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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365848

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of nutrient intake on hydration biomarkers in cyclists before and after a 161 km ride, including one hour after a 650 mL water bolus consumed post-ride. To control for multicollinearity, we chose a clustering-based, machine learning statistical approach. Five hydration biomarkers (urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, plasma copeptin, and body mass change) were configured as raw- and percent change. Linear regressions were used to test for associations between hydration markers and eight predictor terms derived from 19 nutrients merged into a reduced-dimensionality dataset through serial k-means clustering. Most predictor groups showed significant association with at least one hydration biomarker: 1) Glycemic Load + Carbohydrates + Sodium, 2) Protein + Fat + Zinc, 3) Magnesium + Calcium, 4) Pinitol, 5) Caffeine, 6) Fiber + Betaine, and 7) Water; potassium + three polyols, and mannitol + sorbitol showed no significant associations with any hydration biomarker. All five hydration biomarkers were associated with at least one nutrient predictor in at least one configuration. We conclude that in a real-life scenario, some nutrients may serve as mediators of body water, and urine-specific hydration biomarkers may be more responsive to nutrient intake than measures derived from plasma or body mass.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1344-1352, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in humans show increased concentrations of copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP), to be associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute and independent effect of osmotically stimulated AVP, measured via the surrogate marker copeptin, on glucose regulation in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty subjects (30 females) participated in this crossover design study. On 2 trial days, separated by ≥7 d (males) or 1 menstrual cycle (females), subjects were infused for 120 min with either 0.9% NaCl [isotonic (ISO)] or 3.0% NaCl [hypertonic (HYPER)]. Postinfusion, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g) was administered. RESULTS: During HYPER, plasma osmolality and copeptin increased (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during the entire 6-h protocol, whereas renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hormones were within the lower normal physiological range at the beginning of the protocol and declined following infusion. Fasting plasma glucose did not differ between trials (P > 0.05) at baseline and during the 120 min of infusion. During the OGTT the incremental AUC for glucose from postinfusion baseline (positive integer) was greater during HYPER (401.5 ± 190.5 mmol/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (354.0 ± 205.8 mmol/L·min; P < 0.05). The positive integer of the AUC for insulin during OGTT did not differ between trials (HYPER 55,850 ± 36,488 pmol/L·min compared with ISO 57,205 ± 31,119 pmol/L·min). Baseline values of serum glucagon were not different between the 2 trials; however, the AUC of glucagon during the OGTT was also significantly greater in HYPER (19,303 ± 3939 ng/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (18,600 ± 3755 ng/L·min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that acute osmotic stimulation of copeptin induced greater hyperglycemic responses during the oral glucose challenge, possibly due to greater glucagon concentrations.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02761434.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Plasma/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
3.
PeerJ ; 6: e5394, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128190

RESUMO

Background: The independent effects of hypohydration and hyperthermia on cognition and mood is unclear since the two stresses often confound each other. Further, it is unknown if obese individuals have the same impairments during hyperthermia and hypohydration that is often observed in non-obese individuals. Methods: The current study was designed to assess the independent and combined effects of mild hypohydration and hyperthermia on cognition, mood, and mental task load in obese and non-obese females. Twenty-one healthy females participated in two passive heating trials, wherein they were either euhydrated or hypohydrated prior to and throughout passive heating. Cognition (ImPACT), mental task load (NASA-TLX), and mood (Brunel Mood Scale; BRUMS) were measured before and after a 1.0 °C increase in core temperature (TC). Results: After a 1.0 °C TC elevation, hypohydration resulted in greater (p < 0.05) body mass loss (-1.14 ± 0.48 vs -0.58 ± 0.48 kg; hypohydrated and euhydrated, respectively) and elevation in serum osmolality (292 ± 4 vs 282 ± 3 mOsm; p < 0.05) versus euhydration. Hypohydration, independent of hyperthermia, did not affect mental task load or mood (p > 0.05). Hyperthermia, regardless of hydration status, impaired (∼5 A.U) measures of memory-based cognition (verbal and visual memory), and increased mental task load, while worsening mood (p < 0.05). Interestingly, obese individuals had increased mental task load while hyperthermic compared to the non-obese individuals (p < 0.05) even while euhydrated. Hypohydration did not exacerbate any heat-related effects on cognition between obese and non-obese females (p > 0.05). Conclusion: These data indicate that hyperthermia independently impairs memory-based aspects of cognitive performance, mental task load, and leads to a negative mood state. Mild hypohydration did not exacerbate the effects of hyperthermia. However, obese individuals had increased mental task load during hyperthermia.

4.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(8): 1703-1713, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and hypohydration independently affect postsynaptic endothelial function, but it is unknown if hypohydration affects lean and obese individuals differently. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in men with high and low adiposity (HI- and LO-BF, respectively). METHODS: Ten males with LO-BF and ten with HI-BF were instrumented for forearm microdialysis when euhydrated and hypohydrated. Changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) with intradermal infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and methacholine chloride (MCh) were assessed. Local sweat rate (LSR) was simultaneously assessed at the MCh site. At the end of the last dose, maximal CVC was elicited by delivering a maximal dose of SNP for 30 min to both sites with simultaneous local heating at the SNP site. The concentration of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response (EC50) was compared between groups and hydration conditions. RESULTS: When euhydrated, EC50 of MCh-induced CVC was not different between LO- vs. HI-BF [- 3.04 ± 0.12 vs. - 2.98 ± 0.19 log (MCh) M, P = 0.841]. EC50 of SNP-induced CVC was higher in euhydrated HI- vs. LO-BF (- 1.74 ± 0.17 vs. - 2.13 ± 0.06 log (SNP) M, P = 0.034). Within each group, hydration status did not change MCh- or SNP-induced CVC (P > 0.05). LSR was not different between groups or hydration condition (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest reduced sensitivity of endothelium-independent vasodilation in individuals with high adiposity when euhydrated. However, hypohydration does not affect cutaneous vasodilation or local sweat rate differently between individuals with low or high adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Sudorese , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos/inervação , Microvasos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(6): 1702-1707, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786626

RESUMO

Paulsen, KM, Butts, CL, and McDermott, BP. Observation of women soccer players' physiology during a single season. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1702-1707, 2018-The purpose of this study was to observe heart rate (HR) responses in match settings over the course of a conference season in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's soccer. Twenty-one female collegiate soccer players were provided a HR monitor and instructed to wear it for the duration of match play. Player positions included 6 defenders (DEF), 6 midfielders (MID), and 9 forwards (FWD). Defenders were further identified as either center defenders (CD) or outside defenders (OD). A 1-way analysis of variance was used to determine if mean HR varied between FWD, MID, and DEF. An independent t-test was used to determine if there was a difference between CD and OD HRs. The FWD, MID, and DEF did have significantly different mean HR (p ≤ 0.05), but post-hoc analysis revealed no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05). However, CD demonstrated significantly lower HRs than OD (p = 0.009). Player position, specifically in the CD and OD role, impact the intensity of exercise in match settings and may be used to specify training and conditioning sessions.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sci Med Sport ; 21(12): 1180-1184, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784554

RESUMO

Exercise, especially in the heat, can contribute to acute kidney injury, which can expedite chronic kidney disease onset. The additional stress of ibuprofen use is hypothesized to increase renal stress. OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of ibuprofen ingestion on kidney stress. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo controlled and observational methods were utilized. METHODS: Forty cyclists (52±9y, 21.7±6.5% body fat) volunteered and completed an endurance cycling event (5.7±1.2h) in the heat (33.2±5.0°C, 38.4±10.7% RH). Thirty-five participants were randomized to ingest a placebo (n=17) or 600mg ibuprofen (n=18) pre-event. A blood sample was drawn before and following the event. Serum creatinine was assessed by colorimetric assay. An ELISA was used to measure serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Fractional excretion of sodium was calculated after urinary and serum electrolyte analyses. RESULTS: Placebo versus ibuprofen groups contributed no significant difference in any variable (p>0.05). Serum creatinine significantly increased from pre- (0.52±0.14mg/dL) to post-event (0.88±0.21mg/dL; p<0.001). Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin significantly increased (pre: 68.51±17.54ng/mL; post: 139.12±36.52ng/mL; p<0.001) and fractional excretion of sodium was significantly reduced from pre- (0.52±0.24%) to post-event (0.27±0.18%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in renal biomarkers suggest mild acute kidney injury and reduced kidney function during a single bout of endurance cycling in the heat, without influence from moderate ibuprofen ingestion.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física
7.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 37(1): 17-23, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used to assess hydration status, particularly around athletic competition, but it is unknown whether high USG is indicative of plasma volume (PV) reduction (i.e., hypohydration). We tested the hypothesis that if high USG is reflective of reduced PV, subsequent fluid ingestion would increase PV. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine 24-hour changes in USG and PV in individuals presenting with high and low spot USG. METHODS: Nineteen healthy males were provided food and water over 24 hours with a total water volume of 35 ml·kg-1 body mass. Absolute PV and blood volume (BV), measured using the CO-rebreathe technique, along with USG were measured before and after a 24-hour intervention period. Based on a preintervention morning spot USG, subjects were post hoc assigned to groups according to USG (≤1.020 or >1.020; low and high USG, respectively). RESULTS: Despite presenting with an elevated spot USG (1.026 ± 0.004), subsequent fluid ingestion over 24 hours did not lead to changes (∆) in PV (-75 ± 234 ml) or BV (-156 ± 370 ml) in the high USG group (p > 0.05). However, a spot USG after the 24-hour intervention in this group decreased (p = 0.018) to a level indicating improved hydration status (1.017 ± 0.007). In the low USG group, there were no changes in PV (-39 ± 274 ml), BV (-82 ± 396 ml), or USG (0.003 ± 0.007) over the 24-hour fluid intervention (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high preintervention USG and subsequent decrease after 24-hour fluid intake, measures of PV and BV were not indicative of this seemingly improved hydration status. This suggests that a highly concentrated spot sample USG and subsequent changes are not accurately representative of PV or BV.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Urinálise , Adulto , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Volume de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidade Específica , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sport Rehabil ; 27(5): 413-418, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605224

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat. DESIGN: Two randomized crossover trials that consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test and 1500-m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1. SETTING: Outdoors in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature: 31.5°C [1.8°C] and relative humidity: 59.0% [5.6%]). PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) individuals (aged 20-27 y). INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was performed with HEK and without HEK (control, CON) modality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, thirst sensation, and muscle pain. RESULTS: Maximum gastrointestinal temperature following exercise and performance was not different between trials (P > .05). Cooling rate was faster during T1 CON (0.053°C/min [0.049°C/min]) compared with HEK (0.043°C/min [0.032°C/min]; P = .01). Mean skin temperature was lower in HEK during T1 (P < .001) and T2 (P = .05). T2 thirst was lower in CON (P = .02). Muscle pain was lower in HEK in T2 (P = .03). Performance was not altered (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: HEK improved perception but did not enhance cooling or performance following exercise in the heat. HEK is therefore not recommended to facilitate recovery, treat hyperthermia, or improve performance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Cutânea , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mil Med ; 182(9): e1951-e1957, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The procedure of wrapping a heat casualty in ice-water soaked bed sheets to reduce core temperature has received little investigation, despite the practice and recommendation for its use in some military settings. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cooling efficacy of ice-sheet cooling (ISC) following exertional hyperthermia. METHODS: 13 (11 males, 2 females) participants (age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 176.5 ± 10.3 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 15.3 kg, body fat = 19.6 ± 8.6%, and body surface area = 1.95 ± 0.22 m2) volunteered to complete 2 randomized, crossover design trials on an outdoor recreation field (34.4 ± 1.4°C, 54.4 ± 4.1% relative humidity). Each trial consisted of exercise (self-paced 400-m warm-up, 1,609-m run, and 100-m sprints) followed by 15 minutes of either lying supine in the shade with no treatment (control [CON]) or being treated with ice-water soaked sheets wrapped around their body (ISC). Physiological (rectal temperature [Tre], heart rate, mean-weighted skin temperature) and perceptual measures (thermal sensation, rating of perceived exertion) were assessed after each exercise protocol, every 3 minutes during treatment, and every 5 minutes during recovery. FINDINGS: By design, there were no differences during exercise between ISC and CON for Tre (p = 0.16), skin temperature (p = 0.52), heart rate (p = 0.62), thermal sensation (p = 0.89), or rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.99). There were greater decreases in Tre at 3 (ISC 0.33 ± 0.26°C vs. CON 0.03 ± 0.30°C, p = 0.01) and 6 minutes (ISC 0.47 ± 0.27°C vs. CON 0.30 ± 0.19°C, p = 0.05) of treatment; however, the overall rate of cooling was not different between trials (CON 0.05 ± 0.02°C/min vs. ISC 0.06 ± 0.02°C/min, p = 0.72). Skin temperature (Tsk) was significantly reduced from 3 minutes (ISC 34.4 ± 1.7°C vs. CON 36.6 ± 0.5°C, p = 0.007) through 15 minutes (ISC 32.4 ± 1.5 vs. CON 36.1 ± 0.4°C, p < 0.001) of treatment. There was a trend for lower heart rate with ISC (p = 0.051). Thermal sensation was reduced from 3 minutes of treatment (ISC 3.5 ± 0.9 vs. CON 4.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.002) through 15 minutes (ISC 2.8 ± 1.0 vs. CON 3.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.005). DISCUSSION: ISC does not provide effective reduction in Tre following exertional hyperthermia compared to no treatment. However, perceptual benefits may warrant the use of ISC in settings where rapid reductions in core temperature are not a concern (i.e., recovery from exercise). Thus, clinicians should continue to utilize validated techniques (i.e., cold-water immersion) for the treatment of exertional heat illnesses.


Assuntos
Febre/terapia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/normas , Esforço Físico , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Camada de Gelo , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Gravidade Específica
10.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(8): 1065-1073, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685647

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to examine the physiological, perceptual, and performance effects of wearing a phase change cooling garment (CG) during an interval exercise routine in the heat. Sixteen male participants (age 23 ± 3 years, ht 1.76 ± 0.11 m; wt 78.5 ± 11.2 kg; body fat 15.2 ± 5.8%) completed two trials (one with phase change inserts, CG, and one control without inserts) consisting of two submaximal exercise portions separated by 5-minute seated rest, and a final maximal effort performance bout. Each submaximal bout involved 30 seconds or 1 minute of muscular endurance and agility exercises and 5 minutes of treadmill jogging and step-ups. The performance bout included 30 seconds or 1 minute of muscular endurance and agility exercises, with participants completing as many repetitions as possible, followed by a 15-minute recovery (active and passive). Rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate were not different between trials, however change in Tre from baseline was improved during 10 and 15 minutes of recovery with the CG (P < .05). Mean skin temperature was lower using the CG vs control throughout the trial (P < .05). Thermal sensation was lower when using the CG compared to control (P < .001). There were no differences in any outcomes of the performance exercises (P > .05). These findings indicate that the continuous use of a CG during an interval style workout in the heat provides improvements in thermal sensation, however, only minimal thermophysiological benefits, and no performance augmentation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Vestuário , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Cutânea , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Temperatura Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 117(8): 1679-1687, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior evidence indicates that acute heat stress and aerobic exercise independently reduce arterial stiffness. The combined effects of exercise and heat stress on PWV are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heat stress with passive heating and exercise in the heat on arterial stiffness. METHODS: Nine participants (n = 3 females, 47 ± 11 years old; 24.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2) completed four trials. In a control trial, participants rested supine (CON). In a passive heating trial (PH), participants were heated with a water-perfusion suit. In two other trials, participants cycled at ~50% of [Formula: see text] in a hot (~40 °C; HC trial) or cool (~15 °C; CC trial) environment. Arterial stiffness, measured by PWV, was obtained at baseline and after each intervention (immediately, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post). Central PWV (C PWV) was assessed between the carotid/femoral artery sites. Upper and lower peripheral PWV was assessed using the radial/carotid (U PWV) and dorsalis pedis/femoral (L PWV) artery sites. The mean body temperature (T B) was calculated from the skin and rectal temperatures. RESULTS: No significant changes in T B were observed during the CON and CC trials. As expected, the PH and HC trials elevated T B 2.69 ± 0.23 °C and 1.67 ± 0.27 °C, respectively (p < 0.01). PWV did not change in CON, CC, or HC (p > 0.05). However, in the PH trial, U PWV was reduced immediately (-107 ± 81 cm/s) and 15 min (-93 ± 82 cm/s) post-heating (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Heat stress via exercise in the heat does not acutely change arterial stiffness. However, passive heating reduces U PWV, indicating that heat stress has an independent effect on PWV.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Appl Ergon ; 59(Pt A): 442-448, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate physiological and perceptual responses using a phase change cooling (PCC) garment during simulated work in the heat. METHODS: Twenty males wearing compression undergarments, coverall suit, gloves, and hard-hat, completed two randomly assigned trials (with PCC inserts or control, CON) of simulated industrial tasks in the heat (34.2 ± 0.05 °C, 54.7 ± 0.3%RH). Trials consisted of two 20 min work bouts, a maximum performance bout, and 10 min of recovery. RESULTS: Physiological strain index (PSI) was lower during PCC after the second work bout and during recovery (all P < 0.05). PCC reduced heat storage (27.0 ± 7.6 W m-2) compared to CON (42.7 ± 9.9 W m-2, P < 0.001). Perceptual strain index (PeSI) was reduced with PCC compared to CON (P < 0.001), however performance outcomes were not different between trials (P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: PCC during work in the heat attenuated thermal, physiological, and perceptual strain. This PCC garment could increase safety and reduce occupational heat illness risk.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Temperatura Cutânea , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 122(1): 142-152, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789773

RESUMO

It is unclear whether men with low body fat (LO-BF) have impaired thermoregulation during exercise heat stress compared with those with high body fat (HI-BF) when euhydration (EU) is maintained. Furthermore, in LO-BF individuals, hypohydration (HY) impairs thermoregulatory responses during exercise heat stress, but it is unknown whether this occurs in HI-BF counterparts. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that men with HI-BF have impaired thermoregulatory responses to exercise heat stress and that HY further exacerbates these impairments vs. LO-BF. Men with LO-BF [n = 11, body mass (BM) 73.9 ± 8.5 kg, BF% 13.6 ± 3.8] and HI-BF (n = 9, BM 89.6 ± 6.9 kg, BF% 30.2 ± 4.1), in a randomized crossover design, performed 60 min of upright cycling in a hot environment (40.3 ± 0.4°C, relative humidity 32.5 ± 1.9%) at a metabolic heat production rate of 6 W/kg BM and finished exercise either euhydrated (EU; 0.3 ± 1.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.9% BM loss) or HY (-2.5 ± 1.1 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5% BM loss). Changes in rectal temperature (ΔTrec), local sweat rate (ΔLSR), and cutaneous vascular conductance (ΔCVC; %max) were measured throughout. When EU, LO-BF and HI-BF had similar CVC and LSR responses (P > 0.05); however, LO-BF had a lower ΔTrec vs. HI-BF (0.92 ± 0.35 vs. 1.31 ± 0.32°C, P = 0.021). Compared with EU, HY increased end-exercise ΔTrec in LO-BF (0.47 ± 0.37°C, P < 0.01) but not in HI-BF (-0.06 ± 0.29°C, P > 0.05). HY, compared with EU, did not affect ΔLSR and ΔCVC in either group (P > 0.05). We conclude that, when euhydrated, men with HI-BF have a greater increase in Trec vs. LO-BF but similar CVC and LSR. HY exacerbates increases in Trec in LO-BF but not HI-BF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY: This is the first known investigation to compare thermoregulatory responses to exercise heat stress between men with high and low body fat (BF) in a physiologically uncompensable environment while simultaneously examining the confounding influence of hydration status. Both groups demonstrated similar sweating and cutaneous vasodilatory responses when euhydrated, despite vast differences in rectal temperature. Furthermore, in contrast to low BF, individuals with high BF demonstrated similar increases in core body temperature when either euhydrated or hypohydrated.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Sudorese/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(3): 638-643, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552210

RESUMO

Caldwell, AR, Tucker, MA, Butts, CL, McDermott, BP, Vingren, JL, Kunces, LJ, Lee, EC, Munoz, CX, Williamson, KH, Armstrong, LE, and Ganio, MS. Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 638-643, 2017-Caffeine can reduce muscle pain during exercise; however, the efficacy of caffeine in improving muscle soreness and recovery from a demanding long-duration exercise bout has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) and perceived lower extremity functionality (LEF) following the completion of a 164-km endurance cycling event. Before and after cycling RPMS (1-to-6; 6 = severe soreness) and LEF (0-to-80; 80 = full functionality) were assessed by questionnaires. Subjects ingested 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or placebo pills in a randomized, double-blind fashion immediately after the ride and for the next 4 mornings (i.e., ∼800 hours) and 3 afternoons (i.e., ∼1200 hours). Before each ingestion, RPMS and LEF were assessed. Afternoon ratings of LEF were greater with caffeine ingestion the first day postride (65.0 ± 6.1 vs. 72.3 ± 6.7; for placebo and caffeine, respectively; p = 0.04), but at no other time points (p > 0.05). The caffeine group tended to have lower overall RPMS in the afternoon versus placebo (i.e., main effect of group; 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2; p = 0.09). Afternoon RPMS for the legs was significantly lower in the caffeine group (main effect of caffeine; 1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeine improved RPMS for the legs, but not LEF in the days following an endurance cycling event. Athletes may benefit from ingesting caffeine in the days following an arduous exercise bout to relieve feelings of soreness and reduced functionality.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Cafeína/uso terapêutico , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Athl Train ; 51(11): 946-951, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27874299

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recommended treatment for exertional heat stroke includes whole-body cold-water immersion (CWI). However, remote locations or monetary or spatial restrictions can challenge the feasibility of CWI. Thus, the development of a modified, portable CWI method would allow for optimal treatment of exertional heat stroke in the presence of these challenges. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cooling rate of modified CWI (tarp-assisted cooling with oscillation [TACO]) after exertional hyperthermia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover controlled trial. SETTING: Environmental chamber (temperature = 33.4°C ± 0.8°C, relative humidity = 55.7% ± 1.9%). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen volunteers (9 men, 7 women; age = 26 ± 4.7 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.09 m, mass = 72.5 ± 9.0 kg, body fat = 20.7% ± 7.1%) with no history of compromised thermoregulation. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed volitional exercise (cycling or treadmill) until they demonstrated a rectal temperature (Tre) ≥39.0°C. After exercise, participants transitioned to a semirecumbent position on a tarp until either Tre reached 38.1°C or 15 minutes had elapsed during the control (no immersion [CON]) or TACO (immersion in 151 L of 2.1°C ± 0.8°C water) treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The Tre, heart rate, and blood pressure (reported as mean arterial pressure) were assessed precooling and postcooling. Statistical analyses included repeated-measures analysis of variance with appropriate post hoc t tests and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Before cooling, the Tre was not different between conditions (CON: 39.27°C ± 0.26°C, TACO: 39.30°C ± 0.39°C; P = .62; effect size = -0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.2, 0.1). At postcooling, the Tre was decreased in the TACO (38.10°C ± 0.16°C) compared with the CON condition (38.74°C ± 0.38°C; P < .001; effect size = 2.27; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). The rate of cooling was greater during the TACO (0.14 ± 0.06°C/min) than the CON treatment (0.04°C/min ± 0.02°C/min; t15 = -8.84; P < .001; effect size = 2.21; 95% CI = -0.13, -0.08). These differences occurred despite an insignificant increase in fluid consumption during exercise preceding CON (0.26 ± 0.29 L) versus TACO (0.19 ± 0.26 L; t12 = 1.73; P = .11; effect size = 0.48; 95% CI = -0.02, 0.14) treatment. Decreases in heart rate did not differ between the TACO and CON conditions (t15 = -1.81; P = .09; effect size = 0.45; 95% CI = -22, 2). Mean arterial pressure was greater at postcooling with TACO (84.2 ± 6.6 mm Hg) than with CON (67.0 ± 9.0 mm Hg; P < .001; effect size = 2.25; 95% CI = 13, 21). CONCLUSIONS: The TACO treatment provided faster cooling than did the CON treatment. When location, monetary, or spatial restrictions are present, TACO represents an effective alternative to traditional CWI in the emergency treatment of patients with exertional hyperthermia.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Febre/terapia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Golpe de Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Água
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 311(4): R735-R741, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27488886

RESUMO

Whole body heat stress (WBH) results in numerous cardiovascular alterations that ultimately reduce orthostatic tolerance. While impaired carotid baroreflex (CBR) function during WBH has been reported as a potential reason for this decrement, study design considerations may limit interpretation of previous findings. We sought to test the hypothesis that CBR function is unaltered during WBH. CBR function was assessed in 10 healthy male subjects (age: 26 ± 3; height: 185 ± 7 cm; weight: 82 ± 10 kg; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m2; means ± SD) using 5-s trials of neck pressure (+45, +30, and +15 Torr) and neck suction (-20, -40, -60, and -80 Torr) during normothermia (NT) and passive WBH (Δ core temp ∼1°C). Analyses of stimulus response curves (four-parameter logistic model) for CBR control of heart rate (CBR-HR) and mean arterial pressure (CBR-MAP), as well as separate two-way ANOVA of the hypotensive and hypertensive stimuli (factor 1: thermal condition, factor 2: chamber pressure), were performed. For CBR-HR, maximal gain was increased during WBH (-0.73 ± 0.11) compared with NT (-0.39 ± 0.04, mean ± SE, P = 0.03). In addition, the CBR-HR responding range was increased during WBH (33 ± 5) compared with NT (19 ± 2 bpm, P = 0.03). Separate analysis of hypertensive stimulation revealed enhanced HR responses during WBH at -40, -60, and -80 Torr (condition × chamber pressure interaction, P = 0.049) compared with NT. For CBR-MAP, both logistic analysis and separate two-way ANOVA revealed no differences during WBH. Therefore, in response to passive WBH, CBR control of heart rate (enhanced) and arterial pressure (no change) is well preserved.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Corpo Carotídeo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 41(8): 879-87, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455036

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating (LSR) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) responses during passive heat stress in females. Thirteen obese (age, 24 ± 4 years; 45.4% ± 5.2% body fat) and 12 nonobese (age, 22 ± 2 years; 25.1% ± 3.9% body fat) females were passively heated (1.0 °C rectal temperature increase) while either euhydrated (EUHY) or mildly hypohydrated (HYPO; via fluid restriction). Chest and forearm LSR (ventilated capsule) and CVC (Laser Doppler flowmetry) onset, sensitivity, and plateau/steady state were recorded as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb). Participants began trials EUHY (urine specific gravity, Usg = 1.009 ± 0.006) or HYPO (Usg = 1.025 ± 0.004; p < 0.05), and remained EUHY or HYPO. Independent of obesity, HYPO decreased sweat sensitivity at the chest (HYPO = 0.79 ± 0.35, EUHY = 0.95 ± 0.39 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and forearm (HYPO = 0.82 ± 0.39, EUHY = 1.06 ± 0.34 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb); forearm LSR plateau was also decreased (HYPO = 0.66 ± 0.19, EUHY = 0.78 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); all p < 0.05). Overall, obese females had lower chest-sweat sensitivity (0.72 ± 0.35 vs. 1.01 ± 0.33 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and plateau (0.55 ± 0.27 vs. 0.80 ± 0.25 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); p < 0.05). While hypohydrated, obese females had a lower chest LSR (p < 0.05) versus nonobese females midway (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 0.73 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) and at the end (0.53 ± 0.27 vs. 0.81 ± 0.24 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) of heating. Furthermore, HYPO (relative to the EUHY trials) led to a greater decrease in CVC sensitivity in obese (-28 ± 27 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb) versus nonobese females (+9.2 ± 33 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb; p < 0.05). In conclusion, mild hypohydration impairs females' sweating responses during passive heat stress, and this effect is exacerbated when obese.


Assuntos
Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Estresse Fisiológico , Sudorese , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Athl Train ; 51(3): 252-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942657

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Exercise conducted in hot, humid environments increases the risk for exertional heat stroke (EHS). The current recommended treatment of EHS is cold-water immersion; however, limitations may require the use of alternative resources such as a cold shower (CS) or dousing with a hose to cool EHS patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cooling effectiveness of a CS after exercise-induced hyperthermia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover controlled study. SETTING: Environmental chamber (temperature = 33.4°C ± 2.1°C; relative humidity = 27.1% ± 1.4%). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants (10 male, 7 female; height = 1.75 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 70.4 ± 8.7 kg, body surface area = 1.85 ± 0.13 m(2), age range = 19-35 years) volunteered. INTERVENTION(S): On 2 occasions, participants completed matched-intensity volitional exercise on an ergometer or treadmill to elevate rectal temperature to ≥39°C or until participant fatigue prevented continuation (reaching at least 38.5°C). They were then either treated with a CS (20.8°C ± 0.80°C) or seated in the chamber (control [CON] condition) for 15 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Rectal temperature, calculated cooling rate, heart rate, and perceptual measures (thermal sensation and perceived muscle pain). RESULTS: The rectal temperature (P = .98), heart rate (P = .85), thermal sensation (P = .69), and muscle pain (P = .31) were not different during exercise for the CS and CON trials (P > .05). Overall, the cooling rate was faster during CS (0.07°C/min ± 0.03°C/min) than during CON (0.04°C/min ± 0.03°C/min; t16 = 2.77, P = .01). Heart-rate changes were greater during CS (45 ± 20 beats per minute) compared with CON (27 ± 10 beats per minute; t16 = 3.32, P = .004). Thermal sensation was reduced to a greater extent with CS than with CON (F3,45 = 41.12, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Although the CS facilitated cooling rates faster than no treatment, clinicians should continue to advocate for accepted cooling modalities and use CS only if no other validated means of cooling are available.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Água , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 116(4): 687-95, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26781710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of mild hypohydration compared to euhydration on the cooling efficacy of cold-water immersion (CWI). METHODS: Fourteen participants (eight male, six female; age 26 ± 5 years; ht 1.77 ± 0.08 m; wt 72.2 ± 8.8 kg; 20.6 ± 7.4 % body fat) completed one euhydrated (EU) trial followed by one hypohydrated trial (HY; via 24 h fluid restriction) in an environmental chamber (33.6 ± 0.9 °C, 55.8 ± 1.7 % RH). Volitional exercise was performed in a manner that matched end-exercise rectal temperature (T re) through repeating exercise mode and intensity. Participants were then immersed in ice water (2.0 ± 0.8 °C) until T re reached 38.1 °C or for a maximum of 15 min. T re, heart rate (HR), skin blood flux (SBF) and mean skin temperature (T sk) were monitored continuously during cooling. RESULTS: Pre-cooling body mass was decreased in the HY trial (-2.66 ± 1.23 % body mass) and maintained in the EU trial (-0.66 ± 0.44 %) compared to baseline mass (P < 0.001). Cooling rates were faster when EU (0.14 ± 0.05 °C/min) compared to HY (0.11 ± 0.05 °C/min, P = 0.046). HR, SBF, and T sk were not different between EU and HY trials (P > 0.05), however, all variables significantly decreased with immersion independent of hydration status (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The primary finding was that hypohydration modestly attenuates the rate of cooling in exertionally hyperthermic individuals. Regardless of hydration status, the cooling efficacy of CWI was preserved and should continue to be utilized in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Exercício Físico , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Hipotermia Induzida , Gelo , Imersão , Masculino
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