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1.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair (MMR) system has been implicated in the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation and DNA damaging agents. We investigated the value of the MMR system in predicting response to adjuvant therapy in endometrial cancer. METHODS: This was a single institution retrospective study. MMR protein status of endometrial carcinomas was assessed by immunohistochemistry. MMR deficient (MMR-D) tumors were identified as MLH1 methylated or nonmethylated by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Tumors with abnormal p53 staining or polymerase ϵ exonuclease domain mutation were excluded from the MMR proficient subgroup, which was termed as "no specific molecular profile" (NSMP). Disease-specific survival analyses were adjusted for age, stage, histology and grade, depth of myometrial invasion, and lymphovascular space invasion. RESULTS: A total of 505 patients were included in the study. Median follow-up time was 81 months (range 1-136). Whole pelvic radiotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.092 vs. no adjuvant therapy) and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (adjusted HR 0.18) were associated with improved disease-specific survival in the NSMP subgroup (n = 218). In contrast, adjuvant therapies showed no effect on disease-specific survival in the full MMR-D cohort (n = 287) or in MLH1 methylated tumors (n = 154). Whole pelvic radiotherapy (adjusted HR 25 vs. no adjuvant therapy/vaginal brachytherapy) and chemotherapy combined with whole pelvic radiotherapy (adjusted HR 32) were associated with poor disease-specific survival in MMR-D nonmethylated tumors (n = 70). CONCLUSION: MMR protein and MLH1 methylation status predict the response to adjuvant therapy in endometrial cancer. The MMR system could be utilized for selection of patients who most likely benefit from adjuvant therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with endometrial carcinoma are usually triaged to staging lymphadenectomy selectively based on estimated risk of lymphatic spread. The risk is generally assessed by the presence of uterine risk factors, but their preoperative and intraoperative identification remain a challenge. The objective of this study was to assess the capability of molecular classification, described by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), to predict the stage of endometrial carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: Sequencing of polymerase-ε (POLE) and immunohistochemistry of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53 were performed to stratify endometrial carcinomas into subgroups of POLE exonuclease domain mutation (EDM), MMR deficiency, abnormal p53 (p53 abn) and 'no specific molecular profile' (NSMP). NSMP was the reference subgroup for comparisons. Associations of molecular subgroups and uterine risk factors with stage were examined in univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Six hundred and four patients were included in the study. None of the POLE EDM tumours extended beyond the uterine cervix. In an unadjusted analysis, p53 abn was associated with increased risk for stage IIIC-IV disease [odds ratio (OR) 4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-9.2; p < 0.0005]. When controlling for uterine risk factors (histotype and grade, depth of myometrial invasion, tumour size, lymphovascular space invasion), p53 was not an independent predictor of advanced disease. In contrast, POLE EDM independently predicted local disease (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.015-0.99; p = 0.049 for stage II-IV cancer). Of the molecular subgroups, p53 abn was most strongly associated with the presence of high-risk uterine factors (ORs between 2.2 and 19; p ≤ 0.010). CONCLUSION: Of the TCGA-based molecular subgroups, POLE EDM independently predicted early-stage endometrial carcinoma. Although p53 abn was not an independent predictor of advanced disease, its association with uterine risk factors could allow utilization of molecular data in deciding the type of staging surgery if knowledge of uterine factors is deficient.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical factors may influence endometrial cancer survival outcomes. We examined the prognostic significance of age, body mass index (BMI), and type 2 diabetes among molecular subgroups of endometrial cancer. METHODS: This was a single institution retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for endometrial carcinoma between January 2007 and December 2012. Tumors were classified into four molecular subgroups by immunohistochemistry of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53, and sequencing of polymerase-ϵ (POLE). Overall, cancer-related, and non-cancer-related mortality were estimated using univariable and multivariable survival analyses. RESULTS: Age >65 years was associated with increased mortality rates in the whole cohort (n = 515) and in the "no specific molecular profile" (NSMP) (n = 218) and MMR deficient (MMR-D) (n = 191) subgroups during a median follow-up time of 81 months (range 1‒136). However, hazard ratios for cancer-related mortality were non-significant for NSMP and MMR-D. Diabetes was associated with increased overall and non-cancer-related mortality in the whole cohort and MMR-D subgroup. Overweight/obesity had no effect on outcomes in the whole cohort, but was associated with decreased overall and cancer-related mortality in the NSMP subgroup, and increased overall and non-cancer-related mortality in the MMR-D subgroup. Overweight/obesity effect on cancer-related mortality in the NSMP subgroup remained unchanged after controlling for confounders. High-risk uterine factors were more common, and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression less common in NSMP subtype cancers of normal-weight patients compared with overweight/obese patients. No clinical factors were associated with outcomes in p53 aberrant (n = 69) and POLE mutant (n = 37) subgroups. No cancer-related deaths occurred in the POLE mutant subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic effects of age, BMI, and type 2 diabetes do not appear to be uniform for the molecular subgroups of endometrial cancer. Our data support further evaluation of BMI combined with genomics-based risk-assessment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 790, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989221

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are routinely used in the clinic as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents as well as adjuvants during cancer treatment to mitigate the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy. However, recent studies have indicated that glucocorticoids may negatively impact the efficacy of chemotherapy by promoting tumor cell survival, heterogeneity, and metastasis. Here, we show that dexamethasone induces upregulation of ROR1 expression in ovarian cancer (OC), including platinum-resistant OC. Increased ROR1 expression resulted in elevated RhoA, YAP/TAZ, and BMI-1 levels in a panel of OC cell lines as well as primary ovarian cancer patient-derived cells, underlining the translational relevance of our studies. Importantly, dexamethasone induced differentiation of OC patient-derived cells ex vivo according to their molecular subtype and the phenotypic expression of cell differentiation markers. High-throughput drug testing with 528 emerging and clinical oncology compounds of OC cell lines and patient-derived cells revealed that dexamethasone treatment increased the sensitivity to several AKT/PI3K targeted kinase inhibitors, while significantly decreasing the efficacy of chemotherapeutics such as taxanes, as well as anti-apoptotic compounds such as SMAC mimetics. On the other hand, targeting ROR1 expression increased the efficacy of taxane drugs and SMAC mimetics, suggesting new combinatorial targeted treatments for patients with OC.

6.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(4): bvaa034, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309755

RESUMO

Adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) are sex-cord derived neoplasms with a propensity for late relapse. Hormonal modulators have been used empirically in the treatment of recurrent AGCT, albeit with limited success. To provide a more rigorous foundation for hormonal therapy in AGCT, we used a multimodal approach to characterize the expressions of key hormone biomarkers in 175 tumor specimens and 51 serum samples using RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, quantitative PCR, and circulating biomarker analysis, and correlated these results with clinical data. We show that FSH receptor and estrogen receptor beta (ERß) are highly expressed in the majority of AGCTs, whereas the expressions of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 are less prominent. ERß protein expression is further increased in recurrent tumors. Aromatase expression levels show high variability between tumors. None of the markers examined served as prognostic biomarkers for progression-free or overall survival. In functional experiments, we assessed the effects of FSH, estradiol (E2), and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on AGCT cell viability using 2 in vitro models: KGN cells and primary cultures of AGCT cells. FSH increased cell viability in a subset of primary AGCT cells, whereas E2 had no effect on cell viability at physiological concentrations. Letrozole suppressed E2 production in AGCTs; however, it did not impact cell viability. We did not find preclinical evidence to support the clinical use of aromatase inhibitors in AGCT treatment, and thus randomized, prospective clinical studies are needed to clarify the role of hormonal treatments in AGCTs.

7.
Lab Invest ; 100(7): 1014-1025, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205858

RESUMO

Glycodelin is a major glycoprotein expressed in reproductive tissues, like secretory and decidualized endometrium. It has several reproduction related functions that are dependent on specific glycosylation, but it has also been found to drive differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells toward a less malignant phenotype. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the glycosylation and function of glycodelin is altered in endometrial carcinoma as compared with a normal endometrium. We carried out glycan structure analysis of glycodelin expressed in HEC-1B human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1B Gd) by mass spectrometry glycomics strategies. Glycans of HEC-1B Gd were found to comprise a typical mixture of high-mannose, hybrid, and complex-type N-glycans, often containing undecorated LacNAc (Galß1-4GlcNAc) antennae. However, several differences, as compared with previously reported glycan structures of normal human decidualized endometrium-derived glycodelin isoform, glycodelin-A (GdA), were also found. These included a lower level of sialylation and more abundant poly-LacNAc antennae, some of which are fucosylated. This allowed us to select lectins that showed different binding to these classes of glycodelin. Despite the differences in glycosylation between HEC-1B Gd and GdA, both showed similar inhibitory activity on trophoblast cell invasion and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. For the detection of cancer associated glycodelin, we established a novel in situ proximity-ligation based histochemical staining method using a specific glycodelin antibody and UEAI lectin. We found that the UEAI reactive glycodelin was abundant in endometrial carcinoma, but virtually absent in normal endometrial tissue even when glycodelin was strongly expressed. In conclusion, we established a histochemical staining method for the detection of endometrial carcinoma-associated glycodelin and showed that this specific glycodelin is exclusively expressed in cancer, not in normal endometrium. Similar methods can be used for studies of other glycoproteins.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Glicodelina , Neoplasias Uterinas , Sequência de Carboidratos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Endométrio/química , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicodelina/análise , Glicodelina/química , Glicodelina/metabolismo , Glicômica , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Neoplasias Uterinas/química , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
8.
Mod Pathol ; 33(7): 1443-1452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060377

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient endometrial carcinoma (EC) is driven by inactivating methylation or less frequently mutation of an MMR gene (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, or MSH6). This study evaluated the prognostic and clinicopathologic differences between methylation-linked and nonmethylated MMR-deficient endometrioid ECs. We performed MMR immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and classified 682 unselected endometrioid ECs as MMR proficient (MMRp, n = 438) and MMR deficient (MMRd, n = 244), with the latter subcategorized as methylated (MMRd Met) and nonmethylated tumors. Loss of MMR protein expression was detected in 35.8% of the tumors as follows: MLH1 + PMS2 in 29.8%, PMS2 in 0.9%, MSH2 + MSH6 in 1.3%, MSH6 in 2.8%, and multiple abnormalities in 0.9%. Of the 244 MMRd cases, 76% were methylation-linked. MMR deficiency was associated with older age, high grade of differentiation (G3), advanced stage (II-IV), larger tumor size, abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, PD-L1 positivity in immune cells and combined positive score, wild-type p53, negative L1CAM, ARID1A loss, and type of adjuvant therapy. MMRd-Met phenotype correlated with older age and larger tumor size, and predicted diminished disease-specific survival in the whole cohort. In the MMRd subgroup, univariate analysis demonstrated an association between disease-specific survival and disease stage II-IV, high grade (G3), deep myometrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, ER negativity, and L1CAM positivity. In conclusion, MMR methylation profile correlates with clinicopathologic characteristics of endometrioid EC, and MMRd-Met phenotype predicts lower disease-specific survival. MMR deficiency, but not MLH1 methylation status, correlates with T-cell inflammation and PD-L1 expression.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancers often contain significant numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that can be readily harnessed for adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT). However, the immunosuppressive ovarian tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor reactivity in TILs can limit the effectiveness of the therapy. We hypothesized that by using an oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNFa-IRES-hIL2; TILT-123) to deliver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), we could counteract immunosuppression, and enhance antitumor TIL responses in ovarian cancer (OVCA). METHODS: We established ex vivo tumor cultures freshly derived from patients with advanced OVCA and evaluated the effects of Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNFa-IRES-hIL2 or Ad5/3-E2F-D24 (the control virus without TNFa and IL-2) on TILs, cytokine response and tumor viability. Tumor reactivity was assessed by determining interferon gamma (IFNg) response of clinically relevant TILs towards autologous T-cell-depleted ex vivo tumor cultures pretreated with or without the aforementioned oncolytic adenoviruses. RESULTS: Treatment of ex vivo tumor cultures with Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNFa-IRES-hIL2 caused a substantial rise in proinflammatory signals: increased secretion of IFNg, CXCL10, TNFa and IL-2, and concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs. Potent tumor reactivity was seen, as clinically relevant TIL secreted high levels of IFNg in response to autologous T-cell-depleted ovarian ex vivo tumor cultures treated with Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNFa-IRES-hIL2. This phenomenon was independent of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells, a factor that determined the variability of IFNg responses seen in different patient samples. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNFa-IRES-hIL2 was able to rewire the ovarian tumor microenvironment to accommodate heightened antitumor TIL reactivity. Such effects may improve the clinical effectiveness of ACT with TILs in patients with advanced OVCA.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Células A549 , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Interleucina-2/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
10.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(2): 174-181, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651527

RESUMO

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a biomarker that may predict the response to anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. We evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in carcinoma cells (Ca) and immune cells (ICs) across histopathologic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) molecular subgroups of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Our study included 842 patients with EC. Direct sequencing of polymerase epsilon (POLE) exonuclease domain hot spots and conventional immunohistochemistry (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53) were conducted to identify TCGA classification-based molecular subgroups of EC: POLE-mutated, mismatch repair deficient, no specific molecular profile, and p53 aberrant. Multiplex immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate PD-L1 expression in Ca and tumor-infiltrating ICs. PD-L1 expression in Ca and in ICs was detected in 8.6% and 27.7% of the cases, respectively. A combined positive score (CPS) was ≥1% in 19.4% of the samples. PD-L1 positivity in Ca and ICs, and CPS correlated with tumor T-cell density (P<0.001). POLE-mutated and mismatch repair-deficient tumors were more likely to present PD-L1-expressing ICs, CPS positivity, and abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with other TCGA subgroups (P<0.001). No differences existed in Ca-PD-L1 expression (P=0.366). Within various histotypes, non-endometrioid carcinomas displayed the highest Ca-PD-L1, ICs, and CPS (P<0.03). Advanced cancers showed more frequent Ca-PD-L1 positivity (P=0.016), and CPS (P=0.029) and IC≥1% (P=0.037) positivity compared with early disease. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression profiles differ between molecular subclasses, histologic subtypes, and disease stage of EC. Prospective studies are needed to explore the predictive value of various PD-L1 scoring systems within the subgroups of EC. CPS presents methodological advantages over cell type-specific scoring systems.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Serial de Tecidos
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(12): 2582-2590, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no prognostic test to ascertain whether cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) regress or progress. The majority of CINs regress in young women, and treatments increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the ability of a DNA methylation panel (the S5 classifier) to discriminate between outcomes among young women with untreated CIN grade 2 (CIN2). METHODS: Baseline pyrosequencing methylation and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays were performed on cervical cells from 149 women with CIN2 in a 2-year cohort study of active surveillance. RESULTS: Twenty-five lesions progressed to CIN grade 3 or worse, 88 regressed to less than CIN grade 1, and 36 persisted as CIN1/2. When cytology, HPV16/18 and HPV16/18/31/33 genotyping, and the S5 classifier were compared to outcomes, the S5 classifier was the strongest biomarker associated with regression vs progression. The S5 classifier alone or in combination with HPV16/18/31/33 genotyping also showed significantly increased sensitivity vs cytology when comparing regression vs persistence/progression. With both the S5 classifier and cytology set at a specificity of 38.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.4-49.6), the sensitivity of the S5 classifier was significantly higher (83.6%; 95% CI, 71.9-91.8) than of cytology (62.3%; 95% CI, 49.0-74.4; P = 0.005). The highest area under the curve was 0.735 (95% CI, 0.621-0.849) in comparing regression vs progression with a combination of the S5 classifier and cytology, whereas HPV genotyping did not provide additional information. CONCLUSIONS: The S5 classifier shows high potential as a prognostic biomarker to identify progressive CIN2.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status score with long-term outcome in endometrial cancer. METHODS: Overall, disease-specific and non-cancer-related survival were estimated using simple and multivariable Cox regression analyses and the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 1166 patients were included in the study. Median follow-up time was 76 (range 1-136) months. All-cause and non-cancer-related mortality were increased in patients whose ASA physical status score was III (HRs 2.5 and 8.0, respectively) or IV (HRs 5.7 and 25, respectively), and cancer-related mortality was increased in patients whose score was IV (HR 2.7). Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated a worse overall, disease-specific and non-cancer-related survival for patients whose score was ≥III (p<0.0001 for all). Disease-specific survival was also separately analyzed for patients with stage I and stage II-IV cancer. Compared with patients whose score was ≤II, the survival was worse for patients whose score was ≥III in both subgroups of stages (p=0.003 and p=0.017 for stage I and stages II-IV, respectively). ASA physical status score remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 2.2 for scores ≥III), cancer-related mortality (HRs 1.7 and 2.2 for scores ≥III and IV, respectively) and non-cancer related mortality (HR 3.1 for scores ≥III) after adjustment for prognostically relevant clinicopathologic and blood-based covariates. ASA physical status score also remained an independent predictor of cancer-related mortality after exclusion of patients who were at risk for nodal involvement based on features of the primary tumor but who did not undergo lymphadenectomy, and patients with advanced disease who received suboptimal chemotherapy (HRs 1.6 and 2.5 for scores ≥III and IV, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ASA physical status score independently predicts overall survival, disease-specific survival, and non-cancer-related survival in endometrial cancer.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2692-2700, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927251

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose to breast and ovarian cancer (BC/OC) with a high lifetime risk, whereas mutations in PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, FANCM, RAD51C and RAD51D genes cause a moderately elevated risk. In the Finnish population, recurrent mutations have been identified in all of these genes, the latest being CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A. By genotyping 3,156 cases and 2,089 controls, we estimated the frequencies of CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A in Finnish BC patients. CHEK2 c.319+2T>A was detected in 0.7% of the patients, and it was associated with a high risk of BC in the unselected patient group (OR = 5.40 [95% CI 1.58-18.45], p = 0.007) and similarly in the familial patient group. CHEK2 c.444+1G>A was identified in 0.1% of all patients. Additionally, we evaluated the combined prevalence of recurrent moderate-risk gene mutations in 2,487 BC patients, 556 OC patients and 261 BRCA1/2 carriers from 109 families. The overall frequency of the mutations was 13.3% in 1,141 BRCA1/2-negative familial BC patients, 7.5% in 1,727 unselected BC patients and 7.2% in 556 unselected OC patients. At least one moderate-risk gene mutation was found in 12.5% of BRCA1 families and 7.1% of BRCA1 index patients, as well as in 17.0% of BRCA2 families and 11.3% of BRCA2 index patients, and the mutations were associated with an additional risk in the BRCA1/2 index patients (OR = 2.63 [1.15-5.48], p = 0.011). These results support gene panel testing of even multiple members of BC families where several mutations may segregate in different individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
16.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Cancer ; 124(24): 4650-4656, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) are the most common gynecologic tumors and affect 3 of every 4 women by the age of 50 years. The majority of ULs are classified as conventional tumors, whereas 10% represent various histopathological subtypes with features that mimic malignancy. These subtypes include cellular and mitotically active ULs and ULs with bizarre nuclei. Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS), the malignant counterpart of UL, is an aggressive cancer with poor overall survival. The early diagnosis and preoperative differentiation of ULMS from UL are often challenging because their symptoms and morphology resemble one another. Recent studies have shown frequent loss of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein (DAXX) expression in ULMS, and this is often associated with an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) phenotype. METHODS: To investigate ATRX and DAXX expression and the presence of ALT in UL subtypes, immunohistochemical and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were performed. The study material consisted of 142 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples representing various UL subtypes and 64 conventional ULs. RESULTS: A loss of ATRX or DAXX and/or ALT was detected in 6.3% of the histopathological UL subtype samples (9 of 142). Two patients whose ULs showed either ATRX loss or ALT were later diagnosed with a pulmonary smooth muscle tumor. Pulmonary tumors displayed molecular alterations found in the corresponding uterine tumors, which indicated metastasis to the lungs. All conventional ULs displayed normal ATRX, DAXX, and telomeres. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the differences between conventional and histopathologically atypical ULs and indicate that some UL subtype tumors may harbor long-term malignant potential.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteínas Correpressoras , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leiomioma/genética , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Leiomiossarcoma/genética , Leiomiossarcoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chaperonas Moleculares , Análise de Sobrevida , Homeostase do Telômero , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
18.
Elife ; 72018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226466

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) are benign tumors that are a major burden to women's health. A genome-wide association study on 15,453 UL cases and 392,628 controls was performed, followed by replication of the genomic risk in six cohorts. Effects of the risk alleles were evaluated in view of molecular and clinical characteristics. 22 loci displayed a genome-wide significant association. The likely predisposition genes could be grouped to two biological processes. Genes involved in genome stability were represented by TERT, TERC, OBFC1 - highlighting the role of telomere maintenance - TP53 and ATM. Genes involved in genitourinary development, WNT4, WT1, SALL1, MED12, ESR1, GREB1, FOXO1, DMRT1 and uterine stem cell marker antigen CD44, formed another strong subgroup. The combined risk contributed by the 22 loci was associated with MED12 mutation-positive tumors. The findings link genes for uterine development and genetic stability to leiomyomagenesis, and in part explain the more frequent occurrence of UL in women of African origin.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Instabilidade Genômica , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Morfogênese , Medição de Risco , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134598

RESUMO

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; p = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; p = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed (p = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa (r = 0.51, p = 1.7 × 10-28), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , RNA Antissenso/genética , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hidroliases , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Carcinogênese , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
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