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1.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Tousled-like kinases 1 and 2 (TLK1 and TLK2) are involved in many fundamental processes, including DNA replication, cell cycle checkpoint recovery and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in TLK2 were recently associated with 'Mental Retardation Autosomal Dominant 57' (MRD57, MIM# 618050), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a highly variable phenotype, including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, behavioural abnormalities, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, epilepsy and skeletal anomalies. METHODS: We re-evaluate whole exome sequencing and array-CGH data from a large cohort of patients affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. Using spatial proteomics (BioID) and single-cell gel electrophoresis, we investigated the proximity interaction landscape of TLK2 and analysed the effects of p.(Asp551Gly) and a previously reported missense variant (c.1850C>T; p.(Ser617Leu)) on TLK2 interactions, localisation and activity. RESULTS: We identified three new unrelated MRD57 families. Two were sporadic and caused by a missense change (c.1652A>G; p.(Asp551Gly)) or a 39 kb deletion encompassing TLK2, and one was familial with three affected siblings who inherited a nonsense change from an affected mother (c.1423G>T; p.(Glu475Ter)). The clinical phenotypes were consistent with those of previously reported cases. The tested mutations strongly impaired TLK2 kinase activity. Proximal interactions between TLK2 and other factors implicated in neurological disorders, including CHD7, CHD8, BRD4 and NACC1, were identified. Finally, we demonstrated a more relaxed chromatin state in lymphoblastoid cells harbouring the p.(Asp551Gly) variant compared with control cells, conferring susceptibility to DNA damage. CONCLUSION: Our study identified novel TLK2 pathogenic variants, confirming and further expanding the MRD57-related phenotype. The molecular characterisation of missense variants increases our knowledge about TLK2 function and provides new insights into its role in neurodevelopmental disorders.

3.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 89, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletion or mutations of SHANK3 lead to Phelan-McDermid syndrome and monogenic forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SHANK3 encodes its eponymous scaffolding protein at excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Altered morphology of dendrites and spines in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum have been associated with behavioral impairments in Shank3-deficient animal models. Given the attentional deficit in these animals, our study explored whether deficiency of Shank3 in a rat model alters neuron morphology and synaptic ultrastructure in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). METHODS: We assessed dendrite and spine morphology and spine density in mPFC layer III neurons in Shank3-homozygous knockout (Shank3-KO), heterozygous (Shank3-Het), and wild-type (WT) rats. We used electron microscopy to determine the density of asymmetric synapses in mPFC layer III excitatory neurons in these rats. We measured postsynaptic density (PSD) length, PSD area, and head diameter (HD) of spines at these synapses. RESULTS: Basal dendritic morphology was similar among the three genotypes. Spine density and morphology were comparable, but more thin and mushroom spines had larger head volumes in Shank3-Het compared to WT and Shank3-KO. All three groups had comparable synapse density and PSD length. Spine HD of total and non-perforated synapses in Shank3-Het rats, but not Shank3-KO rats, was significantly larger than in WT rats. The total and non-perforated PSD area was significantly larger in Shank3-Het rats compared to Shank3-KO rats. These findings represent preliminary evidence for synaptic ultrastructural alterations in the mPFC of rats that lack one copy of Shank3 and mimic the heterozygous loss of SHANK3 in Phelan-McDermid syndrome. LIMITATIONS: The Shank3 deletion in the rat model we used does not affect all isoforms of the protein and would only model the effect of mutations resulting in loss of the N-terminus of the protein. Given the higher prevalence of ASD in males, the ultrastructural study focused only on synaptic structure in male Shank3-deficient rats. CONCLUSIONS: We observed increased HD and PSD area in Shank3-Het rats. These observations suggest the occurrence of altered synaptic ultrastructure in this animal model, further pointing to a key role of defective expression of the Shank3 protein in ASD and Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 280, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788572

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. Neuroanatomical alterations have been reported in both male and female individuals with FXS, yet the morphological underpinnings of these alterations have not been elucidated. In the current study, we found structural changes in both male and female rats that model FXS, some of which are similarly impaired in both sexes, including the superior colliculus and periaqueductal gray, and others that show sex-specific changes. The splenium of the corpus callosum, for example, was only impaired in males. We also found reduced axonal caliber in the splenium, offering a mechanism for its structural changes. Furthermore, we found that overall, male rats have higher brain-wide diffusion than female rats. Our results provide insight into which brain regions are vulnerable to a loss of Fmr1 expression and reveal an impairment at the level of the axon that could cause structural changes in white matter regions.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 555-563, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758449

RESUMO

Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome (HVDAS) is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with intellectual disability/developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple medical comorbidities. HVDAS is caused by mutations in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP). A recent study identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in 22 individuals with HVDAS, adding to the group of neurodevelopmental disorders with an epigenetic signature. This methylation signature segregated those with HVDAS into two groups based on the location of the mutations. Here, we conducted an independent study on 24 individuals with HVDAS and replicated the existence of the two mutation-dependent episignatures. To probe whether the two distinct episignatures correlate with clinical outcomes, we used deep behavioral and neurobiological data from two prospective cohorts of individuals with a genetic diagnosis of HVDAS. We found limited phenotypic differences between the two HVDAS-affected groups and no evidence that individuals with more widespread methylation changes are more severely affected. Moreover, in spite of the methylation changes, we observed no profound alterations in the blood transcriptome of individuals with HVDAS. Our data warrant caution in harnessing methylation signatures in HVDAS as a tool for clinical stratification, at least with regard to behavioral phenotypes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Metilação de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107716, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492425

RESUMO

To reveal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetic risk influences on tissue-specific gene expression, we use brain and non-brain transcriptomic imputation. We impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in 29,539 PTSD cases and 166,145 controls from 70 ancestry-specific cohorts and identify 18 significant GReX-PTSD associations corresponding to specific tissue-gene pairs. The results suggest substantial genetic heterogeneity based on ancestry, cohort type (military versus civilian), and sex. Two study-wide significant PTSD associations are identified in European and military European cohorts; ZNF140 is predicted to be upregulated in whole blood, and SNRNP35 is predicted to be downregulated in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively. In peripheral leukocytes from 175 marines, the observed PTSD differential gene expression correlates with the predicted differences for these individuals, and deployment stress produces glucocorticoid-regulated expression changes that include downregulation of both ZNF140 and SNRNP35. SNRNP35 knockdown in cells validates its functional role in U12-intron splicing. Finally, exogenous glucocorticoids in mice downregulate prefrontal Snrnp35 expression.

8.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 53, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder with high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and language delay, and is caused by 22q13.3 deletions or mutations in the SHANK3 gene. To date, the molecular and pathway changes resulting from SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in PMS remain poorly understood. Uncovering these mechanisms is critical for understanding pathobiology of PMS and, ultimately, for the development of new therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We developed human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of PMS by reprogramming peripheral blood samples from individuals with PMS (n = 7) and their unaffected siblings (n = 6). For each participant, up to three hiPSC clones were generated and differentiated into induced neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-NPCs; n = 39) and induced forebrain neurons (hiPSC-neurons; n = 41). Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was applied to explore transcriptional differences between PMS probands and unaffected siblings. RESULTS: Transcriptome analyses identified 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in hiPSC-NPCs and 82 DEGs in hiPSC-neurons, when comparing cells from PMS probands and unaffected siblings (FDR < 5%). Genes under-expressed in PMS were implicated in Wnt signaling, embryonic development, and protein translation, while over-expressed genes were enriched for pre- and postsynaptic density genes, regulation of synaptic plasticity, and G-protein-gated potassium channel activity. Gene co-expression network analysis identified two modules in hiPSC-neurons that were over-expressed in PMS, implicating postsynaptic signaling and GDP binding, and both modules harbored a significant enrichment of genetic risk loci for developmental delay and intellectual disability. Finally, PMS-associated genes were integrated with other ASD hiPSC transcriptome findings and several points of convergence were identified, indicating altered Wnt signaling and extracellular matrix. LIMITATIONS: Given the rarity of the condition, we could not carry out experimental validation in independent biological samples. In addition, functional and morphological phenotypes caused by loss of SHANK3 were not characterized here. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest human neural sample analyzed in PMS. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing in hiPSC-derived neural cells from individuals with PMS revealed both shared and distinct transcriptional signatures across hiPSC-NPCs and hiPSC-neurons, including many genes implicated in risk for ASD, as well as specific neurobiological pathways, including the Wnt pathway.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2929, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522981

RESUMO

Joint analysis of multiple traits can result in the identification of associations not found through the analysis of each trait in isolation. Studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and congenital heart disease (CHD) which use de novo mutations (DNMs) from parent-offspring trios have reported multiple putatively causal genes. However, a joint analysis method designed to integrate DNMs from multiple studies has yet to be implemented. We here introduce multiple-trait TADA (mTADA) which jointly analyzes two traits using DNMs from non-overlapping family samples. We first demonstrate that mTADA is able to leverage genetic overlaps to increase the statistical power of risk-gene identification. We then apply mTADA to large datasets of >13,000 trios for five neuropsychiatric disorders and CHD. We report additional risk genes for schizophrenia, epileptic encephalopathies and CHD. We outline some shared and specific biological information of intellectual disability and CHD by conducting systems biology analyses of genes prioritized by mTADA.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
10.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 65: 69-75, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599522

RESUMO

With the advent and widespread adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing, genetic discoveries in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are advancing very rapidly. The identification of novel NDD genes and of rare, highly penetrant pathogenic variants is leading to improved understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations. Here we emphasize the importance of large-scale, reference databases such as gnomAD to determine gene and variant level constraints and facilitate gene discovery, variant interpretation, and genotype-phenotype correlations. While the majority of dominant NDD genes are highly intolerant to variation, some apparent exceptions in reference databases are related to the presence of variants in transcripts that are not brain expressed and/or genes that show acquired somatic mosaicism in blood. Multiple NDD genes are being identified where varying phenotypes depend on the mode of inheritance (e.g., dominant or recessive), the nature (e.g., missense or truncating), or location of the mutation. Ongoing genome-wide analyses and targeted functional studies provide enhancements to the annotation of genes, gene products and variants, which will continue to facilitate gene and variant discovery and variant interpretation.

11.
Autism Res ; 13(8): 1383-1396, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406614

RESUMO

The Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2) is a quantitative measure used to characterize symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, research suggests that SRS-2 scores are significantly influenced by language ability and intellectual disability (ID). Efforts to refine the SRS-2 by Sturm, Kuhfeld, Kasari, and Mccracken [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(9), 1053-1061] yielded a shortened form, yet its psychometric properties in populations with severe ID remain unknown. This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the SRS-2 in Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), a genetic condition associated with ASD and ID, thereby guiding score interpretation in this population and future development of targeted scales. Analyses, including Item Response Theory (IRT), were conducted on a sample of individuals with PMS (n = 91) recruited at six sites nationally. Psychometric properties evaluated include measures of reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability) and validity (structural, construct, content). While both SRS-2 forms are reliable, the shortened SRS-2 shows superior validity to the full SRS-2 for measuring ASD symptoms in PMS. On IRT analysis, the shortened SRS-2 shows excellent discrimination and precisely evaluates respondents across a wide range of ASD symptomatology but interpretation is limited by uncertain content validity and small sample size. The shortened SRS-2 shows some promise for use in PMS, but future refinements and additions are needed to develop items that are tailored to identify ASD in children with severe ID and specifically PMS. LAY SUMMARY: This study determined that a shortened form of the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2) shows both promise and limitations for the characterization of autism symptomatology in individuals with Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), a population characterized by intellectual disability (ID). Caution should be used when interpreting SRS-2 scores in individuals with ID and future research should modify existing items and develop new items to improve the SRS-2's ability to accurately characterize autism symptomatology in PMS. Autism Res 2020, 13: 1383-1396. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12.
Cell Rep ; 31(1): 107489, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268104

RESUMO

Gene expression levels vary across developmental stage, cell type, and region in the brain. Genomic variants also contribute to the variation in expression, and some neuropsychiatric disorder loci may exert their effects through this mechanism. To investigate these relationships, we present BrainVar, a unique resource of paired whole-genome and bulk tissue RNA sequencing from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 176 individuals across prenatal and postnatal development. Here we identify common variants that alter gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci [eQTLs]) constantly across development or predominantly during prenatal or postnatal stages. Both "constant" and "temporal-predominant" eQTLs are enriched for loci associated with neuropsychiatric traits and disorders and colocalize with specific variants. Expression levels of more than 12,000 genes rise or fall in a concerted late-fetal transition, with the transitional genes enriched for cell-type-specific genes and neuropsychiatric risk loci, underscoring the importance of cataloging developmental trajectories in understanding cortical physiology and pathology.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 513-524, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243819

RESUMO

The identification of functional regions in the noncoding human genome is difficult but critical in order to gain understanding of the role noncoding variation plays in gene regulation in human health and disease. We describe here a co-localization approach that aims to identify constrained sequences that co-localize with tissue- or cell-type-specific regulatory regions, and we show that the resulting score is particularly well suited for the identification of rare regulatory variants. For 127 tissues and cell types in the ENCODE/Roadmap Epigenomics Project, we provide catalogs of putative tissue- or cell-type-specific regulatory regions under sequence constraint. We use the newly developed co-localization score for brain tissues to score de novo mutations in whole genomes from 1,902 individuals affected with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings in the Simons Simplex Collection. We show that noncoding de novo mutations near genes co-expressed in midfetal brain with high confidence ASD risk genes, and near FMRP gene targets are more likely to be in co-localized regions if they occur in ASD probands versus in their unaffected siblings. We also observed a similar enrichment for mutations near lincRNAs, previously shown to co-express with ASD risk genes. Additionally, we provide strong evidence that prioritized de novo mutations in autism probands point to a small set of well-known ASD genes, the disruption of which produces relevant mouse phenotypes such as abnormal social investigation and abnormal discrimination/associative learning, unlike the de novo mutations in unaffected siblings. The genome-wide co-localization results are available online.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Irmãos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
14.
Nat Rev Genet ; 21(6): 367-376, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317787

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often grouped with other brain-related phenotypes into a broader category of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In clinical practice, providers need to decide which genes to test in individuals with ASD phenotypes, which requires an understanding of the level of evidence for individual NDD genes that supports an association with ASD. Consensus is currently lacking about which NDD genes have sufficient evidence to support a relationship to ASD. Estimates of the number of genes relevant to ASD differ greatly among research groups and clinical sequencing panels, varying from a few to several hundred. This Roadmap discusses important considerations necessary to provide an evidence-based framework for the curation of NDD genes based on the level of information supporting a clinically relevant relationship between a given gene and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(12): 1045-1051, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While genetic variation has a known impact on the risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is also evidence that there are maternal components to this risk. Here, we partitioned sources of variation, including direct genetic and maternal effects, on risk for OCD. METHODS: The study population consisted of 822,843 individuals from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, born in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 1990, and followed for a diagnosis of OCD through December 31, 2013. Diagnostic information about OCD was obtained using the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: A total of 7184 individuals in the birth cohort (0.87%) were diagnosed with OCD. After exploring various generalized linear mixed models to fit the diagnostic data, genetic maternal effects accounted for 7.6% (95% credible interval: 6.9%-8.3%) of the total variance in risk for OCD for the best model, and direct additive genetics accounted for 35% (95% credible interval: 32.3%-36.9%). These findings were robust under alternative models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results establish genetic maternal effects as influencing risk for OCD in offspring. We also show that additive genetic effects in OCD are overestimated when maternal effects are not modeled.

16.
Pediatr Neurol ; 106: 24-31, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cohort study utilized diffusion tensor imaging tractography to compare the uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in children with Phelan-McDermid syndrome with age-matched controls and investigated trends between autism spectrum diagnosis and the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus white matter tracts. METHODS: This research was conducted under a longitudinal study that aims to map the genotype, phenotype, and natural history of Phelan-McDermid syndrome and identify biomarkers using neuroimaging (ClinicalTrial NCT02461420). Patients were aged three to 21 years and underwent longitudinal neuropsychologic assessment over 24 months. MRI processing and analyses were completed using previously validated image analysis software distributed as the Computational Radiology Kit (http://crl.med.harvard.edu/). Whole-brain connectivity was generated for each subject using a stochastic streamline tractography algorithm, and automatically defined regions of interest were used to map the uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. RESULTS: There were 10 participants (50% male; mean age 11.17 years) with Phelan-McDermid syndrome (n = 8 with autism). Age-matched controls, enrolled in a separate longitudinal study (NIH R01 NS079788), underwent the same neuroimaging protocol. There was a statistically significant decrease in the uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy measure and a statistically significant increase in uncinate fasciculus mean diffusivity measure, in the patient group versus controls in both right and left tracts (P ≤ 0.024). CONCLUSION: Because the uncinate fasciculus plays a critical role in social and emotional interaction, this tract may underlie some deficits seen in the Phelan-McDermid syndrome population. These findings need to be replicated in a larger cohort.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 667, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015339

RESUMO

Each additional copy of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's dementia, while the APOE2 allele is associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's dementia, it is not yet known whether APOE2 homozygotes have a particularly low risk. We generated Alzheimer's dementia odds ratios and other findings in more than 5,000 clinically characterized and neuropathologically characterized Alzheimer's dementia cases and controls. APOE2/2 was associated with a low Alzheimer's dementia odds ratios compared to APOE2/3 and 3/3, and an exceptionally low odds ratio compared to APOE4/4, and the impact of APOE2 and APOE4 gene dose was significantly greater in the neuropathologically confirmed group than in more than 24,000 neuropathologically unconfirmed cases and controls. Finding and targeting the factors by which APOE and its variants influence Alzheimer's disease could have a major impact on the understanding, treatment and prevention of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Homozigoto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E2/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuropatologia , Probabilidade
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 1, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066695

RESUMO

This Article was originally published without the correct Supplemental Table file (Table S1 was missing). In total, there are seven Supplemental Tables, and six were in the original submission. Furthermore, Fig. 1 was misplaced in the main text; it was embedded in the manuscript file even before the results section. Both issues have now been fixed in the HTML and PDF versions of this Article.

19.
Cell ; 180(3): 568-584.e23, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981491

RESUMO

We present the largest exome sequencing study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to date (n = 35,584 total samples, 11,986 with ASD). Using an enhanced analytical framework to integrate de novo and case-control rare variation, we identify 102 risk genes at a false discovery rate of 0.1 or less. Of these genes, 49 show higher frequencies of disruptive de novo variants in individuals ascertained to have severe neurodevelopmental delay, whereas 53 show higher frequencies in individuals ascertained to have ASD; comparing ASD cases with mutations in these groups reveals phenotypic differences. Expressed early in brain development, most risk genes have roles in regulation of gene expression or neuronal communication (i.e., mutations effect neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological changes), and 13 fall within loci recurrently hit by copy number variants. In cells from the human cortex, expression of risk genes is enriched in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal lineages, consistent with multiple paths to an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance underlying ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neurobiologia/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem da Célula , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(10): 1383-1393, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The EGOS study (Epidemiology and Genetics of Obsessive-compulsive disorder and chronic tic disorders in Sweden) is a large-scale, epidemiological, prospective cohort that is used to identify genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and chronic tic disorders (CTD). METHODS: Individuals born between January 1954 and December 1998 with at least two diagnoses of OCD or CTD at different timepoints in the National Patient Register (NPR), and followed between January 1997 and December 2012, represent the EGOS source population (n = 20,374). The Swedish Multi-Generation Registry (MGR) are then used to define family relatedness for all cases and additional phenotypic and demographic data added to the resultant database. To create an epidemiologically valid subset of the source cohort that also includes biospecimens and additional phenotyping, we contact cases from within the source population. To date, 6832 invitations have been sent out and 1853 (27%) have elected to participate in the EGOS biospecimen collection. RESULTS: To date, 1608 biological samples have been collected, of which 1249 are genotyped and 832 supplementary Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and/or Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI) have been completed by individuals with OCD and/or CTD, age 16-64 years. DNA samples are genotyped using Infinium Global Screening Array and will undergo whole-exome sequencing in the future. Detailed information is available for each individual through linkage to the Swedish national registers, e.g., identification of additional psychiatric diagnoses, medical diagnoses, birth-related variables, and relevant demographic and social data. CONCLUSION: EGOS benefits from a genetically homogeneous sample with epidemiological ascertainment, minimizing the risk of confounding due to population stratification on ascertainment bias. In addition, this study is built upon clinical diagnoses of OCD and CTD in specialized psychiatric care, which reduces further biases and case misclassification.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Transtornos de Tique , Síndrome de Tourette , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Tique/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/genética
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