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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize sleep health in adults who attempted weight loss in the prior year. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018 exam cycle. We included 4837 US adults who did (n = 1919) or did not (n = 2918) attempt weight loss in the past year. Participants self-reported their sleep regularity, satisfaction, sleepiness, timing, and duration, which we defined as "good" based on the prior literature. We characterized sleep health by weight loss attempts status, current BMI and weight change among participants who attempted weight loss. RESULTS: On average, participants reported good sleep health in 3.21 ± 1.14 out of the five sleep domains. A total of 13% of participants had good sleep health in all five domains. The prevalence of sleep regularity (52%) was lowest, and the prevalence of infrequent sleepiness was highest (72%), relative to other sleep domains. In models adjusting for BMI, sleep health was similar in participants who did and did not attempt weight loss. Among adults who attempted weight loss, good sleep health was inversely associated with current BMI and self-reported weight change. DISCUSSION: This study's findings highlight the importance of considering sleep health when engaging with adults attempting weight loss.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 341-349, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep health is "a multidimensional pattern of sleep-wakefulness, adapted to individual, social, and environmental demands, that promotes physical and mental well-being". The RU-SATED is a short practical self-reported symptom scale that is a reliable valid tool for the rapid evaluation of sleep health. This study sought to examine the psychometric validity of the French version. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study. All professionals working in Bordeaux University Hospital were asked to answer an internet-based questionnaire assessing sleep, mental and physical health outcomes. Sleep health was measured using the French RU-SATED scale obtained by a rigorous reverse translation process. Psychometric validity included factor structure, internal structural validity, concurrent validity and external validity of the measure, with sleep, mental and physical health outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1,562 participants were included with 80.5% of women and a mean age of 40.0 (±11.2). Sleep health was within the average range (M = 8.2, SD = 2.4) on the RU-SATED. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable model fit measures. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.57 and ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 when removing each item. The correlation between items with the overall corrected scores ranged from 0.19 to 0.43. The "Efficiency" item showed poor psychometric properties. Most items were highly correlated with their appropriate sleep outcome. All items showed a strong association with positive mental and physical health outcomes. DISCUSSION: The French RU-SATED scale is a reliable valid tool for measuring sleep health in adults. Nevertheless, future studies should better evaluate the reliability and validity of the "Efficiency" item. It is also important to explore how the RU-SATED can be used to evaluate the impact of sleep hygiene strategies in promoting public health in accordance with models of sleep behavior change.

3.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations between physical activity, sleep health, and depression symptoms using mediation models. METHODS: Participants (N = 1576, MAge = 39.3 years, 40% female) were recruited online from Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowd-sourcing service. Physical activity was measured using a single-item self-report measure and depression symptoms were reported using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Sleep health was measured using the 6-question RUSATED Sleep Health survey V2.0. RESULTS: Good sleep health (direct effect: ß = - .273, t = - 13.87, p < .0001) and high levels of physical activity (direct effect: ß = - .092, t = - 4.73, p < .0001) were both individually associated with fewer depression symptoms. Sleep health significantly mediated 19% of the association between physical activity and depression symptoms (indirect effect: ß = - .022, 95% CI [- .036 to - .008]), while physical activity significantly mediated 3% of the relationship between sleep health and depression symptoms (indirect effect: ß = - .008, 95% CI [- .014 to - .003]). CONCLUSION: Physical activity and sleep health act as predictors and mediators of depression symptoms.

4.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disturbed sleep is a common feature of psychotic disorders that is also present in the clinical high risk (CHR) state. Evidence suggests a potential role of sleep disturbance in symptom progression, yet the interrelationship between sleep and CHR symptoms remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the association between disturbed sleep and CHR symptoms over time. METHODS: Data were obtained from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)-3 consortium, including 688 CHR individuals and 94 controls (mean age 18.25, 46% female) for whom sleep was tracked prospectively for 8 months. We used Cox regression analyses to investigate whether sleep disturbances predicted conversion to psychosis up to >2 years later. With regressions and cross-lagged panel models, we analyzed longitudinal and bidirectional associations between sleep (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in conjunction with additional sleep items) and CHR symptoms. We also investigated the independent contribution of individual sleep characteristics on CHR symptom domains separately and explored whether cognitive impairments, stress, depression, and psychotropic medication affected the associations. RESULTS: Disturbed sleep at baseline did not predict conversion to psychosis. However, sleep disturbance was strongly correlated with heightened CHR symptoms over time. Depression accounted for half of the association between sleep and symptoms. Importantly, sleep was a significant predictor of CHR symptoms but not vice versa, although bidirectional effect sizes were similar. DISCUSSION: The critical role of sleep disturbance in CHR symptom changes suggests that sleep may be a promising intervention target to moderate outcome in the CHR state.

5.
J Sleep Res ; : e13465, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453464

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak emerged at the end of 2019 and quickly spread around the world. Measures to counter COVID-19, including social distancing and lockdowns, created an unusual situation that had the potential to impact a variety of behaviours, including sleep, which is crucial for health and well-being. Data were obtained through an online survey. The total sample comprised 19,482 participants from the UK. Participants were asked several questions regarding sleep quality and quantity. Each participant completed the questionnaires once during a data collection period spanning January 20 to March 31, 2020. Data provided by different participants during different weeks (spanning time-periods just before COVID-19 was identified in the UK and during the early weeks following its arrival) were compared using analysis of variance tests and regressions. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex and ethnicity revealed significant associations of small magnitude between date of survey completion and sleep quality, sleep latency, number of awakenings and composite score of poor sleep quality. These analyses also indicated small increases in eveningness tendency as the study progressed. There was no change in sleep duration or time spent awake at night. The COVID-19 outbreak did not appear to impact negatively sleep in a substantial manner during the early stages in the UK. The small increases in sleep quality variables (except for time spent awake at night and sleep duration) and eveningness are nonetheless of interest. Further research is needed to understand how best to provide support to those most in need of a good night's sleep during this unprecedented time.

6.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 537-550, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction (TranS-C) improves functional impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and circadian functioning. METHOD: Adults diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) and sleep and circadian dysfunction (N = 121) were randomly allocated to TranS-C plus usual care (TranS-C + UC; n = 61; 8 individual weekly sessions) or 6 months of Usual Care followed by Delayed Treatment with TranS-C (UC-DT; n = 60). Schizophrenia (45%) and anxiety disorders (47%) were common. Blind assessments were conducted pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6 months later (6FU). The latter two were the post-randomization points of interest. The location was Alameda County Behavioral Health Care Services (ACBHCS), a Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) in California. RESULTS: For the primary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with reduction in functional impairment (b = -3.18, p = 0.025, d = -0.58), general psychiatric symptoms (b = -5.88, p = 0.001, d = -0.64), sleep disturbance (b = -5.55, p < .0001, d = -0.96), and sleep-related impairment (b = -9.14, p < .0001, d = -0.81) from pre-treatment to post-treatment. These effects were maintained to 6-month follow-up (6FU; d = -0.42 to -0.82), except functional impairment (d = -0.37). For the secondary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with improvement in sleep efficiency and on the Sleep Health Composite score from pre-treatment to 6FU. TranS-C + UC was also associated with reduced total wake time and wake time variability from pre-treatment to post-treatment, as well as reduced hallucinations and delusions, bedtime variability, and actigraphy measured waking activity count variability from pre-treatment to 6FU. CONCLUSIONS: A novel transdiagnostic treatment, delivered within a CMHC setting, improves selected measures of functioning, symptoms of comorbid disorders, and sleep and circadian outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Sleep Med Rev ; 59: 101509, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116386

RESUMO

We performed a systematic review of four databases to determine if the evidence supports a short or long duration nap during night shifts to mitigate fatigue, and/or improve health, safety, or performance for emergency services and public safety personnel (PROSPERO CRD42020156780). We focused on experimental research and evaluated the quality of evidence with the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) framework. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool to assess bias and reported findings using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Our search yielded n = 10,345 records and n = 44 were reviewed in full-text. Inter-rater agreement during screening was substantial (Kappa = 0.66). We retained n = 11 publications, reporting on n = 7 experimental studies with a cumulative sample size of n = 140. We identified wide variation in study design, napping interventions (i.e., timing, placement, and duration), and outcomes. We identified mixed findings comparing brief, moderate, and long duration naps on outcomes of interest. All seven studies presented serious risk of bias and the quality of evidence was rated as low. Based on the best available evidence, decisions regarding nap duration during night shift work should be based on time (post-nap) and outcome.

8.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 659-671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079410

RESUMO

Introduction: Daytime sleepiness is a common problem. Although sleepiness is primarily assessed at the self-report unit of analysis, factors that contribute to an individual's experience and report of sleepiness remain poorly understood. While sleepiness is known to impact vigilance performance, the impact of vigilance performance on sleepiness reports is less well understood. We aimed to explore how performance on a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) relates to changes in self-reported sleepiness in a rested condition. Methods: Participants were 66 adults (Mdn=23, range 18-49 years old), 47% female, 88% white, with a wide range of insomnia symptoms. Participants rated their sleepiness on a scale from 1 (not sleepy) to 10 (extremely sleepy) at the start (pre) and the end (post) of a 10-minute computerized PVT. Ordinal regression determined whether mean reciprocal reaction time, a measure of overall performance, or the log-transformed signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR), a measure of fidelity of information processing, predicted post-sleepiness, adjusting for pre-sleepiness, insomnia, and potential confounds. Results: Lower LSNR predicted greater change in sleepiness (pre-to-post PVT) and higher post-sleepiness even after adjusting for pre-sleepiness, mean reciprocal reaction time, insomnia, and other potential confounds (p<0.05). Discussion: When adjusting for insomnia symptoms and potential confounds, participants with lower fidelity of information processing reported higher sleepiness than they had reported at the start of the PVT. Possible mechanisms and explanations are discussed in relation to a 3-factor model of sleep-wake states. This line of research may contribute to innovative approaches to assessing and treating sleepiness.

9.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 7: 23337214211016222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095350

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association between multidimensional sleep health and objective measures of physical functioning in older adults. Method: We conducted a secondary analysis of 158 adults ≥65 years who participated in Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) 2 and MIDUS Refresher studies. Physical functioning was assessed using gait speed during a 50-foot timed walk, lower extremity strength via chair stand test, and grip strength via hand-held dynamometers. Composite multidimensional sleep health scores were derived from 1 week of sleep diaries and wrist actigraphy. Results: Multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations between multidimensional sleep health and physical functioning measures. In adjusted regression analyses, multidimensional sleep health was significantly positively associated with gait speed but not lower extremity strength or grip strength. Discussion: These findings suggest multidimensional sleep health may contribute to physical functioning in older adults. Longitudinal examinations are needed to determine the value of multidimensional sleep health as a therapeutic target to optimize physical functioning.

10.
Sleep ; 44(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971013

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Structural brain maturation and sleep are complex processes that exhibit significant changes over adolescence and are linked to many physical and mental health outcomes. We investigated whether sleep-gray matter relationships are developmentally invariant (i.e. stable across age) or developmentally specific (i.e. only present during discrete time windows) from late childhood through young adulthood. METHODS: We constructed the Neuroimaging and Pediatric Sleep Databank from eight research studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh (2009-2020). Participants completed a T1-weighted structural MRI scan (sMRI) and 5-7 days of wrist actigraphy to assess naturalistic sleep. The final analytic sample consisted of 225 participants without current psychiatric diagnoses (9-25 years). We extracted cortical thickness and subcortical volumes from sMRI. Sleep patterns (duration, timing, continuity, regularity) were estimated from wrist actigraphy. Using regularized regression, we examined cross-sectional associations between sMRI measures and sleep patterns, as well as the effects of age, sex, and their interaction with sMRI measures on sleep. RESULTS: Shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, and poorer sleep continuity were associated with thinner cortex and altered subcortical volumes in diverse brain regions across adolescence. In a discrete subset of regions (e.g. posterior cingulate), thinner cortex was associated with these sleep patterns from late childhood through early-to-mid adolescence but not in late adolescence and young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: In childhood and adolescence, developmentally invariant and developmentally specific associations exist between sleep patterns and gray matter structure, across brain regions linked to sensory, cognitive, and emotional processes. Sleep intervention during specific developmental periods could potentially promote healthier neurodevelopmental outcomes.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969821

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Black individuals and individuals of low socioeconomic status are at increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Berlin Questionnaire is one of the most widely used screening tools for OSA; however, there is limited research on its diagnostic accuracy in low-income, Black populations. METHODS: This study analyzed data from an ongoing study taking place among a cohort from two predominantly Black neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA (96.3% Black, 79.6% female). The sample included 269 individuals without a prior diagnosis of OSA who completed the Berlin Questionnaire and also participated in a home sleep apnea test (HSAT). An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 was used to identify individuals with moderate or severe OSA. RESULTS: 19.3% of individuals met criteria for moderate to severe OSA based on HSAT, while 31.2% of participants screened as high risk for OSA based on the overall Berlin index. Using AHI>=15 as the reference standard, the Berlin Questionnaire had a sensitivity of 46.2%, specificity of 72.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 28.6%, and negative predictive value of 84.9% among this sample. Analyses stratified by sex suggested that the Berlin Questionnaire had better diagnostic validity in women than men. CONCLUSIONS: The Berlin Questionnaire has lower sensitivity and PPV in our sample than those observed in general population samples. The measure performed better among women, though a higher proportion of men fell into the moderate or severe OSA range based on the HSAT. Given the significant downstream consequences of OSA, utilizing screening tools that better detect OSA in Black communities is key.

12.
J Sleep Res ; : e13386, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991144

RESUMO

Clarifying whether physiological sleep measures predict mortality could inform risk screening; however, such investigations should account for complex and potentially non-linear relationships among health risk factors. We aimed to establish the predictive utility of polysomnography (PSG)-assessed sleep measures for mortality using a novel permutation random forest (PRF) machine learning framework. Data collected from the years 1995 to present are from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS; n = 5,734) and the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (WSCS; n = 1,015), and include initial assessments of sleep and health, and up to 15 years of follow-up for all-cause mortality. We applied PRF models to quantify the predictive abilities of 24 measures grouped into five domains: PSG-assessed sleep (four measures), self-reported sleep (three), health (eight), health behaviours (four), and sociodemographic factors (five). A 10-fold repeated internal validation (WSCS and SHHS combined) and external validation (training in SHHS; testing in WSCS) were used to compute unbiased variable importance metrics and associated p values. We observed that health, sociodemographic factors, and PSG-assessed sleep domains predicted mortality using both external validation and repeated internal validation. The PSG-assessed sleep efficiency and the percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation <90% were among the most predictive individual measures. Multivariable Cox regression also revealed the PSG-assessed sleep domain to be predictive, with very low sleep efficiency and high hypoxaemia conferring the highest risk. These findings, coupled with the emergence of new low-burden technologies for objectively assessing sleep and overnight oxygen saturation, suggest that consideration of physiological sleep measures may improve risk screening.

14.
Sleep ; 44(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823052

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep quantity and continuity vary across the lifespan. Actigraphy is a reliable and widely used behavioral measure of sleep in research and personal health monitoring. This meta-analysis provides a novel examination of whether age (in years) is associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep across the lifespan. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase.com, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO using "actigraphy" and "sleep" terms provided 7079 titles/abstracts; studies of individuals with known psychiatric or medical comorbidities were excluded. Ninety-one articles (N = 23 365) provided data for six meta-analyses examining sleep duration (k = 89), sleep efficiency (k = 58), bedtime (k = 19) and waketime (k = 9) for individuals ages 6-21, and bedtime (k = 7) and waketime (k = 7) for individuals ages 22 and older. RESULTS: At older ages, sleep duration was shorter (r = -0.12) and sleep efficiency was lower (r = -0.05). Older age was associated with later bedtime (r = 0.37) and wake-up time (r = 0.24) from ages 6-21, whereas older age was associated with earlier bedtime (r = -0.66) and wake-up time (r = -0.59) for ages 22 and above. The strength of these associations was modified by study continent, but not by any other moderator. CONCLUSIONS: Age was negatively associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and efficiency, but the effects were small in magnitude. On the other hand, large associations were observed between age and sleep timing, despite a smaller literature and the absence of analyzable data for ages 30-60. Changes in sleep timing, rather than changes in sleep duration or continuity, may better characterize the effects of age on human sleep.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep and circadian timing shifts later during adolescence, conflicting with early school start times, and resulting in circadian misalignment. Although circadian misalignment has been linked to depression, substance use, and altered reward function, a paucity of experimental studies precludes the determination of causality. Here we tested, for the first time, whether experimentally-imposed circadian misalignment alters the neural response to monetary reward and/or response inhibition. METHODS: Healthy adolescents (n = 25, ages 13-17) completed two in-lab sleep schedules in counterbalanced order: An 'aligned' condition based on typical summer sleep-wake times (0000-0930) and a 'misaligned' condition mimicking earlier school year sleep-wake times (2000-0530). Participants completed morning and afternoon functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during each condition, including monetary reward (morning only) and response inhibition (morning and afternoon) tasks. Total sleep time and circadian phase were assessed via actigraphy and salivary melatonin, respectively. RESULTS: Bilateral ventral striatal (VS) activation during reward outcome was lower during the Misaligned condition after accounting for the prior night's total sleep time. Bilateral VS activation during reward anticipation was lower during the Misaligned condition, including after accounting for covariates, but did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation during response inhibition was lower during the Misaligned condition, before and after accounting for total sleep time and vigilant attention, but only during the morning scan. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel experimental evidence that circadian misalignment analogous to that resulting from school schedules may have measurable impacts on healthy adolescents' reward processing and inhibition of prepotent responses.

16.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(7): 641-652, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances disproportionately affect midlife women. While there may be a bidirectional association, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms are longitudinally associated with subsequent sleep. Sleep is typically considered unidimensional, despite emerging evidence that multidimensional sleep health provides novel information on the sleep-health link. PURPOSE: The current study examined whether higher depressive symptoms were longitudinally associated with poorer multidimensional sleep health. METHOD: Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale across six to nine annual assessments in 302 midlife women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Six months after their last assessment, actigraphy (mean ± standard deviation = 29.3 ± 6.9 days) and self-report were used to assess sleep health components: efficiency, duration, mid-sleep timing, regularity, alertness, and satisfaction, which were dichotomized and summed to create a composite multidimensional sleep health score. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and multidimensional sleep health, as well as individual sleep health components, adjusting for covariates. Exploratory analyses stratified models by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Higher depressive symptoms were associated with subsequent poorer multidimensional sleep health (p < .0.001) and lower alertness (p < .0001) and satisfaction with sleep (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that higher average depressive symptoms were associated longitudinally with actigraphy-measured poorer sleep health in midlife women is novel and converges with the larger body of evidence that these two common symptoms are strongly associated. The bidirectional relationship between these two prevalent symptoms needs to be studied in prospective longitudinal studies.

17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(3): 639-649, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research on the relationship between sleep and attempted weight loss failed to recognize the multidimensional nature of sleep. We examined the relationship between a composite measure of sleep health and change in weight and body composition among adults in a weight loss intervention. METHODS: Adults (N = 125) with overweight or obesity (50.3 ± 10.6 years, 91% female, 81% white) participated in a 12-month behavioral weight loss intervention, with assessments of sleep, weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Six sleep dimensions (regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) were categorized as "good" or "poor" using questionnaires and actigraphy. A composite score was calculated by summing the number of "good" dimensions. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was assessed in a subsample (n = 117), using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to determine OSA severity. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine the relationships between sleep health and outcomes of percent weight, fat mass, or fat-free mass change during the subsequent 6-month interval, adjusting for age, sex, bed partner, and race; an additional model adjusted for AHI. RESULTS: Mean baseline and 6-month sleep health was 4.5 ± 1.1 and 4.5 ± 1.2, respectively. Mean weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass changes from 0 to 6 months were -9.3 ± 6.1%, -16.9 ± 13.5%, and -3.4 ± 3.4%, respectively, and 0.4 ± 4.8%, -0.3 ± 10.3%, and 0.7 ± 4.1% from 6 to 12 months. Better sleep health was associated with greater subsequent weight loss (P = 0.016) and fat loss (P = 0.006), but not fat-free mass loss (P = 0.232). Following AHI adjustment, the association between sleep health and weight loss was attenuated (P = 0.102) but remained significant with fat loss (P = 0.040). Regularity, satisfaction, timing, and efficiency were each associated with weight and/or fat loss (P ≤ 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Better sleep health was associated with greater weight and fat loss, with associations attenuated after accounting for OSA severity. Future studies should explore whether improving sleep health, OSA, or the combination improves weight loss.

18.
Sleep ; 44(6)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417708

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with poor sleep, which may contribute to and exacerbate racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Most prior work has been cross-sectional and thus it has not been possible to estimate causal effects. METHODS: We leveraged a natural experiment opportunity in two low-income, predominantly African American Pittsburgh, PA neighborhoods, following a randomly selected cohort of households (n = 676) between 2013 and 2016. One of the neighborhoods received substantial public and private investments (housing, commercial) over the study period, while the other socio-demographically similar neighborhood received far fewer investments. Primary analyses used a difference-in-difference analysis based on neighborhood, to examine changes in actigraphy-assessed sleep duration, efficiency, and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO), and self-reported sleep quality. Secondary analyses examined whether residents' proximity to investments, regardless of neighborhood, was associated with changes in sleep outcomes. RESULTS: Resident sleep worsened over time in both neighborhoods with no significant differences among residents between the two neighborhoods. Secondary analyses, including covariate adjustment and propensity score weighting to improve comparability, indicated that regardless of neighborhood, those who lived in closer proximity to investments (<0.1 mile) were significantly less likely to experience decreases in sleep duration, efficiency, and quality, or increases in WASO, compared to those who lived farther away. CONCLUSIONS: While we did not observe sleep differences among residents between neighborhoods, living closer to a neighborhood investment was associated with better sleep outcomes. Findings have relevance for public health and policy efforts focused on investing in historically disinvested neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Características de Residência , Afro-Americanos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sono
19.
Sleep ; 44(2)2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918075

RESUMO

The multidimensional sleep health framework emphasizes that sleep can be characterized across several domains, with implications for developing novel sleep treatments and improved prediction and health screening. However, empirical evidence regarding the domains and representative measures that exist in actigraphy-assessed sleep is lacking. We aimed to establish these domains and representative measures in older adults by examining the factor structure of 28 actigraphy-derived sleep measures from 2,841 older men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study and, separately, from 2,719 older women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Measures included means and standard deviations of actigraphy summary measures and estimates from extended cosine models of the raw actigraphy data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed the same five factors in both sexes: Timing (e.g. mean midpoint from sleep onset to wake-up), Efficiency (e.g. mean sleep efficiency), Duration (e.g. mean minutes from sleep onset to wake-up), Sleepiness/Wakefulness (e.g. mean minutes napping and amplitude of rhythm), and Regularity (e.g. standard deviation of the midpoint). Within each sex, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-factor structure of each factor and the entire five-factor structure (Comparative Fit Index and Tucker-Lewis Index ≥ 0.95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation 0.08-0.38). Correlation magnitudes among factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.34. These findings demonstrate the validity of conceptualizing actigraphy sleep as multidimensional, provide a framework for selecting sleep health domains and representative measures, and suggest targets for behavioral interventions. Similar analyses should be performed with additional measures of rhythmicity, other age ranges, and more racially/ethnically diverse samples.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Vigília
20.
Psychol Assess ; 33(2): 111-121, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119375

RESUMO

The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is the most widely used questionnaire in research and clinical practice to assess sleep quality. However, a brief version of this measure would improve its efficiency and applicability. This study aimed to develop a brief form of the PSQI and to study measurement invariance across gender and age in a nonclinical population. In total, 609 participants with a mean age of 37.3 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.9) were recruited, of whom 71.8% (n = 437) were women. Participants completed online versions of the PSQI and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Reliability analyses were performed to reduce the number of items, followed by validity and measurement invariance analyses for the new Brief Version of the PSQI (B-PSQI). Six questions were included in the B-PSQI out of the initial 18; the brief form had adequate internal consistency (α = .79 and ω = 0.91). Confirmatory factor analysis showed optimal fit of the B-PSQI (χ2(4) = 22.428; p < .01; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99; normed fit index (NFI) = 0.99; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.98; root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.04), achieving partial scalar invariance across gender-same factorial structure, loadings, and thresholds in the majority of the items. Invariance across age was only achieved for model structure. Additionally, the B-PSQI yielded favorable sensitivity (75.82%) and specificity (76.99%) for classifying poor sleepers, similar to values for the full PSQI. In conclusion, the B-PSQI is a brief, reliable, and valid measure that can be used as a screening tool, allowing valid score comparisons between men and women of similar age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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