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1.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936417

RESUMO

A novel tantalum pentoxide nanoparticle-electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode (Ta2O5-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the detection of oxytetracycline in milk. The composition, structure and morphology of GO, Ta2O5, and Ta2O5-ErGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxytetracycline electrochemical behavior on the bare GCE, GO/GCE, ErGO/GCE, and Ta2O5-ErGO/GCE was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric conditions (including scan rate, pH, deposition potential, and deposition time) were systematically optimized. With the spacious electrochemical active area, the Ta2O5-ErGO/GCE showed a great magnification of the oxidation signal of oxytetracycline, while that of the other electrodes (GCE, GO/GCE, ErGO/GCE) could not reach the same level. Under the optimum conditions, the currents were proportional to the oxytetracycline concentration in the range from 0.2 to 10 µM, and a low detection limit of 0.095 µM (S/N = 3) was detectable. Moreover, the proposed Ta2O5-ErGO/GCE performed practically with satisfactory results. The preparation of Ta2O5-ErGO/GCE in the current work provides a minor outlook of detecting trace oxytetracycline in milk.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 228, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932601

RESUMO

Antibiotic use and bacterial transmission are responsible for the emergence, spread and persistence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria, but their relative contribution likely differs across varying socio-economic, cultural, and ecological contexts. To better understand this interaction in a multi-cultural and resource-limited context, we examine the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacteria from three ethnic groups in Tanzania. Household-level data (n = 425) was collected and bacteria isolated from people, livestock, dogs, wildlife and water sources (n = 62,376 isolates). The relative prevalence of different resistance phenotypes is similar across all sources. Multi-locus tandem repeat analysis (n = 719) and whole-genome sequencing (n = 816) of Escherichia coli demonstrate no evidence for host-population subdivision. Multivariate models show no evidence that veterinary antibiotic use increased the odds of detecting AR bacteria, whereas there is a strong association with livelihood factors related to bacterial transmission, demonstrating that to be effective, interventions need to accommodate different cultural practices and resource limitations.

3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 315: 108382, 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter and Salmonella, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, are important bacterial enteric pathogens of humans which are often carried asymptomatically in animal reservoirs. Bacterial foodborne infections, including those derived from meat, are associated with illness and death globally but the burden is disproportionately high in Africa. Commercial meat production is increasing and intensifying in many African countries, creating opportunities and threats for food safety. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched six databases for English language studies published through June 2016, that reported Campylobacter or Salmonella carriage or infection prevalence in food animals and contamination prevalence in food animal products from African countries. A random effects meta-analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate the species-specific prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter and assess relationships between sample type and region and the detection or isolation of either pathogen. RESULTS: Seventy-three studies reporting Campylobacter and 187 studies reporting Salmonella across 27 African countries were represented. Adjusted prevalence calculations estimate Campylobacter detection in 37.7% (95% CI 31.6-44.3) of 11,828 poultry samples; 24.6% (95% CI 18.0-32.7) of 1975 pig samples; 17.8% (95% CI 12.6-24.5) of 2907 goat samples; 12.6% (95% CI 8.4-18.5) of 2382 sheep samples; and 12.3% (95% CI 9.5-15.8) of 6545 cattle samples. Salmonella were detected in 13.9% (95% CI 11.7-16.4) of 25,430 poultry samples; 13.1% (95% CI 9.3-18.3) of 5467 pig samples; 9.3% (95% CI 7.2-12.1) of 2988 camel samples; 5.3% (95% CI 4.0-6.8) of 72,292 cattle samples; 4.8% (95% CI 3.6-6.3) of 11,335 sheep samples; and 3.4% (95% CI 2.2-5.2) of 4904 goat samples. 'External' samples (e.g. hide, feathers) were significantly more likely to be contaminated by both pathogens than 'gut' (e.g. faeces, cloaca) while meat and organs were significantly less likely to be contaminated than gut samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated widespread prevalence of Campylobacter species and Salmonella serovars in African food animals and meat, particularly in samples of poultry and pig origin. Source attribution studies could help ascertain which food animals are contributing to human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis and direct potential food safety interventions.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18086, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792246

RESUMO

Bushmeat, the meat and organs derived from wildlife species, is a common source of animal protein in the diets of those living in sub-Saharan Africa and is frequently associated with zoonotic spillover of dangerous pathogens. Given the frequent consumption of bushmeat in this region and the lack of knowledge about the microbial communities associated with this meat, the microbiome of 56 fresh and processed bushmeat samples ascertained from three districts in the Western Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania was characterized using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. The results show that the most abundant phyla present in bushmeat samples include Firmicutes (67.8%), Proteobacteria (18.4%), Cyanobacteria (8.9%), and Bacteroidetes (3.1%). Regardless of wildlife species, sample condition, season, or region, the microbiome is diverse across all samples, with no significant difference in alpha or beta diversity. The findings also suggest the presence of DNA signatures of potentially dangerous zoonotic pathogens, including those from the genus Bacillus, Brucella, Coxiella, and others, in bushmeat. Together, this investigation provides a better understanding of the microbiome associated with this major food source in samples collected from the Western Serengeti in Tanzania and highlights a need for future investigations on the potential health risks associated with the harvesting, trade, and consumption of bushmeat in Sub-Saharan Africa.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 327, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681800

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan intracellular parasite of animals with a global distribution. Dogs act as definitive hosts, with infection in cattle leading to reproductive losses. Neosporosis can be a major source of income loss for livestock keepers, but its impacts in sub-Saharan Africa are mostly unknown. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and identify risk factors for N. caninum infection in cattle in northern Tanzania, and to link herd-level exposure to reproductive losses. Serum samples from 3,015 cattle were collected from 380 households in 20 villages between February and December 2016. Questionnaire data were collected from 360 of these households. Household coordinates were used to extract satellite derived environmental data from open-access sources. Sera were tested for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an indirect ELISA. Risk factors for individual-level seropositivity were identified with logistic regression using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The relationship between herd-level seroprevalence and abortion rates was assessed using negative binomial regression. The seroprevalence of N. caninum exposure after adjustment for diagnostic test performance was 21.5% [95% Credibility Interval (CrI) 17.9-25.4]. The most important predictors of seropositivity selected by BMA were age greater than 18 months [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% CrI 1.45-3.26], the local cattle population density (OR = 0.69, 95% CrI 0.41-1.00), household use of restricted grazing (OR = 0.72, 95% CrI 0.25-1.16), and an increasing percentage cover of shrub or forest land in the environment surrounding a household (OR = 1.37, 1.00-2.14). There was a positive relationship between herd-level N. caninum seroprevalence and the reported within-herd abortion rate (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.03, 95% CrI 1.00-1.06). Our findings suggest N. caninum is likely to be an important cause of abortion in cattle in Tanzania. Management practices, such as restricted grazing, are likely to reduce the risk of infection and suggest contamination of communal grazing areas may be important for transmission. Evidence for a relationship between livestock seropositivity and shrub and forest habitats raises questions about a potential role for wildlife in the epidemiology of N. caninum in Tanzania.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1486072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687378

RESUMO

Newcastle disease is a devastating viral disease of chicken in low- and middle-income countries where the backyard production system is predominant. Marker-assisted selection of chickens that are resistant to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the promising strategy that needs to be explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms of the promoter region of the chicken Mx gene and association with Kuroiler, Sasso, and local Tanzanian chicken embryos' survival variability to virulent NDV infection. Chicken embryos were initially challenged with a minimum lethal dose of virulent NDV suspension and then were followed over time to gather information on their survival variability. Using the survival data, high and less susceptible cohorts were established, and a total of 88 DNA samples from high and less susceptible groups were genotypes by sequencing. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were previously reported, were detected. Interestingly, for the first time, the findings demonstrated the association of the promoter region of chicken myxovirus-resistance (Mx) gene polymorphisms with chicken embryos' susceptibility to the virulent NDV challenge. At the genotypic level, the SNP4 G > A mutation that was located within the IFN-stimulating response element was associated (LR: 6.97, P=0.03) with chicken embryos' susceptibility to the virulent NDV challenge. An allele G frequency was higher in the less susceptible cohort, whereas an allele A frequency was higher in the high susceptible cohort. At the haplotype level, the haplotype group ACGC was associated (OR: 9.8, 95% CI: 1.06-79.43, P=0.042) with the same trait and had a resistant effect. In conclusion, the results have demonstrated the association of chicken Mx gene promoter polymorphisms and chicken embryos' survival variability to the virulent NDV challenge, and the information is useful for breeding programs designed to develop chicken genotypes that are resistant to Newcastle disease virus.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonellae are intracellular bacteria, which can cause persistent bacteraemia in humans and a variety of animals. Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but data on their global distribution and epidemiology are limited. The aims of the study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in rodents and fleas; 2) identify risk factors for Bartonella infection in rodents; and 3) characterize the Bartonella genotypes present in these rodent and flea populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spleen samples collected from 381 rodents representing six different species were tested for the presence of Bartonella DNA, which was detected in 57 individuals (15.0%; 95% CI 11.3-18.5), of three rodent species (Rattus rattus n = 54, Mastomys natalensis n = 2 and Paraxerus flavovottis n = 1) using a qPCR targeting the ssrA gene. Considering R. rattus individuals only, risk factor analysis indicated that Bartonella infection was more likely in reproductively mature as compared to immature individuals (OR = 3.42, p <0.001). Bartonella DNA was also detected in 53 of 193 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas (27.5%: 95% CI 21.3-34.3) collected from R.rattus individuals. Analysis of ssrA and gltA sequences from rodent spleens and ssrA sequences from fleas identified multiple genotypes closely related (≥ 97% similar) to several known or suspected zoonotic Bartonella species, including B. tribocorum, B. rochalimae, B. elizabethae and B. quintana. CONCLUSIONS: The ssrA and gltA sequences obtained from rodent spleens and ssrA sequences obtained from fleas reveal the presence of a diverse set of Bartonella genotypes and increase our understanding of the bartonellae present in Tanzanian. Further studies are needed to fully characterise the prevalence, genotypes and diversity of Bartonella in different host populations and their potential impacts on human health.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281305

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes substantial economic losses to smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries with high levels of morbidity and mortality in poultry flocks. Previous investigations have suggested differing levels of susceptibility to NDV between specific inbred lines and amongst breeds of chickens, however, the mechanisms contributing to this remain poorly understood. Studies have shown that some of these differences in levels of susceptibility to NDV infection may be accounted for by variability in the innate immune response amongst various breeds of poultry to NDV infection. Recent studies, in inbred Fayoumi and Leghorn lines, uncovered conserved, breed-dependent, and subline-dependent responses. To better understand the role of innate immune genes in engendering a protective immune response, we assessed the transcriptional responses to NDV of three highly outbred Tanzanian local chicken ecotypes, the Kuchi, the Morogoro Medium, and the Ching'wekwe. Hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis of the gene expression profiles of 21-day old chick embryos infected with NDV clustered in an ecotype-dependent manner and was consistent with the relative viral loads for each of the three ecotypes. The Kuchi and Morogoro Medium exhibit significantly higher viral loads than the Ching'wekwe. The results show that the outbred ecotypes with increased levels of expression of CCL4, NOS2, and SOCS1 also had higher viral loads. The higher expression of SOCS1 is inconsistent with the expression in inbred lines. These differences may uncover new mechanisms or pathways in these populations that may have otherwise been overlooked when examining the response in highly inbred lines. Taken together, our findings provide insights on the specific conserved and differentially expressed innate immune-related genes involved the response of highly outbred chicken lines to NDV. This also suggests that several of the specific innate immunity related genes identified in the current investigation may serve as markers for the selection of chickens with reduced susceptibility to NDV.

9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 374, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges facing investigators in the microbiome field is turning large numbers of reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms into biological knowledge. Effective analytical workflows that guarantee reproducibility, repeatability, and result provenance are essential requirements of modern microbiome research. For nearly a decade, several state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools have been developed for understanding microbial communities living in a given sample. However, most of these tools are built with many functions that require an in-depth understanding of their implementation and the choice of additional tools for visualizing the final output. Furthermore, microbiome analysis can be time-consuming and may even require more advanced programming skills which some investigators may be lacking. RESULTS: We have developed a wrapper named iMAP (Integrated Microbiome Analysis Pipeline) to provide the microbiome research community with a user-friendly and portable tool that integrates bioinformatics analysis and data visualization. The iMAP tool wraps functionalities for metadata profiling, quality control of reads, sequence processing and classification, and diversity analysis of operational taxonomic units. This pipeline is also capable of generating web-based progress reports for enhancing an approach referred to as review-as-you-go (RAYG). For the most part, the profiling of microbial community is done using functionalities implemented in Mothur or QIIME2 platform. Also, it uses different R packages for graphics and R-markdown for generating progress reports. We have used a case study to demonstrate the application of the iMAP pipeline. CONCLUSIONS: The iMAP pipeline integrates several functionalities for better identification of microbial communities present in a given sample. The pipeline performs in-depth quality control that guarantees high-quality results and accurate conclusions. The vibrant visuals produced by the pipeline facilitate a better understanding of the complex and multidimensional microbiome data. The integrated RAYG approach enables the generation of web-based reports, which provides the investigators with the intermediate output that can be reviewed progressively. The intensively analyzed case study set a model for microbiome data analysis.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Software , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7209, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076577

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a threat to the global poultry industry, but particularly for smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. Previous reports suggest that some breeds of chickens are less susceptible to NDV infection, however, the mechanisms contributing to this are unknown. We here examined the comparative transcriptional responses of innate immune genes to NDV infection in inbred sublines of the Fayoumi and Leghorn breeds known to differ in their relative susceptibility to infection as well as at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatability complex (MHC) locus. The analysis identified a set of five core genes, Mx1, IRF1, IRF7, STAT1, and SOCS1, that are up-regulated regardless of subline. Several genes were differentially expressed in a breed- or subline-dependent manner. The breed-dependent response involved TLR3, NOS2, LITAF, and IFIH1 in the Fayoumi versus IL8, CAMP, and CCL4 in the Leghorn. Further analysis identified subline-dependent differences in the pro-inflammatory response within the Fayoumi breed that are likely influenced by the MHC. These results have identified conserved, breed-dependent, and subline-dependent innate immune responses to NDV infection in chickens, and provide a strong framework for the future characterization of the specific roles of genes and pathways that influence the susceptibility of chickens to NDV infection.

11.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(1): 53-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860180

RESUMO

Background: Human tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the result of the failure of host immune system to control mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to asses the changes of the cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients before and after the use of anti-TB therapy. Methods: Multiple cytokine responses in active tuberculosis (TB) patients were investigated in this study following anti-TB drug therapy after 2 months. Ninety-six participants with pulmonary TB were engaged in the study between May 2018 and October 2018. Samples of blood were taken early before treatment at 0 and 2 months after using anti-TB therapy. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in whole blood plasma collected from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus were measured. Results: Compared with baseline levels, TNF-α, IL6 and IL10 were significantly lower following treatment whereas the IFN-γ and IL-4 increased significantly after treatment. The responses of five cytokines varied significantly after treatment (P < 0.0001) where IFN-γ was highest compared to other cytokines with 123.6%, AUC=0.757 and P < 0001, TNF-α AUC: 0.529 and P = 0.743, IL-4 AUC:0.557 and P = 0.514, IL-6 AUC:0.629 and P = 0.047, IL-10 AUC:0.549 and P = 0.581. Conclusion: It is concluded that changes of cytokines that observed during the treatment of TB patients play a very important role in monitoring pulmonary TB and can be suitable biomarkers to assess the effectiveness of anti-TB therapy in patients with TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 182, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A fundamental understanding of redox homeostasis in Anopheles gambiae midgut cells under different oxidative conditions is missing. Such knowledge can aid in the development of new malaria transmission-blocking strategies aimed at disrupting natural homeostatic processes in the mosquito during Plasmodium parasite uptake (i.e. blood feeding). The aim of this study was to understand how the An. gambiae midgut regulates oxidative stress to reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially to a potent ROS-inducer such as tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). RESULTS: Initial studies using quantitative immunoblot indicated that the expression of the classical antioxidant protein An. gambiae thioredoxin-1 (AgTrx-1) remained unchanged across challenges with different concentrations of tBHP suggesting that additional mechanisms to regulate ROS may be involved. We therefore conducted a global proteomic survey, which revealed that An. gambiae midguts under low (50 µM) and high (200 µM) tBHP concentrations were enriched in proteins indicative of ribosomal/nucleolar stress. Ribosomal stress is an inherent cellular response to an imbalance in ribosomal proteins (RPs) due to cellular stress such as oxidative stress. Our data suggest that ribosomal/nucleolar stress is the primary cellular response in An. gambiae midguts under tBHP challenge. Considering these results, we discuss harnessing the ribosomal stress response as a potential malaria transmission-blocking strategy.


Assuntos
Anopheles/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/metabolismo , Animais
13.
Proteomes ; 6(4)2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424486

RESUMO

Paraquat is a potent superoxide (O2-)-inducing agent that is capable of inducing an oxidative imbalance in the mosquito midgut. This oxidative imbalance can super-stress the malaria parasite, leading to arrested development in the mosquito midgut and reduced transmission. While several studies have explored the effect of paraquat on malaria parasites, a fundamental understanding of the mosquito response to this compound remains unknown. Here, we quantified the mosquito midgut proteomic response to a paraquat-laced sugar meal, and found that An. gambiae midguts were enriched in proteins that are indicative of cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also carried out qRT-PCR analyses for nine prominent thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH)-dependent genes in mosquito midguts post P. falciparum blood meal ingestion to evaluate the concordance between transcripts and proteins under different oxidative stress conditions. Our data revealed an absence of significant upregulation in the Trx and GSH-dependent genes following infected blood meal ingestion. These data suggest that the intrinsic tolerance of the mosquito midgut to paraquat-mediated oxidative stress is through an ER stress response. These data indicate that mosquitoes have at least two divergent pathways of managing the oxidative stress that is induced by exogenous compounds, and outline the potential application of paraquat-like drugs to act selectively against malaria parasite development in mosquito midguts, thereby blocking mosquito-to-human transmission.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 481, 2018 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma haematobium infection in endemic areas varies depending on the nature and complexity of the transmission networks present. Studies of micro-geographical transmission of S. haematobium infection indicate that discrepancy in prevalence between households is associated with diverse water contact behaviors and transmission that is restricted to particular sites harboring snail intermediate hosts. Detection of variations in the transmission sources with complex transmission networks of water bodies is required for optimization of malacological control. Longitudinal parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted to investigate geographical variations in transmission of urogenital schistosomiasis in Ikingwamanoti village, Shinyanga District, Tanzania. METHODS: Urine samples were collected at baseline and follow-up time points from 282 school-aged children and examined microscopically for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Malacological surveys involved collection of Bulinus nasutus every month from 30 sites. Snails were examined for patent infections. Global positioning system was used to map household distances from S. haematobium transmission sites, while water contact behavior was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Schistosoma haematobium infection was observed to be prevalent among older children (12-14 years) compared to younger groups prior to treatment, but no significant difference in infection prevalence was observed at one-year. Boys were highly infected than girls at both time points. No spatial influence was observed between children's infection and the distance from child's residence to the nearby snail habitats nor was any significant association observed between children's reported water contact behavior with S. haematobium infection. However, malacological surveys with cercarial shedding combined with GPS data detected significant variation among different water sources in the transmission of S. haematobium with children living in households near to ponds with high B. nasutus populations having the highest prevalence of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Interaction between malacological surveys with cercarial shedding combined with GPS mapping in endemic settings can help detection of transmission sources even in areas with complex transmission networks. Subsequent studies are needed to determine whether the combination of GPS mapping and parasitology screens can aid the detection of transmission hotspots across varied transmission settings to enhance schistosomiasis control programmes.


Assuntos
Bulinus/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Esquistossomose Urinária/transmissão , Água/parasitologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bulinus/fisiologia , Cercárias , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Tanques/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma haematobium/fisiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/urina , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
Front Genet ; 9: 61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535762

RESUMO

Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 7035025, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094048

RESUMO

Administering more than one treatment may increase Praziquantel cure and egg reduction rates, thereby hastening achievement of schistosomiasis transmission control. A total of 431 S. mansoni-infected schoolchildren were randomized to receive either a single or repeated 40 mg/kg Praziquantel dose. Heights, weights, and haemoglobin levels were determined using a stadiometer, weighing scale, and HemoCue, respectively. At 8 weeks, cure rate was higher on repeated dose (93.10%) compared to single dose (68.68%) (p < 0.001). The egg reduction rate was higher on repeated dose (97.54%) compared to single dose (87.27%) (p = 0.0062). Geometric mean egg intensity was lower among those on repeated dose (1.30 epg) compared to single dose (3.18 epg) (p = 0.036) but not at 5 (p > 0.05) and 8 (p > 0.05) months with no difference in reinfection rate. No difference in the prevalence of stunting was observed between the two treatment regimens (p > 0.05) at 8 months, but there was an increase in the prevalence of wasting among those on repeated dose (p < 0.001). There was an increase in the mean haemoglobin levels at 8 months with no difference between the two arms (p > 0.05). To achieve reduction of transmission intensity and disease control in highly endemic areas, repeated treatments alone may not be sufficient. This trial was registered with PACTR201601001416338.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/patologia , Animais , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 731, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally school-age children, adolescents and young adults bear the highest burden of schistosomiasis. When developing a specific intervention to improve community's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs), existing KAPs must be taken into account. Therefore, this study was designed to determine schoolchildren's KAPs on schistosomiasis in the study area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages involving 513 schoolchildren. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and to assess KAP on schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the study area. RESULTS: Of the 488 interviewed children, 391 (80.12%) reported to have heard of schistosomiasis, with the majority 289 (73.91%) citing school as the source of this knowledge. Swimming in the lake, worms, witchcraft, and mosquitoes were mentioned to be the cause for intestinal schistosomiasis. Fishing in the lake, drinking unboiled lake water, walking bare footed, and shaking hands were reported to be practices that may lead to contracting schistosomiasis. Only 156 (39.90%) of the study respondents reported to know the signs of intestinal schistosomiasis. Avoiding swimming in the lake, drinking unboiled water and eating unwashed fruits were mentioned as preventive measures. Nearly 85% (412) reported understanding that there was a disease known as schistosomiasis; additionally, 419 (85.86%) considered schistosomiasis as a dangerous disease and 418 (85.66%) believed that schistosomiasis was treatable. Fishermen and schoolchildren were reported to be groups most at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Visiting the lake (for swimming and other gatherings) was a common practice among study participants 471 (96.52%).Nearly 93% (451) of participants mentioned using lake water for domestic chores, and, although 407 (84.61%) reported to own a toilet at home, only 229 (55.31%) reported to always use a toilet for sanitation purposes. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Despite a high rate of awareness among schoolchildren regarding schistosomiasis, there was a persistent gap amongst the children regarding the causes, modes of transmission, symptoms, and preventive measures for the disease. Therefore, an appropriate health education intervention is needed in order to inculcate better knowledge, attitudes, and practices amongst schoolchildren regarding its transmission, control, and prevention as part of a successful schistosomiasis campaign.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose mansoni/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lagos , Masculino , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167122, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (p<0.001). Anaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: S.mansoni, undernutrition and anaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should consider Rorya district for inclusion into national schistosomiasis control and school feeding programmes.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
19.
J Cancer Epidemiol ; 2016: 3769829, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965709

RESUMO

Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health concern with increasing rates in countries with previously known low incidence. This study determined pattern and distribution of CRC in Tanzania and identified hot spots in case distribution. Methods. A retrospective chart audit reviewed hospital registers and patient files from two national institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi square (χ2) tests, and regression analyses were employed and augmented by data visualization to display risk variable differences. Results. CRC cases increased sixfold in the last decade in Tanzania. There was a 1.5% decrease in incidences levels of rectal cancer and 2% increase for colon cancer every year from 2005 to 2015. Nearly half of patients listed Dar es Salaam as their primary residence. CRC was equally distributed between males (50.06%) and females (49.94%), although gender likelihood of diagnosis type (i.e., rectal or colon) was significantly different (P = 0.027). More than 60% of patients were between 40 and 69 years. Conclusions. Age (P = 0.0183) and time (P = 0.004) but not gender (P = 0.0864) were significantly associated with rectal cancer in a retrospective study in Tanzania. Gender (P = 0.0405), age (P = 0.0015), and time (P = 0.0075) were all significantly associated with colon cancer in this study. This retrospective study found that colon cancer is more prevalent among males at a relatively younger age than rectal cancer. Further, our study showed that although more patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer, the trend has shown that colon cancer is increasing at a faster rate.

20.
J Parasitol Res ; 2016: 1859737, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822385

RESUMO

In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19-189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67-244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33-161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent's level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent's level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions.

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