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1.
Langmuir ; 38(41): 12570-12580, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190908

RESUMO

Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows us to explore sliding friction phenomena in graphite contacts of nominal lateral size up to hundreds of nanometers. It is known that contact formation involves tribo-induced material transfer of graphite flakes from the graphitic substrate to the colloidal probe. In this context, sliding states with nearly vanishing friction, i.e., superlubricity, may set in. A comprehensive investigation of the transfer layer properties is mandatory to ascertain the origin of superlubricity. Here we explore the friction response of micrometric beads, of different size and pristine surface roughness, sliding on graphite under ambient conditions. We show that such tribosystems undergo a robust transition toward a low-adhesion, low-friction state dominated by mechanical interactions at one dominant tribo-induced nanocontact. Friction force spectroscopy reveals that the nanocontact can be superlubric or dissipative, in fact undergoing a load-driven transition from dissipative stick-slip to continuous superlubric sliding. This behavior is excellently described by the thermally activated, single-asperity Prandtl-Tomlinson model. Our results indicate that upon formation of the transfer layer, friction depends on the energy landscape experienced by the topographically highest tribo-induced nanoasperity. We consistently find larger dissipation when the tribo-induced nanoasperity is slid against surfaces with higher atomic corrugation than graphite, like MoS2 and WS2, in prototypical van der Waals layered heterojunctions.

2.
Adv Mater ; 33(32): e2100593, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176160

RESUMO

In strongly correlated electron materials, the electronic, spin, and charge degrees of freedom are closely intertwined. This often leads to the stabilization of emergent orders that are highly sensitive to external physical stimuli promising opportunities for technological applications. In perovskite ruthenates, this sensitivity manifests in dramatic changes of the physical properties with subtle structural details of the RuO6 octahedra, stabilizing enigmatic correlated ground states, from a hotly debated superconducting state via electronic nematicity and metamagnetic quantum criticality to ferromagnetism. Here, it is demonstrated that the rotation of the RuO6 octahedra in the surface layer of Sr2 RuO4 generates new emergent orders not observed in the bulk material. Through atomic-scale spectroscopic characterization of the low-energy electronic states, four van Hove singularities are identified in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The singularities can be directly linked to intertwined nematic and checkerboard charge order. Tuning of one of these van Hove singularities by magnetic field is demonstrated, suggesting that the surface layer undergoes a Lifshitz transition at a magnetic field of ≈32T. The results establish the surface layer of Sr2 RuO4 as an exciting 2D correlated electron system and highlight the opportunities for engineering the low-energy electronic states in these systems.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(25): 28894-28902, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482063

RESUMO

Macroscopic current-voltage measurements and nanoscopic ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) have been used to probe the Schottky barrier height (SBH) at metal/Ge(100) junctions for two metal electrodes (Au and Pt) and different metallization methods, specifically, thermal-vapor and laser-vapor deposition. Analysis of macroscopic current-voltage characteristics indicates that a SBH of 0.61-0.63 eV controls rectification at room temperature. On the other hand, BEES measured at 80 K reveals the coexistence of two distinct barriers at the nanoscale, taking values in the ranges 0.61-0.64 and 0.70-0.74 eV for the cases studied. For each metal-semiconductor junction, the macroscopic measurement agrees well with the lower barrier found with BEES. Ab initio modeling of BEES spectra ascribes the two barriers to two different atomic registries between the metals and the Ge(100) surface, a significant relevant insight for next-generation highly miniaturized Ge-based devices.

4.
Langmuir ; 34(10): 3207-3214, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482328

RESUMO

We report high-resolution surface morphology and friction force maps of polycrystalline organic thin films derived by deposition of the n-type perylene diimide semiconductor PDI8-CN2. We show that the in-plane molecular arrangement into ordered, cofacial slip-stacked rows results in a largely anisotropic surface structure, with a characteristic sawtooth corrugation of a few Ångstroms wavelength and height. Load-controlled experiments reveal different types of friction contrast between the alternating sloped and stepped regions, with transitions from atomic-scale dissipative stick-slip to smooth sliding with ultralow friction within the surface unit cell. Notably, such a rich phenomenology is captured under ambient conditions. We demonstrate that friction contrast is well reproduced by numerical simulations assuming a reduced corrugation of the tip-molecule potential nearby the step edges. We propose that the side alkyl chains pack into a compact low-surface-energy overlayer, and friction modulation reflects periodic heterogeneity of chains bending properties and subsurface anchoring to the perylene cores.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(48): 485002, 2017 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120863

RESUMO

We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

6.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6459, 2014 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248631

RESUMO

High-resolution microscopy techniques such as electron microscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy represent well-established, powerful tools for the structural characterization of adsorbed DNA molecules at the nanoscale. Notably, the analysis of DNA contours allows mapping intrinsic curvature and flexibility along the molecular backbone. This is particularly suited to address the impact of the base-pairs sequence on the local conformation of the strands and plays a pivotal role for investigations relating the inherent DNA shape and flexibility to other functional properties. Here, we introduce novel chain descriptors aimed to characterize the local intrinsic curvature and flexibility of adsorbed DNA molecules with unknown orientation. They consist of stochastic functions that couple the curvatures of two nanosized segments, symmetrically placed on the DNA contour. We show that the fine mapping of the ensemble-averaged functions along the molecular backbone generates characteristic patterns of variation that highlight all pairs of tracts with large intrinsic curvature or enhanced flexibility. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for DNA chains imaged by atomic force microscopy. Our approach paves the way for the label-free comparative analysis of duplexes, aimed to detect nanoscale conformational changes of physical or biological relevance in large sample numbers.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , DNA/química , Osteopontina/química , Osteopontina/genética , DNA/genética , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
7.
Nat Mater ; 13(2): 173-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336340

RESUMO

Understanding nanoscale friction and dissipation is central to nanotechnology. The recent detection of the electronic-friction drop caused by the onset of superconductivity in Nb by means of an ultrasensitive non-contact pendulum atomic force microscope (AFM) raised hopes that a wider variety of mechanical-dissipation mechanisms become accessible. Here, we report a multiplet of AFM dissipation peaks arising a few nanometres above the surface of NbSe2--a layered compound exhibiting an incommensurate charge-density wave (CDW). Each peak appears at a well-defined tip-surface interaction force of the order of a nanonewton, and persists up to 70 K, where the short-range order of CDWs is known to disappear. Comparison of the measurements with a theoretical model suggests that the peaks are associated with local, tip-induced 2π phase slips of the CDW, and that dissipation maxima arise from hysteretic behaviour of the CDW phase as the tip oscillates at specific distances where sharp local slips occur.

8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 40(11): e84, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22402493

RESUMO

We propose a method for the characterization of the local intrinsic curvature of adsorbed DNA molecules. It relies on a novel statistical chain descriptor, namely the ensemble averaged product of curvatures for two nanosized segments, symmetrically placed on the contour of atomic force microscopy imaged chains. We demonstrate by theoretical arguments and experimental investigation of representative samples that the fine mapping of the average product along the molecular backbone generates a characteristic pattern of variation that effectively highlights all pairs of DNA tracts with large intrinsic curvature. The centrosymmetric character of the chain descriptor enables targetting strands with unknown orientation. This overcomes a remarkable limitation of the current experimental strategies that estimate curvature maps solely from the trajectories of end-labeled molecules or palindromes. As a consequence our approach paves the way for a reliable, unbiased, label-free comparative analysis of bent duplexes, aimed to detect local conformational changes of physical or biological relevance in large sample numbers. Notably, such an assay is virtually inaccessible to the automated intrinsic curvature computation algorithms proposed so far. We foresee several challenging applications, including the validation of DNA adsorption and bending models by experiments and the discrimination of specimens for genetic screening purposes.


Assuntos
DNA/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , DNA/química , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Osteopontina/genética , Mutação Puntual
9.
Ultramicroscopy ; 109(11): 1338-42, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19608346

RESUMO

A quantitative surface reconstruction technique has been developed for the geometric characterization of three-dimensional structures by using a combined focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) instrument. A regular pattern of lines is milled at normal incidence on the sample to be characterized and an image is acquired at a large tilt angle. By analyzing the pattern under the tilted view, a quantitative estimation of surface heights is obtained. The technique has been applied to a test sample and nanoscale resolution has been achieved. The reported results are validated by a comparison with atomic force microscopy measurements.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Mãos , Humanos , Íons , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Modelos Anatômicos , Nanotecnologia , Silicones
10.
Tumori ; 94(2): 206-15, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18564609

RESUMO

In recent years there has been a rapid increase in nanotechnology applications to medicine in order to prevent and treat diseases in the human body. The established and future applications have the potential to dramatically change medical science. The present paper will give a few examples that could transform common medical procedures.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanomedicina , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , DNA de Neoplasias , Haplótipos , Humanos , Microfluídica , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanopartículas , Nanotecnologia , Nanotubos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Langmuir ; 23(18): 9293-302, 2007 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17655336

RESUMO

We report on the synthesis and characterization of elastomer colloidal AFM probes. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microparticles, obtained by water emulsification and cross-linking of viscous prepolymers, are glued to AFM cantilevers and used for contact mechanics investigations on smooth substrates: in detail cyclic loading-unloading experiments are carried on ion-sputtered mica, the deformation rate and dwell time being separately controlled. We analyze load-penetration curves and pull-off forces with models due respectively to Zener; Maugis and Barquins; and Greenwood and Johnson and account for bulk creep, interfacial viscoelasticity, and structural rearrangements at the polymer-substrate interface. A good agreement is found between experiments and theory, with a straightforward estimation of colloidal probes' material parameters. We suggest the use of such probes for novel contact mechanics experiments involving fully reversible deformations at the submicrometer scale.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Elastômeros/química , Adesividade , Coloides , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Químicos
12.
Nat Mater ; 2(4): 233-6, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12690395

RESUMO

The role of surface roughness in contact mechanics is relevant to processes ranging from adhesion to friction, wear and lubrication. It also promises to have a deep impact on applied science, including coatings technology and design of microelectromechanical systems. Despite the considerable results achieved by indentation experiments, particularly in the measurement of bulk hardness on nanometre scales, the contact behaviour of realistic surfaces, showing random multiscale roughness, remains largely unknown. Here we report experimental results concerning the mechanical response of self-affine thin films indented by a micrometric flat probe. The specimens, made of cluster-assembled carbon or of sexithienyl, an organic molecular material, were chosen as prototype systems for the broad class of self-affine fractal interfaces, today including surfaces grown under non-equilibrium conditions, fractures, manufactured metal surfaces and solidified liquid fronts. We observe that a regime exists in which roughness drives the contact mechanics: in this range surface stiffness varies by a few orders of magnitude on small but significant changes of fractal parameters. As a consequence, we demonstrate that soft solid interfaces can be appreciably strengthened by reducing both fractal dimension and surface roughness. This indicates a general route for tailoring the mechanical properties of solid bodies.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Fractais , Testes de Dureza/instrumentação , Teste de Materiais/instrumentação , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Elasticidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Dureza , Testes de Dureza/métodos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Mecânica , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Teóricos , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Transdutores
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