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1.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1143-1150, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association and coaggregation of eating disorders and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in families. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using population samples from national registers in Sweden (n = 2,517,277) and Demark (n = 1,825,920), we investigated the within-individual association between type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their familial coaggregation among full siblings, half siblings, full cousins, and half cousins. On the basis of clinical diagnoses, we classified eating disorders into any eating disorder (AED), anorexia nervosa (AN) and atypical AN, and other eating disorder (OED). Associations were determined with hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs from Cox regressions. RESULTS: Swedish and Danish individuals with a type 1 diabetes diagnosis had a greater risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis (HR [95% CI] Sweden: AED 2.02 [1.80-2.27], AN 1.63 [1.36-1.96], OED 2.34 [2.07-2.63]; Denmark: AED 2.19 [1.84-2.61], AN 1.78 [1.36-2.33], OED 2.65 [2.20-3.21]). We also meta-analyzed the results: AED 2.07 (1.88-2.28), AN 1.68 (1.44-1.95), OED 2.44 (2.17-2.72). There was an increased risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis in full siblings in the Swedish cohort (AED 1.25 [1.07-1.46], AN 1.28 [1.04-1.57], OED 1.28 [1.07-1.52]); these results were nonsignificant in the Danish cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of subsequent eating disorders; however, there is conflicting support for the relationship between having a sibling with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder diagnosis. Diabetes health care teams should be vigilant about disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

2.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to psychiatric morbidity, but few studies have assessed general population comparators. We aimed to investigate the risk of psychiatric morbidity and suicide in adult-onset IBD patients. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden (1973-2013). We studied the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide in 69,865 adult-onset IBD patients (ulcerative colitis, UC: n=43,557; Crohn's disease, CD: n=21,245; and IBD-unclassified: n=5063) compared to 3,472,913 general population references and 66,292 siblings. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years, we found 7,465 (10.7%) first psychiatric disorders in IBD (incidence rate, IR/1000 person-years 8.4) and 306,911 (9.9%) in the general population (IR 6.6), resulting in 1.8 extra psychiatric morbidity per 100 patients followed-up for 10 years and a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI=1.2-1.3). The highest risk of overall psychiatric morbidity was seen in the first year after IBD diagnosis (HR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.6) and in patients with extraintestinal manifestations (HR=1.6, 95%CI=1.5-1.7). Psychiatric morbidity was more common in all IBD subtypes (HRs 1.3 to 1.5). An increased risk of suicide attempts was observed among all IBD types (HRs=1.2 to 1.4), whereas completed suicide was explicitly associated with CD (HR=1.5) and elderly-onset (diagnosed at the age of >60 years) IBD (HR=1.7). CONCLUSION: Adult-onset IBD was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts. Psychological follow-up should be provided to patients with IBD, especially those with extraintestinal manifestations and elderly-onset IBD. This follow-up should transpire within the first year after IBD diagnosis.

3.
Diabetologia ; 64(4): 767-777, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454829

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes on the risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disorders, and the role of glycaemic control in this association. We hypothesised that individuals with poor glycaemic control may be at a higher risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared with the general population, as well as compared with individuals with type 1 diabetes with adequate glycaemic control. METHODS: This Swedish population-based cohort study was conducted using data from health registers from 1973 to 2013. We identified 8430 patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (diagnosed before age 18 years) with a median age of diabetes onset of 9.6 (IQR 5.9-12.9) and 84,300 reference individuals from the general population, matched for sex, birth year and birth county. Cox models were used to estimate the effect of HbA1c on the risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 5.6 years, 398 (4.7%) individuals with type 1 diabetes received a diagnosis of any neurodevelopmental disorder compared with 3066 (3.6%) in the general population, corresponding to an adjusted HR (HRadjusted) of 1.31 (95% CI 1.18, 1.46) after additionally adjusting for other psychiatric morbidity prior to inclusion, parental psychiatric morbidity and parental highest education level. The risk of any neurodevelopmental disorder increased with HbA1c levels and the highest risk was observed in patients with mean HbA1c >8.6% (>70 mmol/mol) (HRadjusted 1.90 [95% CI 1.51, 2.37]) compared with reference individuals without type 1 diabetes. In addition, when compared with patients with diabetes with HbA1c <7.5% (<58 mmol/mol), patients with HbA1c >8.6% (>70 mmol/mol) had the highest risk of any neurodevelopmental disorder (HRadjusted 3.71 [95% CI 2.75, 5.02]) and of specific neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD (HRadjusted 4.16 [95% CI 2.92, 5.94]), ASD (HRadjusted 2.84 [95% CI 1.52, 5.28]) and intellectual disability (HRadjusted 3.93 [95% CI 1.38, 11.22]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Childhood-onset type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, with the highest risk seen in individuals with poor glycaemic control. Routine neurodevelopmental follow-up visits should be considered in type 1 diabetes, especially in patients with poor glycaemic control.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have explored the link between childhood celiac disease and long-term psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a population-based cohort study of associations between childhood celiac disease and psychiatric disorders and investigated whether risk persists into adulthood. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study in Sweden using data from the ESPRESSO cohort. In this cohort, 19,186 children with a diagnosis of biopsy-verified celiac disease from 1973 through 2016 were identified from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each patient was matched with as many as 5 reference children (controls, n=94,249). Data on psychiatric disorders were obtained from the patient register. We used Cox proportional modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 12.3 years, 3174 children (16.5%) with celiac disease received a new diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, compared with 13,286 controls (14.1%). Corresponding incidence rates were 12.2 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 11.8-12.7) vs 10.3 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 10.2-10.5). Childhood celiac disease was associated with a 19% increase in risk of any psychiatric disorder (95% Cl, 1.14-1.23); the increase in risk was observed in all childhood age groups. The highest HRs were seen in the first year after celiac diagnosis (HR, 1.70; 95% Cl, 1.41-2.05). The risk increase persisted into adulthood (older than 18 years: HR, 1.11; 95% Cl, 1.04-1.17). We found increased risks of mood disorders (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.19), eating disorders (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.20-1.39), and autism spectrum disorder (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64). We found no statistically significant risk increase for psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorders, personality disorders, suicide attempt, or suicide. Celiac disease was also linked to an increased use of psychiatric drugs (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43). A conditional logistic regression found that psychiatric disorders were also more common prior to diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% Cl, 1.39-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood celiac disease is associated with increased risk of subsequent psychiatric disorders, which persists into adulthood. Mental health surveillance should be integral in the care of celiac disease.

5.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054720923725, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478603

RESUMO

Objective: Evidence regarding comedication among individuals with ADHD is lacking, especially in adults. This study investigated comedication and polypharmacy with ADHD medications in adults. Method: We identified adults dispensed with ADHD medications during 2013 in Sweden and matched them to controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of receiving other medications. Results: Individuals receiving ADHD medications had higher risk of receiving any major classes of somatic medications (ORs ranged from 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.0, 4.3], to 7.4, 95% CI = [6.5, 8.5] across age groups). They were more likely to receive respiratory system, alimentary tract and metabolic system, and cardiovascular system medications. In addition, they had higher risk of receiving any other psychotropic medications. The proportion of polypharmacy with five or more medication classes increased from 10.1% to 60.4% from 18 to 64 years. Conclusion: Comedication was more common in adults receiving ADHD medications. Potential benefits and harms of comedication and polypharmacy require further research. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX[X] XX-XX).

6.
CNS Drugs ; 34(7): 731-747, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of reproductive-aged women are using attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications. Findings from studies exploring the safety of these medications during pregnancy are mixed, and it is unclear whether associations reflect causal effects or could be partially or fully explained by other factors that differ between exposed and unexposed offspring. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the adverse pregnancy-related and offspring outcomes associated with exposure to prescribed ADHD medication during pregnancy with a focus on how studies to date have handled the influence of confounding. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science up to 1 July 2019 without any restrictions on language or date of publication. We included all observational studies (e.g., cohort studies, case-control studies, case-crossover studies, cross-sectional studies, and registry-based studies) with pregnant women of any age or from any setting who were prescribed ADHD medications and evaluated any outcome, including both short- and long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Two independent authors then used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to rate the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eight cohort studies that estimated adverse pregnancy-related and offspring outcomes associated with exposure to ADHD medication during pregnancy were included in the qualitative review. The included studies had substantial methodological differences in data sources, type of medications examined, definitions of studied pregnancy-related and offspring outcomes, types of control groups, and confounding adjustment. There was no convincing evidence for teratogenic effects according to the relative risk of pregnancy-related and offspring outcomes, and the observed differences in absolute risks were overall small in magnitude. Adjustment for confounding was inadequate in most studies, and none of the included studies adjusted for ADHD severity in the mothers. CONCLUSION: The current evidence does not suggest that the use of ADHD medication during pregnancy results in significant adverse consequences for mother or offspring. However, the data are too limited to make an unequivocal recommendation. Therefore, physicians should consider whether the advantages of using ADHD medication outweigh the potential risks for the developing fetus according to each woman's specific circumstances. Future research should attempt to triangulate research findings based on a combination of different designs that differ in their underlying strengths and limitations and should investigate specific confounding factors, the potential impact of timing of exposure, and potential long-term outcomes in the offspring.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424531

RESUMO

Importance: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with psychiatric morbidity in adults, although previous studies have not accounted for familial confounding. In children, IBD has an even more severe course, but the association between childhood-onset IBD and psychiatric morbidity remains unclear. Objective: To examine the risk of psychiatric morbidity in individuals with childhood-onset IBD, controlling for potential confounding shared between siblings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Swedish national health care and population registers of all children younger than 18 years born from 1973 to 2013. The study included 6464 individuals with a diagnosis of childhood-onset IBD (3228 with ulcerative colitis, 2536 with Crohn disease, and 700 with IBD unclassified) who were compared with 323 200 matched reference individuals from the general population and 6999 siblings of patients with IBD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 1973, to December 1, 2013. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was any psychiatric disorder and suicide attempt. Secondary outcomes were the following specific psychiatric disorders: psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, personality, and behavioral disorders; substance misuse; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism spectrum disorders; and intellectual disability. Results: The study included 6464 individuals with a diagnosis of childhood-onset IBD (2831 girls and 3633 boys; mean [SD] age at diagnosis of IBD, 13 [4] years). During a median follow-up time of 9 years, 1117 individuals with IBD (17.3%) received a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder (incidence rate, 17.1 per 1000 person-years), compared with 38 044 of 323 200 individuals (11.8%) in the general population (incidence rate, 11.2 per 1000 person-years), corresponding to an HR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.5-1.7), equaling 1 extra case of any psychiatric disorder per 170 person-years. Inflammatory bowel disease was significantly associated with suicide attempt (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) as well as mood disorders (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0) eating disorders (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), personality disorders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4), and autism spectrum disorders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) Results were similar for boys and girls. Hazard ratios for any psychiatric disorder were highest in the first year of follow-up but remained statistically significant after more than 5 years. Psychiatric disorders were particularly common for patients with very early-onset IBD (<6 years) and for patients with a parental psychiatric history. Results were largely confirmed by sibling comparison, with similar estimates noted for any psychiatric disorder (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.8) and suicide attempt (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions and Relevance: Overall, childhood-onset IBD was associated with psychiatric morbidity, confirmed by between-sibling results. Particularly concerning is the increased risk of suicide attempt, suggesting that long-term psychological support be considered for patients with childhood-onset IBD.

9.
J Psychosom Res ; 101: 122-127, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge concerning mental health outcomes is important to optimize the health of individuals with disorders or differences of sex development (DSD). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate if the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adult women diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or complete gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD and 46,XX GD) differs from that in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or age-matched population controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, and included 33 women with different DSDs: 20 CAIS, 6 46,XY GD, 7 46,XX GD, 21 women with POI and 61 population-derived controls. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINI+). To complement the MINI+, three self-report questions were used to evaluate current and previous psychiatric history. Results are presented as p values and estimated risks (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of psychiatric conditions among women with CAIS or GD in comparison with women with POI and age-matched population-derived controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 33 women (85%) with CAIS or GD met the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder according to the MINI+, with depression and anxiety disorders being most common. This was significantly higher compared with population controls (52%) (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-14.9), but not compared to women with POI, who had a high frequency of psychiatric diagnoses (76%). CONCLUSION: The increased psychiatric morbidity in women with CAIS and GD highlights the need for clinical awareness of the psychiatric vulnerability in these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/psicologia , Disgenesia Gonadal/psicologia , Adulto , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disgenesia Gonadal/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Psychiatr Pol ; 51(2): 231-246, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We attempted to assess bone mineralization and the frequency of fractures occurrence in women with a history of treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescence. METHODS: 47 women (age 20-36.8 years) were re-examined 6.33-21,2 years after the onset of AN symptoms. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip (DXA) and densitometric Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) were performed on 46 of women and BAP, P1NP, CTX, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, IGF-1, leptin, DHEA-S on 45 of women entered for the current study. Current BMD results were compared with available baseline results from the time of hospitalization. RESULTS: Currently BMD Z-score <-1 examined at any location occurred in 28 from 46 women (including Z-score <-2 in 5 women). In 11 from 12 women with reduced BMD at the time of hospitalization current total body BMD was within the normal range. Lumbar spine BMD was normalized or improved respectively in 5 and 6 from 15 women. Currently increased levels/activity of bone formation markers: P1NP in 27 (60%) and BAP in 28 women (62.2%) were observed. In 7 women (15.6%) increased values of bone formation markers with increased marker of bone resorption (CTX) occurred. Osteoporotic fractures and fractures in the spine in VFA were not observed during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Despite early treatment of adolescent-onset AN and good outcomes of the treatment, decreased BMD was currently present in 60.9% of women. During follow-up normalization or significant improvement in BMD results (total body, lumbar spine) were observed in majority of cases.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Desmineralização Patológica Óssea/etiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Desmineralização Patológica Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Densitometria , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0174923, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384289

RESUMO

In this nationwide matched cohort study, we have investigated whether being born with hypospadias affect subsequent psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. We analyzed prospectively collected data from national Swedish registers. Data on the diagnoses were collected from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Data on psychosocial outcomes such as educational and income level, marital status and disability pension were collected from Statistics Sweden. The effects of covariates, such as age, county of birth, presence of other malformations and psychiatric illness, were taken into account. The associations between hypospadias and psychosocial outcomes were calculated using conditional logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 4378 men diagnosed with hypospadias, born between 1969 and 1993 in Sweden. Patients with hypospadias were matched with unaffected men by year of birth and birth county. We did not detect any differences in educational or income level. The probability of entering marriage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.14) did not differ, regardless of phenotype. We did, however, detect a 40% increased probability of receiving a disability pension, (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61). In conclusion, men born with hypospadias in Sweden do not differ from unaffected men with respect to the majority of psychosocial outcomes studied. They are, however, at increased risk of receiving a disability pension, which motivates further investigations.


Assuntos
Hipospadia/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia
12.
J Pediatr ; 184: 87-93.e1, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. STUDY DESIGN: This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged <18 years) with celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability). HRs of future psychiatric disorders in children with celiac disease and their siblings was estimated by Cox regression. The association between previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and current celiac disease was assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with the general population, children with celiac disease had a 1.4-fold greater risk of future psychiatric disorders. Childhood celiac disease was identified as a risk factor for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, behavioral disorders, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability. In addition, a previous diagnosis of a mood, eating, or behavioral disorder was more common before the diagnosis of celiac disease. In contrast, siblings of celiac disease probands were at no increased risk of any of the investigated psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Children with celiac disease are at increased risk for most psychiatric disorders, apparently owing to the biological and/or psychological effects of celiac disease.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Suécia
13.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 86(3): 317-324, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27654981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common monogenic autosomal recessive disorders with an incidence of one in 15 000. About one in 70 individuals in the general population are carriers of a severe CYP21A2 mutation. It has been suggested that this confers a survival advantage, perhaps as a result of increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated vulnerability to psychological stress in obligate carriers. METHOD: The Swedish CAH Registry encompasses more than 600 patients. Parents, that is obligate carriers of the CYP21A2 mutation, were identified through the Multigeneration Register. The diagnosis of the child was used as the psychological stressor. Psychiatric diagnoses before and after the birth of a child with CAH were compared to those of controls derived from (i) the general population, (ii) parents of children with hypospadias and (iii) parents of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). RESULTS: Parents of children with CAH had less risk of being diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder (OR, 0·6), an affective disorder (OR, 0·5) or substance misuse (OR, 0·5) after the diagnosis of the child, compared to the general population. Their risk was also decreased compared to parents of a child with hypospadias (OR, 0·6, 0·4 and 0·2, respectively) and parents of a child with T1DM (OR 0·7, 0·6 and 0·2, respectively). The CYP21A2 carriers had a lower risk of developing mood and stress-related disorders after the diagnosis of the child. CONCLUSION: Obligate CYP21A2 carriers had a reduced risk of a psychiatric diagnosis and were less vulnerable to a psychologically stressful situation, at least with respect to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis. This indicates a better ability to cope with psychological stress among heterozygous carriers of severe CYP21A2 mutations, which may contribute to the apparent survival advantage.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Mutação , Pais/psicologia , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Humanos , Hipospadia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 47(1): 80-89, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734228

RESUMO

Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Suécia
16.
Psychosomatics ; 57(2): 185-93, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic condition with major effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health. In 1990s, high rates of psychiatric disorders were reported among children with T1DM. Little is known, however, about current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with T1DM and the relation between psychiatric diagnosis and HRQoL. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) psychiatric disorders and the association between psychiatric comorbidity and HRQoL in the pediatric population with T1DM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 207 children, aged 8-18 years, diagnosed with T1DM. The presence of psychiatric disorders has been assessed by the standard diagnostic interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria. HRQoL was measured by the general and diabetes mellitus-specific modules of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. RESULTS: Of the evaluated patients, 26.6% (N = 55) met the criteria for psychiatric disorders at the time of evaluation. The most common diagnoses were anxiety (N = 32; 15.5%) and mood disorders (N = 8; 3.9%). One-third of the patients (N = 66, 31.9%) met the criteria for at least 1 psychiatric diagnosis in their lifetime. The presence of psychiatric disorders was related to an elevated hemoglobin A1c level (8.6% vs 7.6%) and a lowered HRQoL level in the general pediatric quality of life inventory. In the diabetes mellitus-specific pediatric quality of life inventory, children with psychiatric disorders revealed more symptoms of diabetes mellitus, treatment barriers, and lower adherence than children without psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: T1DM in children is associated with a very high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity, which is related to elevated hemoglobin A1c and lower HRQoL levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 2(9): 817-24, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26236006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of natural disasters are thought to be at an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, however the extent of this risk, and whether it is linked to pre-existing psychopathology, is not known. We aimed to establish whether Swedish survivors of tsunamis from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had increased risks of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts 5 years after repatriation. METHODS: We identified Swedish survivors repatriated from southeast Asia (8762 adults and 3742 children) and 864 088 unexposed adults and 320 828 unexposed children matched for sex, age, and socioeconomic status. We retrieved psychiatric diagnoses and suicide attempts from the Swedish patient register for the 5 years after the tsunami (from Dec 26, 2004, to Jan 31, 2010) and estimated hazard ratios (HRs), then adjusted for pre-tsunami psychiatric disorders, and, for children, for parental pre-tsunami disorders. FINDINGS: Exposed adults were more likely than unexposed adults to receive any psychiatric diagnosis (547 [6·2%] vs 47 734 [5·5%]; adjusted HR 1·21, 95% CI 1·11-1·32), particularly stress-related disorders (187 [2·1%] vs 8831 [1·0%]; 2·27, 1·96-2·62) and suicide attempts (38 [0·43%] vs 2752 [0·32%]; 1·54, 1·11-2·13), but not mood or anxiety disorders. Risk of psychiatric diagnoses did not differ between exposed and unexposed children and adolescents (248 [6·6] vs 22 081 [6·9%]; 0·98, 0·86-1·11), although exposed children and adolescents had a higher risk for suicide attempts with uncertain intent (1·43; 1·01-2·02) and stress-related disorders (1·79; 1·30-2·46), mainly during the first 3 months after the tsunami. INTERPRETATION: The 2004 tsunami was, independently of previous psychiatric morbidity, associated with an increased risk of severe psychopathology, mainly stress-related disorders and suicide attempts, in children and adults. Survivors of natural disasters should be targeted with early interventions and active long-term follow-up to prevent, detect, and alleviate psychiatric disorders that might follow. FUNDING: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Swedish Society for Medical Research.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tsunamis , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 60: 195-205, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26184920

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a chronic condition and individuals are exposed to elevated androgen levels in utero as a result of the endogenous cortisol deficiency. Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to influence mental health, but population based studies on psychiatric morbidity among girls and women with CAH are lacking. Therefore, we performed a cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers linked with the national CAH register. Girls and women with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 335) born between January 1915 and January 2010 were compared with aged-matched female (n = 33500) and male controls (n = 33500). Analyses were stratified by phenotype [salt wasting (SW), simple virilizing (SV), and non-classical type (NC)] and by CYP21A2 genotype subgroups (null, I2splice, I172N, and P30L). Results are presented as estimated risks (OR, 95%CI) of psychiatric disorders among girls and women with CAH compared with age-matched controls. Any psychiatric diagnoses were more common in CAH females compared with female and male population controls [1.9 (1.4-2.5), and 2.2 (1.7-2.9)]. In particular, the risk of alcohol misuse was increased compared with female and male population controls [2.8 (1.7-4.7) and 2.1 (1.2-3.5)], and appeared most common among the girls and women with the most severe null genotype [6.7 (2.6-17.8)]. The risk of stress and adjustment disorders was doubled compared with female population controls [2.1 (1.3-3.6)]. Girls and women with CAH have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in general and substance use disorders in particular compared with unexposed females, with the highest risk among those with the most severe genotype. Prenatal androgen exposure and deficient endogenous cortisol and/or adrenaline production may provide explanations for these findings, but other factors related to CAH cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Sistema de Registros , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Diabetes Care ; 38(3): 453-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in children with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a population-based case-cohort study of individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Children with type 1 diabetes (n = 17,122) and their healthy siblings (n = 18,847) were identified and followed until their 18th birthday. Their risk of psychiatric disorders was compared with that of matched control subjects. RESULTS: The risk of psychiatric morbidity in children with type 1 diabetes compared with the general population was tripled within 6 months after the onset of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0 [95% CI 2.7-3.4]) and doubled within the total observation period (HR 2.1 [95% CI 2.0-2.2]). An increased risk was noted in suicide attempts (HR 1.7 [95% CI 1.4-2.0]) and in most categories of psychiatric disorders. The risk of psychiatric disorders in probands declined from HR 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.3) for those in the cohort born 1973-1986 to 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) in those born 1997-2009. The risk for any psychiatric disorders among siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be HR 1.1 (95% CI 1.0-1.1), and there was no increased risk in any of the specific category of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes are at high risk of psychiatric disorders, which seems to be a consequence of the disease rather than due to a common familial etiology. The results support recommendations on comprehensive mental health surveillance in children with type 1 diabetes, especially in recently diagnosed children.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
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