-1.75 for SA at high distress), however, was substantially smaller than the between-individual association (IRR 2.53, 95% CI 2.39-2.69). High levels of psychological distress had slightly stronger within-individual associations with SA among older (>45 years) than younger employees, lower than higher occupational class, and among men than women. None of the assessed work unit related factors (e.g. job demand, job control) were consistent moderators. LIMITATIONS: These findings may not be generalizable to other working sectors or cultures with different SA policies or study populations that are male dominated. CONCLUSIONS: Focus on within-individual variation over time provides more accurate estimates of the contribution of mental health to subsequent sickness absence.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102336

RESUMO

Workplace bullying adversely affects mental health, yet little is known about the outcomes for suicidal ideation. The current study used Australian population-based data to investigate the association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation. The sample included 1488 employed participants aged 52-58 from wave 4 of the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Study. Workplace bullying was measured in two ways: (a) a single item asked about experiences of bullying 'currently', 'previously in the current workplace' and 'in a past workplace', and (b) 15 items asked about bullying behaviours experienced in the past 6 months. Suicidal ideation was measured using items from the Psychiatric Symptom Frequency Scale (PSF) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Psychosocial job quality, both current and prior, was adjusted for. Current and past experiences of workplace bullying were associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation. Current experiences were no longer associated after adjusting for concurrent indicators of psychosocial job stress, although a tendency for increased ideation remained. Reported prior experience of workplace bullying in a past workplace remained associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation after adjusting for prior psychosocial job stressors and excluding individuals with prior suicidal ideation. Being bullied at work is associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts, although this occurs within the broader influence of other psychologically stressful employment conditions.

3.
Psychother Psychosom ; 89(1): 25-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for major depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) can be done using a cutoff or the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm. Many primary studies publish results for only one approach, and previous meta-analyses of the algorithm approach included only a subset of primary studies that collected data and could have published results. OBJECTIVE: To use an individual participant data meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of two PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithms for detecting major depression and compare accuracy between the algorithms and the standard PHQ-9 cutoff score of ≥10. METHODS: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, Web of Science (January 1, 2000, to February 7, 2015). Eligible studies that classified current major depression status using a validated diagnostic interview. RESULTS: Data were included for 54 of 72 identified eligible studies (n participants = 16,688, n cases = 2,091). Among studies that used a semi-structured interview, pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.57 (0.49, 0.64) and 0.95 (0.94, 0.97) for the original algorithm and 0.61 (0.54, 0.68) and 0.95 (0.93, 0.96) for a modified algorithm. Algorithm sensitivity was 0.22-0.24 lower compared to fully structured interviews and 0.06-0.07 lower compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Specificity was similar across reference standards. For PHQ-9 cutoff of ≥10 compared to semi-structured interviews, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.88 (0.82-0.92) and 0.86 (0.82-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: The cutoff score approach appears to be a better option than a PHQ-9 algorithm for detecting major depression.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 680-686, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the Response Styles Theory, rumination maintains and exacerbates depression. This study was conducted to examine the bidirectional longitudinal associations between rumination and depressive symptoms in a probability sample of Australian adults, evaluate the degree to which the strength of these longitudinal associations was moderated by gender, and test whether these longitudinal associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the influence of demographic characteristics and neuroticism. METHODS: A probability sample of Australian adults (N = 5891) completed self-report measures of rumination, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms at baseline and rumination and depressive symptoms at a four-year follow-up. RESULTS: Results from regression analyses indicated that rumination predicted residual change in depressive symptoms and depressive symptoms predicted residual change in rumination, suggesting that rumination and depressive symptoms influence one another in a bidirectional, recursive fashion. Gender was not a significant moderator of the longitudinal associations between rumination and depressive symptoms. Analyses including the covariates of age, gender, and neuroticism, a personality trait characterized by heightened negative emotionality, indicated that the bidirectional longitudinal associations between rumination and depressive symptoms were not explained by their shared association with demographic characteristics or neuroticism. LIMITATIONS: Within-person analyses involving repeated assessments, shorter time intervals, and assessment of brooding rumination would provide a stronger test of the potential causal association between rumination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that rumination may be both a potential risk factor for and a consequence of depressive symptoms in adults.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802134

RESUMO

Objectives A considerable proportion of the working population reports a disability. These workers may be at risk of adverse outcomes, including longer periods of sickness absence. This study examined the causal effect of disability on sickness absence and the role of psychosocial job stressors and gender as effect modifiers. Methods Data on paid and unpaid sick leave, disability (yes/no) and psychosocial job stressors were available from 2005 to 2017 from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Negative binomial models were used to model the rate of sickness absence in a year. Results In the random effects model, workers with disability had 1.20 greater rate of sickness absence in a year [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.23, P<0.001] after adjustment for confounders. The rate was slightly lower in the fixed effects model. There was evidence of multiplicative interaction of the effect by gender and job control. The effect of disability on sickness absence was greater among men than women, and higher for people with low job control compared to those with high job control. Conclusions There is a need for more research about the factors that can reduce sickness leave among workers with disabilities.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805200

RESUMO

Objectives This study sought to examine the influence of general perceptions of control on the association between job control and mental health. Methods We used four waves of data from a cohort of mid-aged adults from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Study (baseline N=2106). Key measures included job control and likelihood of experiencing a common mental disorder (anxiety and/or depression). The data were analyzed using longitudinal random-intercept regression models, controlling for a range of potential confounders including general perceptions of control (ie, not isolated to the work context) via a measure of mastery. The analyses isolated the effect of within-person changes in job control on mental health (apart from between-person differences). Results The results show that the effect of job control remained significant after adjusting for general perceptions of control and other confounders. The within-person effect in the model demonstrated that, when workers had low job control, they were twice as likely to experience a common mental disorder [odds ratio (OR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53‒2.73]. Conclusions Individuals' general perceptions of control in life does not account for the association between low job control and poor mental health. The findings add a new layer of evidence to the literature demonstrating that lack of autonomy at work is an independent predictor of employees' mental health. Increasing employee control should be integrated into workplace strategies to promote mental health.

7.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419888289, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describing the long-term mental health of Australians is limited as many reports rely on cross-sectional studies which fail to account for within-person changes and age-related developmental processes which may bias estimates which ignore these phenomena. We examined the 17-year trajectories of mental health in 27,519 Australian adults. METHODS: Household panel data of 27,519 participants aged 18 years and over from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey provided at least one observation of mental health over a 17-year period from 2001. On average, participants reported 7.6 observations. Mental Health was assessed annually using the Short-Form Health Survey-36 mental health scale. RESULTS: Over time, there were only very small changes in mental health and only for the youngest and oldest adults. Over time, there was consistent evidence for better metal health with increasing age, although for the very old, there appear to be substantial declines. These patterns were consistent between sex. In line with an existing literature, males reported better mental health over life span, although the declines of mental health in very-late-life are particularly pronounced for males. CONCLUSION: Decline in mental health was only reported by the youngest and oldest respondents, and was notable only in the last 4-5 years. However, the magnitude of the decline was small and further follow-up will be needed to determine whether this is a trend of substantive declining mental health for these specific age cohorts. In contrast, the more consistent finding is that there has been no substantive change in the level of mental health in Australia over the last 17 years. Analysis of the mental health trajectories of baseline age-cohorts confirmed that age differences are consistent over time.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 302-313, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has long been debate about the extent to which mental disorders contribute to suicide. We aimed to examine the evidence on the contribution of mental disorders to suicide among record linkage studies. METHODS: We performed a systematic search using eight major health databases for English-language studies published between 1 January 2000 and 11 June 2018 that linked collected data on mental disorders and suicide. We then conducted a meta-analysis to assess risk of suicide conferred by mental disorders. RESULTS: Our search identified 20 articles representing 13 unique studies. The pooled rate ratio (RR) was 13.2 (95% CI 8.6-20.3) for psychotic disorders, 12.3 (95% CI 8.9-17.1) for mood disorders, 8.1 (95% CI 4.6-14.2) for personality disorders, 4.4 (95% CI 2.9-6.8) for substance use disorders, and 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-6.9) for anxiety disorders in the general population. The overall pooled RR for these mental disorders was 7.5 (95% CI 6.6-8.6). The population attributable risk of mental disorders was up to 21%. LIMITATIONS: The overall heterogeneity between studies was very high. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underline the important role of mental disorders in suicide. This suggests that ongoing efforts are required to improve access to and quality of mental health care to prevent suicide by people with mental disorders.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: 16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.

11.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(6): 763-793, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research. METHODS: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers extracted information about study characteristics and data on the association between shift work and mental health. A meta-analysis was performed for longitudinal studies adopting a 'broad binary' measure of shift work. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies were included in the final review-10 cross-sectional studies, 22 longitudinal studies, and 1 study that included both. Findings were grouped based on whether the measure of shift work focussed on: (1) night/evening work, (2) weekend work, (3) irregular/unpredictable work schedule, or (4) a broad binary measure. There was a reasonable level of evidence that overall, when a broad binary measure was adopted, shift work was associated with poorer mental health-this finding was supported by the meta-analysis results. There was also some evidence that irregular/unpredictable work was associated with poorer mental health. There was less evidence for night/evening and minimal evidence for weekend work. Inconsistencies in study methodology, limited contrasting and combining the results. CONCLUSIONS: The association between shift work and mental health is different across types of shift work. The evidence is strongest for a broad binary, general measure of shift work and for irregular or unpredictable shift work. There is a need for continued research that adopts consistent and clear measures of shift work.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Saúde do Trabalhador
12.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e026994, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pain is linked to an increased risk of sickness absence (SA); however, the extent to which unmeasured time-invariant differences explain this association is yet unknown. Therefore, we determined the within-individual associations between pain and short-term (in the survey year) and long-term (2 years following the survey years) SA risk in high and low occupational classes while controlling for the potential bias due to unobservable time-invariant characteristics. METHODS: The Helsinki Health Study data consisting of midlife public sector employees with mailed surveys from up to four time points, and SA record linkage were used (3983 persons). The within-individual estimates were calculated using hybrid negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: Acute/subacute pain was associated with a 13% increase in the rate of short-term SA days (incidence rate ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.27]), while the association was somewhat stronger for chronic pain (1.32 [1.19-1.47]). For the employees in the low occupational class, these associations were robust (1.29 [1.10-1.50] for acute/subacute and 1.43 [1.23-1.66] for chronic pain), whereas only chronic pain was associated with SA among those in the high occupational class (1.25 [1.08-1.46]). Chronic pain was also associated with SA days in the long term without occupational class differences. Similar results were obtained for multisite pain (pain in several locations). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that particularly chronic and multisite pain have a within-individual link to SA but ignoring unobservable differences between those reporting pain and those not might yield overstated effect sizes. Pain might have a different relation to SA in low and high occupational classes.

13.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(5): 295-301, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is strong evidence of a relationship between psychosocial job stressors and mental health at the population level. There has been no longitudinal research on whether the experience of job stressors is also associated with greater mental health service use. We seek to fill this gap. METHODS: The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia survey cohort was used to assess the relationship between exposure to self-reported psychosocial job quality and reporting attendance at a mental health professional during the past 12 months. We adjusted for time-varying and time-invariant confounders. The study was conducted in 2009 and 2013. RESULTS: In the random effects logistic regression model, increasing exposure to psychosocial job stressors was associated with an increased odds of mental health service use after adjustment (one stressor: OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.56; two stressors: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.73; three stressors: OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.57). However, once the between person effects were controlled in a fixed effects model, the within-person association between change in job stressors and change in mental health service use was estimated to be close to zero and not significant. CONCLUSIONS: More work is needed to understand the relationship between job stressors and service use. However, when taken with past findings on job stressors and mental health, these findings highlight the importance of considering policy and clinical practice responses to adverse working contexts.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1076-1083, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865222

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between the experience of financial hardship and cognitive performance throughout adulthood. Three waves of data provided by 6,343 participants (49% men) were analyzed from a representative community-based sample from Canberra, Australia (2003-2015). The outcome was a composite measure reflecting fluid cognitive abilities. Financial hardship was assessed by markers of scarcity (being unable to heat the home, missing meals, and going without other basic needs) and behavioral responses to hardship (pawning items and seeking help from community welfare organizations). Multivariable-adjusted fixed-effect regression models for panel data with robust standard errors tested time-dependent associations between measures of financial hardship and fluid cognitive abilities. Declines in cognitive performance coincided with the experience of scarcity (ß = -0.07; standard error, 0.018). There was no association between behavioral responses to hardship and cognitive performance, and there was no difference in the associations across age cohorts or by sex. There was no evidence that mastery or mental health attenuated the time-dependent link between hardship and cognition. This study provides new evidence that the onset (shock) of financial hardship is a potent stressor associated with occasion-specific deficits in fluid cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Affect Disord ; 247: 66-72, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined trajectories of work disability, indicated by sickness absence and disability retirement, among midlife public sector employees with and without common mental disorders (CMD) at baseline. We also examined adverse childhood events, occupational class, long-standing illness and health behaviour as determinants of the trajectories. METHODS: A sample from the Helsinki Health Study was extracted comprising 2350 employees. Baseline characteristics were obtained from mail surveys conducted in 2000-2 and 2007. CMD were measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were followed between the ages of 50-59. Work disability trajectories were modelled by the annual number of work disability months in group-based trajectory analysis. Multinomial regression was used to predict trajectory group memberships. RESULTS: Three trajectories were identified: no work disability (consisting 59% of the all employees), stable/low (31%) and high/increasing disability (10%). Employees with CMD were more likely to belong to the stable/low (odds ratio 1.73 [95% confidence interval 1.37-2.18]), and the high/increasing (2.55 [1.81-3.59]) trajectories. Stratified models showed that the determinants of the trajectories were largely similar for those with CMD compared to those without CMD except that obesity was a somewhat stronger predictor of the high/increasing trajectory among employees with CMD. LIMITATIONS: The focus on midlife public sector employees limits the generalisability to other employment sectors and younger employees. CONCLUSIONS: CMD were strongly associated with a trajectory leading to early exit from employment and a stable/low work disability trajectory. These findings have implications for interventions promoting work ability of employees with mental ill-health.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Setor Público , Aposentadoria , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 121-127, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the longitudinal patterns of amphetamine use over twenty years from adolescence to the mid-thirties; and identify adolescent antecedents of future problematic patterns of use. DESIGN: Ten-wave longitudinal study following participants from age 15 to age 35 in Victoria, Australia. Participants (N = 1755; 47% males) first enrolled in the Victoria Adolescent Health Cohort Study in 1992. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome: Self-reported frequency of amphetamine use. PREDICTORS: Gender, depression and anxiety, peer alcohol and tobacco use; self-reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior. FINDINGS: Three different longitudinal patterns were identified: Non-user (83.7%); Occasional user (14.5%); Regular user (1.8%). Among the two user patterns, amphetamine use was commonly initiated in late teenage years or early 20s, peaked at mid-20s, and declined substantially by mid-30s. Participants who used cannabis and had smoking peers during adolescence were at significantly more likely to become an occasional or regular user (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Regular cannabis use and peer tobacco use during adolescence were the two strongest predictors of a longitudinal pattern of regular amphetamine use in the mid-30s. This suggests that prevention programs could be implemented around or before mid-adolescence and interventions to reduce amphetamine harms focus on high-risk individuals in their 20s when amphetamine use was at its peak.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(1): 82-92, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a self-report questionnaire for assessing depressive symptomatology, using objective criteria. METHODS: Responses on the PHQ-9 were obtained from 7,850 English-speaking participants enrolled in 20 primary diagnostic test accuracy studies. PHQ unidimensionality was verified using confirmatory factor analysis, and an item response theory model was fit. Optimal test assembly (OTA) methods identified a maximally precise short form for each possible length between one and eight items, including and excluding the ninth item. The final short form was selected based on prespecified validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy criteria. RESULTS: A four-item short form of the PHQ (PHQ-Dep-4) was selected. The PHQ-Dep-4 had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.805. Sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-Dep-4 were 0.788 and 0.837, respectively, and were statistically equivalent to the PHQ-9 (sensitivity = 0.761, specificity = 0.866). The correlation of total scores with the full PHQ-9 was high (r = 0.919). CONCLUSION: The PHQ-Dep-4 is a valid short form with minimal loss of information of scores when compared to the full-length PHQ-9. Although OTA methods have been used to shorten patient-reported outcome measures based on objective, prespecified criteria, further studies are required to validate this general procedure for broader use in health research. Furthermore, due to unexamined heterogeneity, there is a need to replicate the results of this study in different patient populations.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/normas , Autorrelato , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11809, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087367

RESUMO

Beta 1-3, 1-4 glucans ("beta-glucans") are one of the key components of the cell wall of cereals, complementing the main structural component cellulose. Beta-glucans are also an important source of soluble fibre in foods containing oats with claims of other beneficial nutritional properties such as plasma cholesterol lowering in humans. Key to the function of beta-glucans is their molecular weight and because of their high polydispersity - molecular weight distribution. Analytical ultracentrifugation provides a matrix-free approach (not requiring separation columns or media) to polymer molecular weight distribution determination. The sedimentation coefficient distribution is converted to a molecular weight distribution via a power law relation using an established procedure known as the Extended Fujita approach. We establish and apply the power law relation and Extended Fujita method for the first time to a series of native and processed oat beta-glucans. The application of this approach to beta-glucans from other sources is considered.


Assuntos
Avena/química , beta-Glucanas/análise , Peso Molecular , Ultracentrifugação/métodos
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37(6): 743-751, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To estimate the prevalence and frequency of amphetamine use in a cohort of Australians aged in their mid-30s. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 10 data collected in 2014 from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study: a sample of 1435 persons originally selected in a stratified, random community survey of secondary school students from the state of Victoria that commenced in 1992. Weighted multinomial regression models were used to evaluate the social, health and other substance-use correlates of lifetime and current (12-month) amphetamine use and current frequency of use. RESULTS: Lifetime amphetamine use was reported by 23.2% (95% confidence interval 21.0-25.5%) of respondents, and 6.5% (95% confidence interval 5.2-7.8%) reported current (12-month) use. A quarter (26%) of those currently using amphetamines, 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4%) of all respondents, reported frequent (at least weekly) use. Men reported greater amphetamine use than women. Current amphetamine use was associated with disrupted family circumstances, socioeconomic adversity, polydrug use and high levels of drug use within the social and familial environment. Frequent use was associated with greater likelihood of multiple adversity, unemployment, anxiety disorders and use of mental health services. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The current results show that lifetime, current and frequent amphetamine use was common amongst adults in the fourth decade of life in this cohort, and associated with the experience of social disadvantage, poor mental health and living in a social context in which drug use is the norm.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 60(10): e518-e524, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether emotion regulation moderates the association between psychosocial job stressors and psychological distress. METHODS: We used data from the Work and Wellbeing Survey of 1044 Australian working adults. An adjusted linear regression model was used to estimate the moderating effect of emotion regulation. RESULTS: The impact of low fairness and low control at work on distress was stronger in individuals with low (rather than high) cognitive reappraisal [ß = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.07 to 4.76; ß = 2.58, 95% CI = 0.04 to 5.12, respectively], whereas the impact of high demands on distress was stronger in those with high (rather than low) expressive suppression (ß = 2.94, 95% CI = 0.78 to 5.10). CONCLUSION: Individual differences in emotion regulation in response to adverse job conditions should be considered in the management of workplace mental health.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Emprego/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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