Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 232
Filtrar
1.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 180, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551426

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious mental illnesses that affect more than 2% of adults. While large-scale genetics studies have identified genomic regions associated with disease risk, less is known about the molecular mechanisms by which risk alleles with small effects lead to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In order to fill this gap between genetics and disease phenotype, we have undertaken a multi-cohort genomics study of postmortem brains from controls, individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we present a public resource of functional genomic data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Brodmann areas 9 and 46) of 986 individuals from 4 separate brain banks, including 353 diagnosed with schizophrenia and 120 with bipolar disorder. The genomic data include RNA-seq and SNP genotypes on 980 individuals, and ATAC-seq on 269 individuals, of which 264 are a subset of individuals with RNA-seq. We have performed extensive preprocessing and quality control on these data so that the research community can take advantage of this public resource available on the Synapse platform at http://CommonMind.org .

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 201, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434874

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition of stress reactivity, whose clinical manifestations are evident when patients are triggered following exposure to a traumatic event. While baseline differences in gene expression of glucocorticoid signaling and inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been associated with PTSD, these alterations do not fully recapitulate the molecular response to physiological triggers, such as stress hormones. Therefore, it is critical to develop new techniques that will capture the dynamic transcriptional response associated with stress-activated conditions relative to baseline conditions. To achieve this goal, cultured PBMCs from combat-exposed veterans with PTSD(+) (n = 10) and without PTSD(-) (n = 10) were incubated with increasing concentrations (vehicle, 2.5 nM, 5 nM, 50 nM) of dexamethasone (DEX). Across diagnosis and dosage, several genes and gene networks were reliable markers of glucocorticoid stimulation (FDR < 5%), including enhanced expression of FKPB5, VIPR1, NR1I3, and apoptosis-related pathways, and reduced expression of NR3C1, STAT1, IRF1, and related inflammatory and cellular stress-responsive pathways. Dose-dependent differential transcriptional changes in several genes were also identified between PTSD+ and PTSD-. Robust changes in expression were observed at 2.5 nM DEX in PTSD- but not PTSD+ participants; whereas, with increasing concentrations (5 nM and 50 nM), several genes were identified to be uniquely up-regulated in PTSD+ but not PTSD- participants. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that genome-wide gene expression profiling of DEX-stimulated PBMCs is a promising method for the exploration of the dynamic differential molecular responses to stress hormones in PTSD, and may identify novel markers of altered glucocorticoid signaling and responsivity in PTSD.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1402-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455887

RESUMO

RNA editing critically regulates neurodevelopment and normal neuronal function. The global landscape of RNA editing was surveyed across 364 schizophrenia cases and 383 control postmortem brain samples from the CommonMind Consortium, comprising two regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. In schizophrenia, RNA editing sites in genes encoding AMPA-type glutamate receptors and postsynaptic density proteins were less edited, whereas those encoding translation initiation machinery were edited more. These sites replicate between brain regions, map to 3'-untranslated regions and intronic regions, share common sequence motifs and overlap with binding sites for RNA-binding proteins crucial for neurodevelopment. These findings cross-validate in hundreds of non-overlapping dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples. Furthermore, ~30% of RNA editing sites associate with cis-regulatory variants (editing quantitative trait loci or edQTLs). Fine-mapping edQTLs with schizophrenia risk loci revealed co-localization of eleven edQTLs with six loci. The findings demonstrate widespread altered RNA editing in schizophrenia and its genetic regulation, and suggest a causal and mechanistic role of RNA editing in schizophrenia neuropathology.

4.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314057

RESUMO

Importance: The origins and development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain unresolved. No individual-level study has provided estimates of additive genetic, maternal, and environmental effects in ASD across several countries. Objective: To estimate the additive genetic, maternal, and environmental effects in ASD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, multinational cohort study including full birth cohorts of children from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Israel, and Western Australia born between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2011, and followed up to age 16 years. Data were analyzed from September 23, 2016 through February 4, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Across 5 countries, models were fitted to estimate variance components describing the total variance in risk for ASD occurrence owing to additive genetics, maternal, and shared and nonshared environmental effects. Results: The analytic sample included 2 001 631 individuals, of whom 1 027 546 (51.3%) were male. Among the entire sample, 22 156 were diagnosed with ASD. The median (95% CI) ASD heritability was 80.8% (73.2%-85.5%) for country-specific point estimates, ranging from 50.9% (25.1%-75.6%) (Finland) to 86.8% (69.8%-100.0%) (Israel). For the Nordic countries combined, heritability estimates ranged from 81.2% (73.9%-85.3%) to 82.7% (79.1%-86.0%). Maternal effect was estimated to range from 0.4% to 1.6%. Estimates of genetic, maternal, and environmental effects for autistic disorder were similar with ASD. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on population data from 5 countries, the heritability of ASD was estimated to be approximately 80%, indicating that the variation in ASD occurrence in the population is mostly owing to inherited genetic influences, with no support for contribution from maternal effects. The results suggest possible modest differences in the sources of ASD risk between countries.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1092-1098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209396

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects up to 1 in 59 individuals1. Genome-wide association and large-scale sequencing studies strongly implicate both common variants2-4 and rare de novo variants5-10 in ASD. Recessive mutations have also been implicated11-14 but their contribution remains less well defined. Here we demonstrate an excess of biallelic loss-of-function and damaging missense mutations in a large ASD cohort, corresponding to approximately 5% of total cases, including 10% of females, consistent with a female protective effect. We document biallelic disruption of known or emerging recessive neurodevelopmental genes (CA2, DDHD1, NSUN2, PAH, RARB, ROGDI, SLC1A1, USH2A) as well as other genes not previously implicated in ASD including FEV (FEV transcription factor, ETS family member), which encodes a key regulator of the serotonergic circuitry. Our data refine estimates of the contribution of recessive mutation to ASD and suggest new paths for illuminating previously unknown biological pathways responsible for this condition.

6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1770): 20180120, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966880

RESUMO

There is great interest in the role epigenetic variation induced by non-genetic exposures may play in the context of health and disease. In particular, DNA methylation has previously been shown to be highly dynamic during the earliest stages of development and is influenced by in utero exposures such as maternal smoking and medication. In this study we sought to identify the specific DNA methylation differences in blood associated with prenatal and birth factors, including birth weight, gestational age and maternal smoking. We quantified neonatal methylomic variation in 1263 infants using DNA isolated from a unique collection of archived blood spots taken shortly after birth (mean = 6.08 days; s.d. = 3.24 days). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of gestational age and birth weight identified 4299 and 18 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) respectively, at an experiment-wide significance threshold of p < 1 × 10-7. Our EWAS of maternal smoking during pregnancy identified 110 DMPs in neonatal blood, replicating previously reported genomic loci, including AHRR. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the relationship between maternal smoking and lower birth weight, finding evidence that methylomic variation at three DMPs may link exposure to outcome. These findings complement an expanding literature on the epigenomic consequences of prenatal exposures and obstetric factors, confirming a link between the maternal environment and gene regulation in neonates. This article is part of the theme issue 'Developing differences: early-life effects and evolutionary medicine'.

7.
Cereb Cortex ; 29(5): 2228-2244, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877790

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. It is a leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder and inherited intellectual disability and is often comorbid with attention deficits. Most FXS cases are due to an expansion of CGG repeats leading to suppressed expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA metabolism. We found that the previously published Fmr1 knockout rat model of FXS expresses an Fmr1 transcript with an in-frame deletion of exon 8, which encodes for the K-homology (KH) RNA-binding domain, KH1. Notably, 3 pathogenic missense mutations associated with FXS lie in the KH domains. We observed that the deletion of exon 8 in rats leads to attention deficits and to alterations in transcriptional profiles within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which map to 2 weighted gene coexpression network modules. These modules are conserved in human frontal cortex and enriched for known FMRP targets. Hub genes in these modules represent potential therapeutic targets for FXS. Taken together, these findings indicate that attentional testing might be a reliable cross-species tool for investigating FXS and identify dysregulated conserved gene networks in a relevant brain region.

8.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(9): 866-875, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Familial recurrence risk is an important population-level measure of the combined genetic and shared familial liability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives were to estimate ASD recurrence risk among siblings and cousins by varying degree of relatedness and by sex. METHOD: This is a population-based cohort study of livebirths from 1998 to 2007 in California, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Sweden and Western Australia followed through 2011 to 2015. Subjects were monitored for an ASD diagnosis in their older siblings or cousins (exposure) and for their ASD diagnosis (outcome). The relative recurrence risk was estimated for different sibling and cousin pairs, for each site separately and combined, and by sex. RESULTS: During follow-up, 29,998 cases of ASD were observed among the 2,551,918 births used to estimate recurrence in ASD and 33,769 cases of childhood autism (CA) were observed among the 6,110,942 births used to estimate CA recurrence. Compared with the risk in unaffected families, there was an 8.4-fold increase in the risk of ASD following an older sibling with ASD and a 17.4-fold increase in the risk of CA following an older sibling with CA. A 2-fold increase in the risk for cousin recurrence was observed for the 2 disorders. There also was a significant difference in sibling ASD recurrence risk by sex. CONCLUSION: The present estimates of relative recurrence risks for ASD and CA will assist clinicians and families in understanding autism risk in the context of other families in their population. The observed variation by sex underlines the need to deepen the understanding of factors influencing ASD familial risk.

10.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(6): 618-627, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parental age at birth has been shown to affect the rates of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms through which it mediates different outcomes is still lacking. A population-based cohort was used to assess differential effects of parental age on estimates of risk across pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder/chronic tic disorder (TD/CT). METHOD: The study cohort included all singleton births in Denmark from 1980 through 2007 with full information on parental ages (N = 1,490,745) and was followed through December 31, 2013. Cases of ASD, ADHD, OCD, and TD/CT were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the National Patient Register. Associations with parental age were modeled using a stratified Cox regression, allowing for changes in baseline diagnostic rates across time. RESULTS: Younger parental age was significantly associated with increased estimates of risk for ADHD and TD/CT, whereas older parental age was associated with ASD and OCD. Except for OCD, no evidence for differential effects of parental ages on male versus female offspring was observed. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel evidence for the association between age at parenthood and TD/CT and OCD and for the first time shows in a population-based sample that parental age confers differential risk rates for pediatric-onset psychiatric disorders. These results are consistent with a model of shared and unshared risk architecture for pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric conditions, highlighting unique contributions of maternal and paternal ages.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
12.
Mol Autism ; 10: 3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733854

RESUMO

Background and aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently estimated to affect more than 1% of the world population. For people with ASD, gastrointestinal (GI) distress is a commonly reported but a poorly understood co-occurring symptom. Here, we investigate the physiological basis for GI distress in ASD by studying gut function in a zebrafish model of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), a condition caused by mutations in the SHANK3 gene. Methods: To generate a zebrafish model of PMS, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce clinically related C-terminal frameshift mutations in shank3a and shank3b zebrafish paralogues (shank3abΔC). Because PMS is caused by SHANK3 haploinsufficiency, we assessed the digestive tract (DT) structure and function in zebrafish shank3abΔC +/- heterozygotes. Human SHANK3 mRNA was then used to rescue DT phenotypes in larval zebrafish. Results: Significantly slower rates of DT peristaltic contractions (p < 0.001) with correspondingly prolonged passage time (p < 0.004) occurred in shank3abΔC +/- mutants. Rescue injections of mRNA encoding the longest human SHANK3 isoform into shank3abΔC +/- mutants produced larvae with intestinal bulb emptying similar to wild type (WT), but still deficits in posterior intestinal motility. Serotonin-positive enteroendocrine cells (EECs) were significantly reduced in both shank3abΔC +/- and shank3abΔC -/- mutants (p < 0.05) while enteric neuron counts and overall structure of the DT epithelium, including goblet cell number, were unaffected in shank3abΔC +/- larvae. Conclusions: Our data and rescue experiments support mutations in SHANK3 as causal for GI transit and motility abnormalities. Reductions in serotonin-positive EECs and serotonin-filled ENS boutons suggest an endocrine/neural component to this dysmotility. This is the first study to date demonstrating DT dysmotility in a zebrafish single gene mutant model of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 267, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518843

RESUMO

Healthy cortical development depends on precise regulation of transcription and translation. However, the dynamics of how proteins are expressed, function and interact across postnatal human cortical development remain poorly understood. We surveyed the proteomic landscape of 69 dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples across seven stages of postnatal life and integrated these data with paired transcriptome data. We detected 911 proteins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 83 were significantly associated with postnatal age (FDR < 5%). Network analysis identified three modules of co-regulated proteins correlated with age, including two modules with increasing expression involved in gliogenesis and NADH metabolism and one neurogenesis-related module with decreasing expression throughout development. Integration with paired transcriptome data revealed that these age-related protein modules overlapped with RNA modules and displayed collinear developmental trajectories. Importantly, RNA expression profiles that are dynamically regulated throughout cortical development display tighter correlations with their respective translated protein expression compared to those RNA profiles that are not. Moreover, the correspondence between RNA and protein expression significantly decreases as a function of cortical aging, especially for genes involved in myelination and cytoskeleton organization. Finally, we used this data resource to elucidate the functional impact of genetic risk loci for intellectual disability, converging on gliogenesis, myelination and ATP-metabolism modules in the proteome and transcriptome. We share all data in an interactive, searchable companion website. Collectively, our findings reveal dynamic aspects of protein regulation and provide new insights into brain development, maturation, and disease.

15.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545852

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has facilitated the first genome-wide evaluations of the contribution of de novo noncoding mutations to complex disorders. Using WGS, we identified 255,106 de novo mutations among sample genomes from members of 1902 quartet families in which one child, but not a sibling or their parents, was affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In contrast to coding mutations, no noncoding functional annotation category, analyzed in isolation, was significantly associated with ASD. Casting noncoding variation in the context of a de novo risk score across multiple annotation categories, however, did demonstrate association with mutations localized to promoter regions. We found that the strongest driver of this promoter signal emanates from evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites distal to the transcription start site. These data suggest that de novo mutations in promoter regions, characterized by evolutionary and functional signatures, contribute to ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Sequência Conservada , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Linhagem , Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(12): 1217-1224, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383108

RESUMO

Importance: Prenatal exposure to certain medications has been hypothesized to influence the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the underlying effects on the neurotransmitter systems have not been comprehensively assessed. Objective: To investigate the association of early-life interference with different neurotransmitter systems by prenatal medication exposure on the risk of ASD in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study included children born from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2007, and followed up for ASD until January 26, 2015, within a single Israeli health maintenance organization. Using publicly available data, 55 groups of medications affecting neurotransmitter systems and prescribed to pregnant women in this sample were identified. Children prenatally exposed to medications were compared with nonexposed children. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2017, through June 20, 2018. Main Outcome and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of ASD risk associated with exposure to medication groups using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for the relevant confounders (eg, birth year, maternal age, maternal history of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, or maternal number of all medical diagnoses 1 year before pregnancy). Results: The analytic sample consisted of 96 249 individuals (1405 cases; 94 844 controls; mean [SD] age at the end of follow-up, 11.6 [3.1] years; 48.8% female), including 1405 with ASD and 94 844 controls. Of 34 groups of medications, 5 showed nominally statistically significant association with ASD in fully adjusted models. Evidence of confounding effects of the number of maternal diagnoses on the association between offspring exposure to medication and ASD was found. Adjusting for this factor, lower estimates of ASD risk among children exposed to cannabinoid receptor agonists (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.95; P = .02), muscarinic receptor 2 agonists (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-0.98; P = .04), opioid receptor κ and ε agonists (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-0.99; P = .045), or α2C-adrenergic receptor agonists (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-0.96; P = .04) were observed. Exposure to antagonists of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α was associated with higher estimates of ASD risk (HR, 12.94; 95% CI, 1.35-124.25; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Most of the medications affecting neurotransmitter systems in this sample had no association with the estimates of ASD risk. Replication and/or validation using experimental techniques are required.

17.
Pediatr Neurol ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency of SHANK3 on terminal chromosome 22. Knowledge about altered neuroanatomic circuitry in Phelan-McDermid syndrome comes from mouse models showing striatal hypertrophy in the basal ganglia, and from humans with evidence of cerebellar atrophy. To date, no studies have performed volumetric analysis on Phelan-McDermid syndrome patients. METHODS: We performed volumetric analysis on baseline brain MRIs of Phelan-McDermid syndrome patients (ages three to 21 years) enrolled in a prospective natural history study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02461420). Using MRI segmentations carried out with PSTAPLE algorithm, we measured relative volumes (volume of the structure divided by the volume of the brain parenchyma) of basal ganglia and cerebellar structures. We compared these measurements to those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls part of another study. Among the patients, we performed linear regression of each relative volume using Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised total score and Aberrant Behavior Checklist stereotypy score. Eleven patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome (six females, five males) and 11 healthy controls were in this analysis. RESULTS: At time of MRI, the mean age of the patients and controls was 9.24 (5.29) years and 9.00 (4.49) years, respectively (P = 0.66). Compared to controls, patients had decreased caudate (P ≤ 0.013), putamen (P ≤ 0.026), and left pallidum (P = 0.033) relative volumes. Relative volume of cerebellar vermal lobules I to V (beta coefficient = -17119, P = 0.017) decreased with increasing Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised total score. CONCLUSIONS: The volumes of the striatum and left pallidum are decreased in individuals with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Cerebellar vermis volume may predict repetitive behavior severity in Phelan-McDermid syndrome. These findings warrant further investigation in larger samples.

18.
eNeuro ; 5(3)2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302388

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder in which one copy of the SHANK3 gene is missing or mutated, leading to a global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), and autism. Multiple intragenic promoters and alternatively spliced exons are responsible for the formation of numerous isoforms. Many genetically-modified mouse models of PMS have been generated but most disrupt only some of the isoforms. In contrast, the vast majority of known SHANK3 mutations found in patients involve deletions that disrupt all isoforms. Here, we report the production and thorough behavioral characterization of a new mouse model in which all Shank3 isoforms are disrupted. Domains and tasks examined in adults included measures of general health, neurological reflexes, motor abilities, sensory reactivity, social behavior, repetitive behaviors, cognition and behavioral inflexibility, and anxiety. Our mice are more severely affected than previously published models. While the deficits were typically more pronounced in homozygotes, an intermediate phenotype was observed for heterozygotes in many paradigms. As in other Shank3 mouse models, stereotypies, including increased grooming, were observed. Additionally, sensory alterations were detected in both neonatal and adult mice, and motor behavior was strongly altered, especially in the open field and rotarod locomotor tests. While social behaviors measured with the three-chambered social approach and male-female interaction tests were not strongly impacted, Shank3-deficient mice displayed a strong escape behavior and avoidance of inanimate objects in novel object recognition, repetitive novel object contact, marble burying, and nest building tasks, indicating increased novelty-induced anxiety. Similarly, increased freezing was observed during fear conditioning training and amygdala-dependent cued retrieval. Finally, deficits were observed in both initial training and reversal in the Barnes maze and in contextual fear testing, which are memory tasks involving hippocampal-prefrontal circuits. In contrast, working memory in the Y-maze spontaneous alternation test was not altered. This new mouse model of PMS, engineered to most closely represent human mutations, recapitulates core symptoms of PMS providing improvements for both construct and face validity, compared to previous models.

19.
Sci Data ; 5: 180185, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204156

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects half the US population over the age of 85 and is universally fatal following an average course of 10 years of progressive cognitive disability. Genetic and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified about 33 risk factor genes for common, late-onset AD (LOAD), but these risk loci fail to account for the majority of affected cases and can neither provide clinically meaningful prediction of development of AD nor offer actionable mechanisms. This cohort study generated large-scale matched multi-Omics data in AD and control brains for exploring novel molecular underpinnings of AD. Specifically, we generated whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing and proteome profiling data from multiple regions of 364 postmortem control, mild cognitive impaired (MCI) and AD brains with rich clinical and pathophysiological data. All the data went through rigorous quality control. Both the raw and processed data are publicly available through the Synapse software platform.

20.
Cell Rep ; 24(13): 3441-3454.e12, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257206

RESUMO

We previously established the contribution of de novo damaging sequence variants to Tourette disorder (TD) through whole-exome sequencing of 511 trios. Here, we sequence an additional 291 TD trios and analyze the combined set of 802 trios. We observe an overrepresentation of de novo damaging variants in simplex, but not multiplex, families; we identify a high-confidence TD risk gene, CELSR3 (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3); we find that the genes mutated in TD patients are enriched for those related to cell polarity, suggesting a common pathway underlying pathobiology; and we confirm a statistically significant excess of de novo copy number variants in TD. Finally, we identify significant overlap of de novo sequence variants between TD and obsessive-compulsive disorder and de novo copy number variants between TD and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with shared genetic risk.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA