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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150004

RESUMO

Bacille Calmete-Guerin vaccine is widely administered to reduce the risk of severe tuberculosis disease in children. Recent global vaccine supply issues have led to the use of alternative products, which may vary in side effect profile. We report on the safety of the Polish (Moreau strain) "Bacille Calmete-Guerin-10" vaccine in an Australian cohort. Using active surveillance, we identified an adverse event rate of 54.6 per 10,000 doses (95% confidence interval: 38.5-75.2), which was comparable to that reported with the Danish Sanofi-Pasteur and Connaught strains.

2.
Vaccine ; 38(13): 2779-2787, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New jurisdictionally-based vaccination programs were established providing free quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) for preschool Australian children in 2018. This was in addition to the National Immunisation Program (NIP) funded QIV for Indigenous children and children with comorbid medical conditions. We assessed the impact of this policy change on influenza disease burden and vaccine coverage, as well as report on 2018 vaccine effectiveness in a hospital-based surveillance system. METHODS: Subjects were recruited prospectively from twelve PAEDS-FluCAN sentinel hospital sites (April until October 2018). Children aged ≤16 years hospitalised with an acute respiratory illness (ARI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza were considered cases. Hospitalised children with ARI who tested negative for influenza were considered controls. VE estimates were calculated from the adjusted odds ratio of vaccination in cases and controls. RESULTS: A total of 458 children were hospitalised with influenza: 31.7% were <2 years, 5.0% were Indigenous, and 40.6% had medical comorbidities predisposing to severe influenza. Influenza A was detected in 90.6% of children (A/H1N1: 38.0%; A/H3N2: 3.1%; A/unsubtyped 48.6%). The median length of stay was 2 days (IQR: 1,3) and 8.1% were admitted to ICU. Oseltamivir use was infrequent (16.6%). Two in-hospital deaths occurred (0.45%). 12.0% of influenza cases were vaccinated compared with 36.0% of test-negative controls. Vaccine effectiveness of QIV for preventing influenza hospitalisation was estimated at 78.8% (95%CI: 66.9; 86.4). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with 2017 (n = 1268 cases), a significant reduction in severe influenza was observed in Australian children, possibly contributed to by improved vaccine coverage and high vaccine effectiveness. Despite introduction of jurisdictionally-funded preschool programs and NIP-funded vaccine for children with risk factors for severe disease, improved coverage is required to ensure adequate protection against paediatric influenza morbidity and mortality.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive group A streptococcal disease is a severe infection with a high case fatality rate, estimated to cause more than 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. The clinical presentation of this infection is variable, and early diagnosis can be challenging. There are few data on its short- and longer-term outcomes, especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical presentation, management and short- and longer-term outcomes of invasive group A streptococcal disease in children in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a prospective surveillance study of children with laboratory-confirmed invasive group A streptococcus disease admitted to 7 sentinel tertiary and quaternary pediatric hospitals in Australia between July 2016 and June 2018. We collected demographic and clinical data and contacted patients 6 months after discharge to assess longer-term outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 181 children, 7 days to 16 years of age. The principal site of invasive infection was blood (126 children, 69.6%), and the most frequent clinical presentation was pneumonia in 46 children (25.4%). Twenty-six children developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (14.4%), and 74 had severe disease (40.9%), including 71 admitted to the intensive care unit. Five children died (2.8%). At discharge and 6 months, 29.3% and 15.2% of the children had persisting health problems, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive group A streptococcal infection in Australian children is frequently severe and has a high long-term morbidity burden, highlighting the need for strengthened clinical care pathways, epidemiological surveillance and prevention strategies.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091500

RESUMO

We describe 2 preterm neonates with transient hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigenemia detected after Hepatitis B vaccination. Repeat serology in both cases tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, confirming transient HBs antigenemia. The duration of transient HBs antigenemia affirms current literature in the pediatric population.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 87(2): 281-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizures may follow vaccination. Common variants in the sodium channel gene, SCN1A, are associated with febrile seizures, and rare pathogenic variants in SCN1A cause the severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy Dravet syndrome. Following vaccination, febrile seizures may raise the specter of poor outcome and inappropriately implicate vaccination as the cause. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SCN1A variants in children having their first febrile seizure either proximal to vaccination or unrelated to vaccination compared to controls. METHODS: We performed SCN1A sequencing, blind to clinical category, in a prospective cohort of children presenting with their first febrile seizure as vaccine proximate (n = 69) or as non-vaccine proximate (n = 75), and children with no history of seizures (n = 90) recruited in Australian pediatric hospitals. RESULTS: We detected 2 pathogenic variants in vaccine-proximate cases (p.R568X and p.W932R), both of whom developed Dravet syndrome, and 1 in a non-vaccine-proximate case (p.V947L) who had febrile seizures plus from 9 months. All had generalized tonic-clonic seizures lasting >15 minutes. We also found enrichment of a reported risk allele, rs6432860-T, in children with febrile seizures compared to controls (odds ratio = 1.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.31-2.81). INTERPRETATION: Pathogenic SCN1A variants may be identified in infants with vaccine-proximate febrile seizures. As early diagnosis of Dravet syndrome is essential for optimal management and outcome, SCN1A sequencing in infants with prolonged febrile seizures, proximate to vaccination, should become routine. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:281-288.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224702, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Timely adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) signal event detection is essential to minimise further vaccinees receiving unsafe vaccines. We explored the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) ability to detect two known signal events with influenza vaccines with the aim of providing a model for prospective routine signal detection and improving vaccine safety surveillance in Australia. METHODS: Passive AEFI surveillance reports from 2008-2017 relating to influenza vaccines were accessed from the Australian SAEFVIC (Victoria) database. Proportional reporting ratios were calculated for two vaccine-event categories; fever and allergic AEFI. Signal detection sensitivity for two known signal events were determined using weekly data; cumulative data by individual year and; cumulative for all previous years. Signal event thresholds of PRR ≥2 and Chi-square ≥4 were applied. RESULTS: PRR provided sensitive signal detection when calculated cumulatively by individual year or by all previous years. Known signal events were detected 15 and 11 days earlier than traditional methods used at the time of the actual events. CONCLUSION: Utilising a single jurisdiction's data, PRR improved vaccine pharmacovigilance and showed the potential to detect important safety signals much earlier than previously. It has potential to maximise immunisation safety in Australia. This study progresses the necessary work to establish national cohesion for passive surveillance signal detection and strengthen routine Australian vaccine pharmacovigilance.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738866

RESUMO

The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all jurisdictions in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2018 influenza season. In this observational surveillance system, cases were defined as patients admitted to any of the 17 sentinel hospitals with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. Data were also collected on a frequency-matched control group of influenza-negative patients admitted with acute respiratory infection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2018 (the 2018 influenza season), 769 patients were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals. Of these, 30% were elderly (≥65 years), 28% were children (<16 years), 6.4% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, 2.2% were pregnant and 66% had chronic comorbidities. A small proportion of FluCAN admissions were due to influenza B (13%). Estimated vaccine coverage was 77% in the elderly (≥65 years), 45% in non-elderly adults with medical comorbidities and 26% in children (<16 years) with medical comorbidities. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the target population was 52% (95% CI: 37%, 63%). There were a smaller number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2018 than in 2017, with the demographic profile reflecting the change in circulating subtype from A/H3N2 to A/H1N1.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 496-503, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into complexities of seeking access to state and federal cross-jurisdictional data for linkage with the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). We provide recommendations for improving access and receipt of linked datasets involving Australian Government-administered data. METHODS: We describe requirements for linking eleven federal and state data sources to establish a national linked dataset for safety evaluation of vaccines. The required data linkage methodology for integrating cross-jurisdictional data sources is also described. RESULTS: Extensive negotiation was required with 18 different agencies for 21 separate authorisations and 12 ethics approvals. Three variations of the 'best practice' linkage model were implemented. Australian Government approval requests spanned nearly four years from initial request for data, with a further year before ACIR data transfer to the linkage agency. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of immunisation registers with other data collections is achievable in Australia but infeasible for routine and rapid identification of vaccine safety concerns. Lengthy authorisation requirements, convoluted disparate application processes and inconsistencies in data supplied all contribute to delayed data availability. Implications for public health: Delayed data access for safety surveillance prevents timely epidemiological reviews. Poor responsiveness to safety concerns may erode public confidence, compromising effectiveness of vaccination programs through reduced participation.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imunização , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistema de Registros , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Formulação de Políticas , Vacinas
11.
Vaccine ; 37(44): 6743-6749, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immunisation is an important strategy to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. New maternal vaccines such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Group B streptococcus (GBS) are in development and/or clinical trials. However, little is known about pregnant women's knowledge about these diseases. METHODS: Women attending antenatal clinics in Melbourne, Australia were invited to complete a questionnaire collecting demographic information, past vaccination history, understanding of risk of GBS and RSV disease in pregnancy and likelihood to accept these theoretical vaccines in the future. FINDINGS: 495 women (48% born outside of Australia, from 48 different countries) completed the questionnaire. A large number of women had never heard of GBS (63%) or RSV (83%). Women over 35 years, born in Australia and women who had more than one child were more likely to have heard of GBS or RSV (p < 0.001). Women who had received influenza or pertussis vaccine in pregnancy were more likely to accept a RSV or GBS vaccine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that knowledge of GBS and RSV is poor. However, when provided with information about the two diseases, acceptance of a hypothetical vaccine for both diseases was high. This study highlights the enormous amount of work that needs to be done in educating pregnant women about the seriousness of these two diseases if a future vaccine is ever to be accepted and high coverage achieved among the target population.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has become a global health emergency and is contributed to by inappropriate antibiotic use in community clinical settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial use pattern in infants from birth until 18 months of age in Indonesia. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was conducted in 1621 participants from the RV3BB Phase IIb trial conducted in Indonesia from January 2013 through July 2016. Any health events were documented in the trial as adverse events. Concomitant medication surveillance recorded all medications, including antibiotics during the 18 months of follow-up. Information included the frequency, duration of usage, formulation, classes, and their indications, including prophylactic antibiotic and perinatal use. RESULTS: Of 1621 participants, 551 (33.99%) received at least one antibiotic for treatment of infections during the 18 months observation period. Additionally, during the perinatal period, prophylactic antibiotics were used in 1244 (76.74%) participants and antibiotics consumed in 235 mothers of participants (14.50%). A total of 956 antibiotic consumptions were recorded for 18 months follow up, 67 (7.01%) as part of antimicrobial combinations. The average duration of antibiotic course was 4.92 days. Penicillin and sulfonamides were the most common antibiotic classes consumed (38.81% and 24.48%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low community consumption rate, the overuse of antibiotic in URTIs and non-bloody diarrhea in our setting represents a major opportunity for antimicrobial stewardship, particularly in early life.

13.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(10): 1353-1360, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate the use of selected International Classification of Disease Codes 10th revision (ICD-10) to predict (positive predictive value) anaphylaxis due to vaccination using emergency department (ED) data. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using ED encounter data from a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia. We searched all ED encounters potentially due to anaphylaxis after vaccination, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2018, using ICD-10-CM codes T80.5, T80.6, T88.1, T88.6, and T78.2. Health records of potential cases were examined to determine if they met the Brighton Collaboration (BC) criteria for anaphylaxis. We calculated the PPV to evaluate the accuracy of the selected ICD-10-CM codes in predicting anaphylaxis due to vaccination. RESULTS: Of the 69 health records identified and reviewed, 29 (42.2%) met the criteria for anaphylaxis regardless of the cause, and 24.6% (17/69) of records were confirmed as anaphylaxis triggered by vaccination (low positive predictive value). However, of the 23 records identified using ICD-10-CM code T80.5, 22 were classified as anaphylaxis cases regardless of the cause, and 12 were anaphylaxis due to vaccination cases giving PPV of 95.7% and 52.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Given that there is no specific ICD-10-CM code for anaphylaxis due to vaccination, ICD-10-CM code T80.5 may be suitable to monitor anaphylaxis due to vaccination in the ED setting. The current study was conducted at a single centre and needs to be confirmed by future multicentre studies.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354969

RESUMO

Background: Concerns regarding adverse events following vaccination (AEFIs) are a key challenge for public confidence in vaccination. Robust postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring remains critical to detect adverse events, including those not identified in prelicensure studies, and to ensure public safety and public confidence in vaccination. We summarise the literature examined AEFI signal detection using electronic healthcare data, regarding data sources, methodological approach and statistical analysis techniques used. Methods: We performed a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Five databases (PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science) were searched for studies on AEFIs monitoring published up to 25 September 2017. Studies were appraised for methodological quality, and results were synthesised narratively. Result: We included 47 articles describing AEFI signal detection using electronic healthcare data. All studies involved linked diagnostic healthcare data, from the emergency department, inpatient and outpatient setting and immunisation records. Statistical analysis methodologies used included non-sequential analysis in 33 studies, group sequential analysis in two studies and 12 studies used continuous sequential analysis. Partially elapsed risk window and data accrual lags were the most cited barriers to monitor AEFIs in near real-time. Conclusion: Routinely collected electronic healthcare data are increasingly used to detect AEFI signals in near real-time. Further research is required to check the utility of non-coded complaints and encounters, such as telephone medical helpline calls, to enhance AEFI signal detection. Trial registration number: CRD42017072741.

15.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures (FSs) are a common pediatric condition caused by a sudden rise in temperature, affecting 3% to 5% of children aged ≤6 years. Although vaccination can cause FSs, little is known on whether FSs occurring in the time soon after vaccination (vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [VP-FSs] differ clinically from non-vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [NVP-FSs]). We compared the clinical profile and outcomes of VP-FS to NVP-FS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of children aged ≤6 years presenting with their first FS at 1 of 5 Australian pediatric hospitals between May 2013 and June 2014. Clinical features, management, and outcomes were compared between VP-FS and NVP-FS. RESULTS: Of 1022 first FS cases (median age 19.8 months; interquartile range 13.6-27.6), 67 (6%) were VP-FSs. When comparing VP-FS to NVP-FS, there was no increased risk of prolonged (>1 day) hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.84-3.10), ICU admission (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.10-5.48), seizure duration >15 minutes (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.73-2.98), repeat FS within 24 hours (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.34-1.89), or requirement for antiepileptic treatment on discharge (OR 1.81; 95% CI 0.41-8.02). VP-FS patients with a laboratory-confirmed infection (12%) were more likely to have a prolonged admission compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: VP-FS accounted for a small proportion of all FS hospital presentations. There was no difference in outcomes of VP-FS compared with NVP-FS. This is reassuring data for clinicians and parents of children who experience FS after vaccination and can help guide decisions on revaccination.


Assuntos
Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/tendências
16.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(1): 46-52, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) disease has an incidence in high-income countries of 3 to 5 per 100000 per annum and a case-fatality ratio of 10% to 15%. Although these rates are comparable to those of invasive meningococcal disease in Australia before vaccine introduction, invasive GAS disease currently requires reporting in only 2 jurisdictions. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively through active surveillance at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (October 2014 to September 2016). Isolation of GAS from a sterile site was required for inclusion. Comprehensive demographic and clinical data were collected, and emm typing was performed on all isolates. Disease was considered severe if the patient required inotropic support or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: We recruited 28 patients. The median age of the patients was 3.5 years (range, 4 days to 11 years). Ten (36%) patients had severe disease. Fifteen (54%) children had presented to a medical practitioner for review in the 48 hours before their eventual admission, including 7 of the 10 patients with severe GAS infection. Complications 6 months after discharge persisted in 21% of the patients. emm1 was the most common emm type (29%). CONCLUSION: We found considerable short- and longer-term morbidity associated with pediatric invasive GAS disease in our study. Disease manifestations were frequently severe, and more than one-third of the patients required cardiorespiratory support. More than one-half of the patients attended a medical practitioner for assessment but were discharged in the 48-hour period before admission, which suggests that there might have been a window for earlier diagnosis. Our methodology was easy to implement as a surveillance system.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Infecções Estreptocócicas/classificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(3): 408-415, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's decisions regarding vaccination during pregnancy are heavily influenced by maternity care provider (MCP) recommendations. Understanding why MCPs may not recommend vaccination is central to improving vaccination rates. AIMS: To examine the knowledge, attitudes and practice of Australian MCPs to maternal vaccination. METHODS: We surveyed obstetricians, midwives and general practitioners (GPs) between September and November 2016. Providers were asked about their knowledge and current practice, and about their perceived roles in discussing and administering maternal vaccinations. RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventy surveys were completed. Each MCP group believed they had the primary responsibility for discussing vaccinations but all groups perceived GPs as primarily responsible for administering vaccines. More midwives had concerns about safety (21/129, 16%) than obstetricians (9/359, 3%) and GPs (7/326, 2%) (P < 0.001). Overall, 83% of MCPs recommended diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination (dTpa) and 78% inactivated influenza vaccination (IIV) according to guidelines, with no differences between groups. Overall 77% provided dTpa onsite (GPs 99%, midwives 70%, obstetricians 60%, P < 0.001) and 71% provided IIV (GPs 99%, midwives 48%, obstetricians 54%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with recommending vaccination in accordance with guidelines and providing vaccination onsite were similar across groups: personal history of vaccination, confidence in vaccine knowledge, and awareness of recommendations for and belief in the safety of maternal dTpa. CONCLUSIONS: Among MCPs, the rates of recommending and providing maternal vaccination were higher than previously reported. Further improvements might be expected with increased awareness of guidelines, further education around vaccine safety, and by changing perceptions of the role of obstetricians and midwives in providing maternal vaccinations.

18.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(5): F480-F485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology and healthcare factors associated with late-onset neonatal enterococcal infections. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected infection data from a neonatal infection surveillance network between 2004 and 2016; this was supplemented with healthcare data from a questionnaire distributed to participating neonatal units. SETTING: Sixty neonatal units across Europe (UK, Greece, Estonia) and Australia. PATIENTS: Infants admitted to participating neonatal units who had a positive culture of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine after 48 hours of life. RESULTS: In total, 414 episodes of invasive Enterococcus spp infection were reported in 388 infants (10.1% of a total 4083 episodes in 3602 infants). Enterococcus spp were the second most common cause of late-onset infection after coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp and were strongly associated with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) (adjusted OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.03, p=0.038), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (adjusted OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.70, p=0.016), increasing postnatal age (per 1-week increase: adjusted OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06, p<0.001) and decreasing birth weight (per 1 kg increase: adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.97, p=0.017). There was no evidence that inadequate nurse to patient staffing ratios in high-dependency units were associated with a higher risk of enterococcal infections. CONCLUSIONS: Enterococcus spp were the second most frequent cause of late-onset infections. The association between enterococcal infections, NEC and TPN may inform empiric antimicrobial regimens in these contexts and provide insights into reducing these infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Enterococcus , Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Nutrição Parenteral Total/métodos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(6): 940-948, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, Australia experienced record influenza notifications. Two surveillance programs combined to summarize the epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children and report on vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the context of a limited nationally funded vaccination program. METHODS: Subjects were prospectively recruited (April-October 2017). Case patients were children aged ≤16 years admitted to 11 hospitals with an acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were hospitalized with acute respiratory illness and tested negative for influenza. VE estimates were calculated using the test-negative design. RESULTS: A total of 1268 children were hospitalized with influenza: 31.5% were <2 years old, 8.3% were indigenous, and 45.1% had comorbid conditions predisposing to severe influenza. Influenza B was detected in 34.1% with influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 detected in 47.2% and 52.8% of subtyped influenza A specimens. The median length of stay was 3 days (interquartile range, 1-5), 14.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 15.9% received oseltamivir. Four in-hospital deaths occurred (0.3%): one was considered influenza associated. Only 17.1% of test-negative-controls were vaccinated. The VE of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine for preventing hospitalized influenza was estimated at 30.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.6%-50.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant influenza-associated morbidity was observed in 2017 in Australia. Most hospitalized children had no comorbid conditions. Vaccine coverage and antiviral use was inadequate. Influenza vaccine was protective in 2017, yet VE was lower than previous seasons. Multiple Australian states have introduced funded preschool vaccination programs in 2018. Additional efforts to promote vaccination and monitor effectiveness are required.

20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 55(1): 54-58, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040141

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the patterns of antimicrobial prescribing in general practice for children aged ≤18 years. METHODS: This is a review of routinely collected patient data extracted from computerised medical records from 39 general practices in eastern metropolitan Melbourne over a 5-year period, 2010-2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of paediatric consultations resulting in antibiotic prescription, type and frequency of antibiotics prescribed, antibiotic prescribing stratified by age, reason for indication and inter-practice variation. RESULTS: There were 744 883 consultations for 89 983 individual paediatric patients and 85 913 prescriptions for antibiotics during the study period. Of these antibiotic prescriptions, 75 410 were associated with a consultation, and 10 503 (12.2% of all prescriptions) had no associated consultation in the data. On average, one in five individual children was prescribed an antibiotic each year. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were cephalexin, amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, phenoxymethylpenicillin and roxithromycin. Less than 3% of all prescriptions were for amoxycillin. Prescribing of cefaclor and roxithromycin decreased, although cefaclor remained the third most common antibiotic choice for general practitioners. Peaks in prescribing were noted over winter months. Reason for prescription was not recorded for 82% of prescriptions. The frequency of antibiotic prescription per consultation varied substantially (2.1-19.7%) between general practitioner clinics. Overall, antibiotic prescribing decreased by 2.3% over the 5-year period. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a focused examination of antibiotic prescribing practices for children in Australian general practice. More information is required to better understand specific prescribing practices in children, including the low frequency of amoxycillin prescription and ongoing prescription of cefaclor.

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