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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e042909, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To critically explore and describe the pathways that women who require emergency obstetrics and newborn care (EmONC) go through and to understand the delays in accessing EmONC after reaching a health facility in a conflict-affected setting. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study with two units of analysis: (1) critical incident technique (CIT) and (2) key informant interviews with health workers, patients and attendants. SETTING: Thirteen primary healthcare centres, one general private-not-for-profit hospital, one regional referral hospital and one teaching hospital in northern Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine purposively selected health workers, patients and attendants participated in key informant interviews. CIT mapped the pathways for maternal deaths and near-misses selected based on critical case purposive sampling. RESULTS: After reaching the health facility, a pregnant woman goes through a complex pathway that leads to delays in receiving EmONC. Five reasons were identified for these delays: shortage of medicines and supplies, lack of blood and functionality of operating theatres, gaps in staff coverage, gaps in staff skills, and delays in the interfacility referral system. Shortage of medicines and supplies was central in most of the pathways, characterised by three patterns: delay to treat, back-and-forth movements to buy medicines or supplies, and multiple referrals across facilities. Some women also bypassed facilities they deemed to be non-functional. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the pathway to EmONC is precarious and takes too long even after making early contact with the health facility. Improvement of skills, better management of the meagre human resource and availing essential medical supplies in health facilities may help to reduce the gaps in a facility's emergency readiness and thus improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 56, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared the risk of adverse birth outcomes between adolescents (age 12-19 years) and mothers (age 20-34 years) in four urban hospitals. METHODS: Maternal demographics, HIV status, and birth outcomes of all live births, stillbirths, and spontaneous abortions delivered from August 2015 to December 2018 were extracted from a hospital-based birth defects surveillance database. Differences in the distributions of maternal and infant characteristics by maternal age groups were tested with Pearson's chi-square. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression to compare the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes among adolescents to mothers 20-34 years. RESULTS: A total of 100,189 births were analyzed, with 11.1% among adolescent mothers and 89.0% among older mothers. Adolescent mothers had an increased risk of preterm delivery (aOR: 1.14; CI 1.06-1.23), low birth weight (aOR: 1.46; CI 1.34-1.59), and early neonatal deaths (aOR: 1.58; CI 1.23-2.02). Newborns of adolescent mothers had an increased risk of major external birth defects (aOR: 1.33; CI 1.02-1.76), specifically, gastroschisis (aOR: 3.20; CI 1.12-9.13) compared to mothers 20-34 years. The difference between the prevalence of gastroschisis among adolescent mothers (7.3 per 10,000 births; 95% CI 3.7-14.3) was statistically significant when compared to mothers 20-34 years (1.6 per 10,000 births; 95% CI 0.9-2.6). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that adolescent mothers had an increased risk for several adverse birth outcomes compared to mothers 20-34 years, similar to findings in the region and globally. Interventions are needed to improve birth outcomes in this vulnerable population.

3.
JMIR Med Educ ; 7(1): e17277, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training is a common strategy for improving the quality of facility-based maternity services and is often evaluated using Kirkpatrick's theoretical model. The results on the Kirkpatrick levels are closely related to the quality of the instructional design of a training program. The instructional design is generally defined as the "set of prescriptions for teaching methods to improve the quality of instruction with a goal of optimizing learning outcomes." OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the instructional design of a technology-enhanced simulation-based training in obstetrics, the reaction of participants, and the effect on knowledge, teamwork, and skills in a low-income country. METHODS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial was performed in a university hospital in Kampala, Uganda, with an annual delivery volume of over 31,000. In November 2014, a medical simulation center was installed with a full-body birthing simulator (Noelle S550, Gaumard Scientific), an interactive neonate (Simon S102 Newborn CPR Simulator, Gaumard Scientific), and an audio and video recording system. Twelve local obstetricians were trained and certified as medical simulation trainers. From 2014 to 2016, training was provided to 57 residents in groups of 6 to 9 students. Descriptive statistics were calculated for ten instructional design features of the training course measured by the 42-item ID-SIM (Instructional Design of a Simulation Improved by Monitoring). The Wilcoxon signed rank test was conducted to investigate the differences in scores on knowledge, the Clinical Teamwork Scale, and medical technical skills. RESULTS: The mean scores on the ten instructional design features ranged from 54.9 (95% CI 48.5-61.3) to 84.3 (95% CI 80.9-87.6) out of 100. The highest mean score was given on the feature feedback and the lowest scores on repetitive practice and controlled environment. The overall score for the training day was 92.8 out of 100 (95% CI 89.5-96.1). Knowledge improved significantly, with a test score of 63.4% (95% CI 60.7-66.1) before and 78.9% (95% CI 76.8-81.1) after the training (P<.001). The overall score on the 10-point Clinical Teamwork Scale was 6.0 (95% CI 4.4-7.6) before and 5.9 (95% CI 4.5-7.2) after the training (P=.78). Medical technical skills were scored at 55.5% (95% CI 47.2-63.8) before and 65.6% (95% CI 56.5-74.7) after training (P=.08). CONCLUSIONS: Most instructional design features of a technology-enhanced simulation-based training in obstetrics in a low-income country were scored high, although intervals were large. The overall score for the training day was high, and knowledge did improve after the training program, but no changes in teamwork and (most) medical technical skills were found. The lowest-scored instructional design features may be improved to achieve further learning aims. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN98617255; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN98617255. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s12884-020-03050-3.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With a view to inform policy for improved postabortion care, we describe abortion-related near-miss and mortality by sociodemographic risk factors and management options by pregnancy trimester in Uganda. METHODS: This secondary data analysis used an adapted WHO near-miss methodology to collect cross-sectional maternal near-miss and abortion complications data at 43 health facilities in Central and Eastern Uganda in 2016-2017. We computed abortion severe morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios per 100 000 live births, and described the proportion of cases that worsened to an abortion near-miss or death, stratified by geographical region and trimester. We tested for association between independent variables and abortion near-miss, and obtained prevalence ratios for association between second trimester near-miss and independent demographic and management indicators. We assessed health facility readiness for postabortion care provision in Central and Eastern regions. RESULTS: Of 3315 recorded severe abortion morbidity cases, 1507 were near-misses. Severe abortion morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios were 2063, 938 and 23 per 100 000 live births, respectively. Abortion-related mortality ratios were 11 and 57 per 100 000 in Central and Eastern regions, respectively. Abortion near-miss cases were significantly associated with referral (p<0.001). Second trimester had greater abortion mortality than first trimester. Eastern region had greater abortion-related morbidity and mortality than Central region with facilities in the former characterised by inferior readiness to provide postabortion care. CONCLUSIONS: Uganda has a major abortion near-miss morbidity and mortality; with mortality higher in the second trimester. Life-saving commodities are lacking especially in Eastern region compromising facility readiness for postabortion care provision.

5.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 18, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care. METHODS: The costs of direct hospital care of women who received oxytocin or heat-stable carbetocin for prevention of PPH in selected tertiary care facilities in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda were assessed. We collected data from all women who had PPH, as well as a random sample of women without PPH. Cost data was collected for the cost of stay, PPH interventions, transfusions and medications for 2966 women. We analyzed the difference in cost of care at a facility level between women who experienced a PPH event and those who did not. Key findings The mean cost of care of a woman experiencing PPH in the study sites in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda exceeded the cost of care of a woman who did not experience PPH by between 21% and 309%. There was a large variation in cost across hospitals within a country and across countries. CONCLUSION: Our results quantify the increased cost of PPH of up to 4.1 times that for a birth without PPH. PPH cost information can help countries to evaluate options across different conditions and in the formulation of appropriate guidelines for intrapartum care, including rational selection of quality-assured, effective medicines. This information can be applied to national assessment and adaptation of international recommendations such as the World Health Organization's recommendations on uterotonics for the prevention of PPH or other interventions used to treat PPH. Trial registration HRP Trial A65870; UTN U1111-1162-8519; ACTRN12614000870651; CTRI/2016/05/006969, EUDRACT 2014-004445-26. Date of registration 14 August 2014 Access to quality, effective lifesaving medicines in low and middle-income countries remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from bleeding after childbirth. Information on to what extent treatments for bleeding increases the cost of care of women after childbirth is important for informed resource allocation. We collected data from all women who had bleeding after childbirth, as well as a random sample of women without bleeding in selected hospitals in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda. Cost data was collected for the cost of stay and interventions to manage bleeding for 2966 women. We compared the difference in cost of care between women who experienced a bleeding event and those who did not. The mean cost of care of a woman with bleeding in the study sites exceeded the cost of care of a woman who did not experience PPH by between 21% and 309%. There was a large variation in cost across hospitals within a country and across countries. Our results indicate an increased cost of bleeding of up to 4.1 times that for birth without bleeding. Effective prevention reduces the cost of care. Cost information can help countries to evaluate options across different conditions and in the formulation of appropriate guidelines for intrapartum care, including rational selection of quality-assured, effective medicines. This information can be applied to national assessment and adaptation of international recommendations such as the World Health Organization's recommendations on medications for the prevention of bleeding after childbirth or other interventions used to treat bleeding.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid reduction of HIV viral load is paramount to prevent peripartum transmission in women diagnosed late in pregnancy. We investigated dolutegravir population pharmacokinetics in maternal plasma, cord, breastmilk and infant plasma of DolPHIN-1 participants (NCT02245022) presenting with untreated HIV late in pregnancy (28-36 weeks gestation). METHODS: Pregnant women from Uganda and South Africa were randomised (1:1) to daily dolutegravir (50 mg) or efavirenz-based therapy. Dolutegravir pharmacokinetic sampling (0-24 hours) was undertaken 14 days after treatment initiation and within 1-3 weeks of delivery, with matched maternal and cord samples at delivery. Mothers switched to efavirenz and maternal and infant plasma and breastmilk samples taken 24, 48 or 72 hours post-switch. Nonlinear mixed effects (NONMEM v. 7.4) was used to describe dolutegravir in all matrices and to evaluate covariates. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women and 22 infants were included. Maternal dolutegravir was described by a two-compartment model linked to a fetal and breastmilk compartment. Cord and breastmilk to maternal plasma ratios were 1.279 (1.209-1.281) and 0.033 (0.021-0.050), respectively. Infant dolutegravir was described by breastmilk-to-infant and infant elimination rate constants. No covariate effects were observed. Predicted infant dolutegravir half-life and time to protein adjusted-IC90 (0.064 mg/L) for those above this threshold were 37.9 hours (22.1-63.5) and 108.9 hours [(18.6-129.6); 4.5 days (0.8-5.4); n=13]. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding contributed relatively little to infant plasma exposures but a median of 4.5 days additional prophylaxis to some of the breastfed infants was observed following maternal dolutegravir cessation (3-15 days postpartum), which waned with time postpartum as transplacental dolutegravir cleared.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the storage conditions of oxytocin in a health facility in a low- income country with a tropical climate, as suboptimal storage may lead to ineffectiveness of drugs essential to prevent and treat post-partum hemorrhage. METHODS: At Mulago National Referral Hospital (28 000 - 33 000 deliveries/year) in Kampala, Uganda, temperature logging Safe-Rx cards were placed in boxes of oxytocin and in every known storage location. The route of the boxes through the hospital was tracked for 54 days, and storage conditions were observed. RESULTS: Oxytocin was stored within the recommended temperature (2-8°C) 24% of the time. The average temperature measured within the oxytocin boxes was 18.2°C, with a minimum of -2.3 and maximum of 30.4°C. Six out of twelve known storage places had a refrigerator, yet not one location stored medication at the recommended temperature constantly. The average temperature in the storage places ranged from 9.5 to 27.6°C, with a minimum temperature of 2.3°C and maximum of 30.9°C. CONCLUSION: Oxytocin is not stored in the recommended temperature range for the majority of time. The presence of refrigerators does not ensure adherence to advised temperature storage conditions.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(22): 2138-2147, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Face-mask ventilation is the most common resuscitation method for birth asphyxia. Ventilation with a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has potential advantages over face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation in low-income countries, but whether the use of an LMA reduces mortality and morbidity among neonates with asphyxia is unknown. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label, superiority trial in Uganda, we randomly assigned neonates who required positive-pressure ventilation to be treated by a midwife with an LMA or with face-mask ventilation. All the neonates had an estimated gestational age of at least 34 weeks, an estimated birth weight of at least 2000 g, or both. The primary outcome was a composite of death within 7 days or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization. RESULTS: Complete follow-up data were available for 99.2% of the neonates. A primary outcome event occurred in 154 of 563 neonates (27.4%) in the LMA group and 144 of 591 (24.4%) in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.51; P = 0.26). Death within 7 days occurred in 21.7% of the neonates in the LMA group and 18.4% of those in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.63), and admission to the NICU with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization occurred in 11.2% and 10.1%, respectively (adjusted relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.93). Findings were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis in which neonates with missing data were counted as having had a primary outcome event in the LMA group and as not having had such an event in the face-mask group. The frequency of predefined intervention-related adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In neonates with asphyxia, the LMA was safe in the hands of midwives but was not superior to face-mask ventilation with respect to early neonatal death and moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (Funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Center for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health; NeoSupra ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03133572.).

9.
Health Care Women Int ; : 1-15, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030977

RESUMO

Rapid dissemination of mobile technology provides substantial opportunity for overcoming challenges reaching rural and marginalized populations. We assessed feasibility and acceptability of longitudinal mobile data capture among women undergoing fistula surgery in Uganda (n = 60) in 2014-2015. Participants were followed for 12 months following surgery, with data captured quarterly, followed by interviews at 12 months. Participant retention was high (97%). Most respondents reported no difficulty with mobile data capture (range 93%-100%), and preferred mobile interview (88%-100%). Mobile data capture saved 1000 person-hours of transit and organizational time. Phone-based mobile data collection provided social support. Our results support this method for longitudinal studies among geographically and socially marginalized populations.

10.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 62, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are increasing and do account for significant premature death. The expertise of health care providers is critical to downstaging cancer at diagnosis and improving survival in low- and middle-income countries. We set out to determine the training needs of health care providers for a comprehensive oncology services package in selected hospitals in Uganda, in order to inform capacity development intervention to improve cancer outcomes in the East African region. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using the WHO Hennessey-Hicks questionnaire to identify the training needs of health workers involved in cancer care, across 22 hospitals in Uganda. Data were captured in real time using the Open Data Kit platform from which the data was exported to Stata version 15 for analysis using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Somers-Delta. RESULTS: There were 199 respondent health professionals who were predominately female (146/199, 73.37%), with an average age of 38.97 years. There were 158/199 (79.40%) nurses, 24/199 (12.06%) medical doctors and 17/199 (8.54%) allied health professionals. Overall, the research and audit domain had the highest ranking for all the health workers (Somers-D = 0.60). The respondent's level of education had a significant effect on the observed ranking (P value = 0.03). Most of the continuing medical education (CME) topics suggested by the participants were in the clinical task-related category. CONCLUSION: The "research and audit" domain was identified as the priority area for training interventions to improve oncology services in Uganda. There are opportunities for addressing the identified training needs with an expanded cancer CME programme content, peer support networks and tailored training for the individual health care provider.

11.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760813

RESUMO

Background: Heart rate (HR) assessment is crucial in neonatal resuscitation, but pulse oximetry (PO) and electrocardiography (ECG) are rarely accessible in low-resource to middle-resource settings. This study evaluated a free-of-charge smartphone application, NeoTap, which records HR with a screen-tapping method bypassing mental arithmetic calculations. Methods: This observational study was carried out during three time periods between May 2015 and January 2019 in Uganda in three phases. In phase 1, a metronome rate (n=180) was recorded by low-end users (midwives) using NeoTap. In phase 2, HR (n=69) in breathing neonates was recorded by high-end users (paediatricians) using NeoTap versus PO. In phase 3, HR (n=235) in non-breathing neonates was recorded by low-end users using NeoTap versus ECG. Results: In high-end users the mean difference was 3 beats per minute (bpm) higher with NeoTap versus PO (95% agreement limits -14 to 19 bpm), with acquisition time of 5 seconds. In low-end users, the mean difference was 6 bpm lower with NeoTap versus metronome (95% agreement limits -26 to 14 bpm) and 3 bpm higher with NeoTap versus ECG in non-breathing neonates (95% agreement limits -48 to 53 bpm), with acquisition time of 2.7 seconds. The agreement between NeoTap and ECG was good in the HR categories of 60-99 bpm and ≥100 bpm; HR <60 bpm had few measurements (kappa index 0.71, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.79). Conclusion: HR could be accurately and rapidly assessed using a smartphone application in breathing neonates in a low-resource setting. Clinical assessment by low-end users was less accurate with wider CI but still adds clinically important information in non-breathing neonates. The authors suggest low-end users may benefit from auscultation-focused training. More research is needed to evaluate its feasibility in clinical use.

12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(11): 2091-2102, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573842

RESUMO

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with bone loss, but data are limited in lactation, when physiological bone mineral mobilization is occurring. This research charted changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) during and after lactation in Ugandan women with HIV (WWH) initiated onto ART in pregnancy, compared to women without HIV (REF). One-hundred WWH on tenofovir-based ART and 100 REF were enrolled in pregnancy. Lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and whole-body-less-head (WBLH) aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 2, 14, and 26 weeks of lactation, and at 3 months postlactation. The primary outcome was the difference between groups in mean percent change in LS aBMD between 2 and 14 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed in hierarchical repeated measures ANOVA models that corrected for multiple testing. Median age was 23.4 (IQR, 21.0 to 26.8) years. WWH had lower body weight. aBMD decreased in both groups during lactation, but WWH had greater decreases at TH (2-to-26 weeks: WWH [n = 63] -5.9% [95% CI, -6.4 to -5.4] versus REF [n = 64] -4.3% [95% CI, -4.8 to -3.8]; group*time point interaction p = .008). Decreases in LS aBMD were similar in WWH and REF (2-to-26 weeks: -2.0% [95% CI, -2.5 to -1.5]), although there was a tendency toward a smaller decrease in WWH between 2 and 14 weeks (WWH [n = 77] -1.8% [95% CI, -2.2 to -1.4] versus REF [n = 69] -2.9% [95% CI, -3.3 to -2.5]; group*time point interaction p = .08). Postlactation, LS aBMD was higher relative to week 2 in both groups. TH and WBLH aBMD did not return to week 2 values in WWH but did in REF (TH postlactation versus week 2: WWH [n = 61] -3.1% [95% CI, -3.6 to -2.6]; REF [n = 29] +0.1% [95% CI, -0.9 to +1.1]). These data show accentuated bone loss during lactation and only partial skeletal recovery by 3 months postlactation in Ugandan WWH on tenofovir-based ART. Studies are ongoing to understand longer-term consequences for bone health. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033043, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499255

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Mulago Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda, antenatal clinic. PARTICIPANTS: We randomly selected 340 pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit at Mulago Hospital antenatal clinic. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity. RESULTS: We recruited 340 participants, with a mean age of 27±5.7 years, and a median gravidity of 3. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in Mulago Hospital, in our study, was 2.9% (95% CI 1.58% to 5.40%, n=10). Factors positively associated with hepatitis B virus infection were: marital status (adjusted OR (aOR)=11.37, p=0.002), having a hepatitis B positive family member (aOR=49.52, p<0.001) and having had a blood or body fluid splash to mucous membranes from a hepatitis B positive patient (aOR=61.69, p=0.015). Other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, number of sexual partners, HIV serostatus, piercing of ears and history of blood transfusion were not significantly associated with hepatitis B virus infection in this study. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Mulago Hospital was of intermediate endemicity. We found that marital status, having a hepatitis B positive family member at home and having had a blood or body fluid splash to mucous membranes from a hepatitis B positive patient were independently associated with hepatitis B infection. Factors such as age, HIV status, history of blood transfusion, piercing of ears and social status were not associated with hepatitis B status in this study.

14.
Sex Health ; 17(3): 214-222, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527365

RESUMO

Background Maternal syphilis causes poor birth outcomes, including congenital syphilis. Testing and treatment of partners prevents reinfection, but strategies to improve partner attendance are failing. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three partner notification strategies. METHODS: Pregnant women with a positive point-of-care treponemal test at three antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Kampala, Uganda, were randomised 1:1:1 to receive either notification slips (NS; standard of care), NS and a text messages (SMS) or NS and telephone calls. The primary outcome was the proportion of partners who attended the ANC and were treated for syphilis. RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2016, 17130 pregnant women were screened; 601 (3.5%) had a positive treponemal result, and 442 were enrolled in the study. Only 81 of 442 partners (18.3%; 23/152 (15.1%), 31/144 (21.5%) and 27/146 (18.5%) in the NS only, NS + SMS and NS + telephone call groups respectively) attended an ANC for follow-up; there were no significant differences between the groups. Twelve per cent of women attended the ANC with their male partner, and this proportion increased over time. Partner non-treatment was independently associated with adverse birth outcomes (odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 2.36-3.21; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Only 18.3% of partners of pregnant women who tested positive for syphilis received treatment. Female partners of non-attendant men had worse birth outcomes. Encouraging men to accompany women to the ANC and testing both may address the urgent need to treat partners of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa to reduce poor fetal outcomes.

15.
Lancet HIV ; 7(5): e332-e339, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy is associated with not achieving viral suppression before giving birth and increased mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We aimed to investigate virological suppression before giving birth with dolutegravir compared with efavirenz, when initiated during the third trimester. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label trial, DolPHIN-2, we recruited pregnant women in South Africa and Uganda aged at least 18 years, with untreated but confirmed HIV infection and an estimated gestation of at least 28 weeks, initiating ART in third trimester. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to dolutegravir-based or efavirenz-based therapy. HIV viral load was measured 7 days and 28 days after antiretroviral initiation, at 36 weeks' gestation, and at the post-partum visit (0-14 days post partum). The primary efficacy outcome was a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at the first post-partum visit, and the primary safety outcome was the occurrence of drug-related adverse events in mothers and infants until the post-partum visit. Longer-term follow-up of mothers and infants continues. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03249181. FINDINGS: Between Jan 23, and Aug 15, 2018, we randomly assigned 268 mothers to dolutegravir (135) or efavirenz (133). All mothers and their infants were included in the safety analysis, and 250 mothers (125 in the dolutegravir group, 125 in the efavirenz group) and their infants in efficacy analyses, by intention-to-treat analyses. The median duration of maternal therapy at birth was 55 days (IQR 33-77). 89 (74%) of 120 in the dolutegravir group had viral loads less than 50 copies per mL, compared with 50 (43%) of 117 in the efavirenz group (risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·31-2·06). 30 (22%) of 137 mothers in the dolutegravir group reported serious adverse events compared with 14 (11%) of 131 in the efavirenz group (p=0·013), particularly surrounding pregnancy and puerperium. We found no differences in births less than 37 weeks and less than 34 weeks gestation (16·4% vs 3·3%, across both groups). Three stillbirths in the dolutegravir group and one in the efavirenz group were considered unrelated to treatment. Three infant HIV infections were detected, all in the dolutegravir group, and were considered likely to be in-utero transmissions. INTERPRETATION: Our data support the revision to WHO guidelines recommending the transition to dolutegravir in first-line ART for all adults, regardless of pregnancy or child-bearing potential. FUNDING: Unitaid.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Piridonas , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 694, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'Primary HIV Prevention among Pregnant and Lactating Ugandan Women' (PRIMAL) randomized controlled trial aimed to assess an enhanced counseling strategy linked to extended postpartum repeat HIV testing and enhanced counseling among 820 HIV-negative pregnant and lactating women aged 18-49 years and 410 of their male partners to address the first pillar of the WHO Global Strategy for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV transmission (PMTCT). This paper presents findings of qualitative studies aimed at evaluating participants' and service providers' perceptions on the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and at understanding the effects of the intervention on risk reduction, couple communication, and emotional support from women's partners. METHODS: PRIMAL Study participants were enrolled from two antenatal care clinics and randomized 1:1 to an intervention or control arm. Both arms received repeat sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV testing at enrolment, labor and delivery, and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postpartum. The intervention consisted of enhanced quarterly counseling on HIV risk reduction, couple communication, family planning and nutrition delivered by study counselors through up to 24 months post-partum. Control participants received repeat standard post-test counseling. Qualitative data were collected from intervention women participants, counsellors and midwives at baseline, midline and end of the study through 18 focus group discussions and 44 key informant interviews. Data analysis followed a thematic approach using framework analysis and a matrix-based system for organizing, reducing, and synthesizing data. RESULTS: At baseline, FGD participants mentioned multiple sexual partners and lack of condom use as the main risks for pregnant and lactating women to acquire HIV. The main reasons for having multiple sexual partners were 1) the cultural practice not to have sex in the late pre-natal and early post-natal period; 2) increased sexual desire during pregnancy; 3) alcohol abuse; 4) poverty; and 5) conflict in couples. Consistent condom use at baseline was limited due to lack of knowledge and low acceptance of condom use in couples. The majority of intervention participants enrolled as couples felt enhanced counselling improved understanding, faithfulness, mutual support and appreciation within their couple. Another benefit mentioned by participants was improvement of couple communication and negotiation, as well as daily decision-making around sexual needs, family planning and condom use. Participants stressed the importance of providing counselling services to all couples. CONCLUSION: This study shows that enhanced individual and couple counselling linked to extended repeat HIV and STI testing and focusing on HIV prevention, couple communication, family planning and nutrition is a feasible and acceptable intervention that could enhance risk reduction programs among pregnant and lactating women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01882998, date of registration 21st June 2013.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Educação Sexual , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148 Suppl 1: 42-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital fistula is associated with significant physical, psychological, and economic consequences; however, a knowledge and practice gap exists around services adjunct to fistula surgery. OBJECTIVES: To examine rehabilitation and reintegration services provided adjunct to genital fistula surgery, map existing programming and outcomes, and identify areas for additional research. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the published and grey literature from January 2000 to June 2019. Two reviewers screened articles and extracted data using standardized methods. SELECTION CRITERIA: Research and programmatic articles describing service provision in addition to female genital fistula surgery were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Of 3047 published articles and 2623 unpublished documents identified, 26 and 55, respectively, were analyzed. MAIN RESULTS: Programming identified included combinations of health education, physical therapy, social support, psychosocial counseling, and economic empowerment, largely in sub-Saharan Africa. Improvements were noted in physical and psychosocial health. CONCLUSIONS: Existing literature supports holistic fistula care through adjunct reintegration programming. Improving the evidence base requires implementing robust study designs, increasing reporting detail, and standardizing outcomes across studies. Increased financing for holistic fistula care is critical for developing and supporting programming to ensure positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Fístula Vesicovaginal/reabilitação , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Apoio Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia
18.
Cult Health Sex ; 22(3): 352-367, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035913

RESUMO

Fistula-related stigma is common. The absence of a unifying conceptual framework prevents a nuanced understanding of the nature of fistula-related stigma, comparison across contexts and the ability to contrast with other stigmas. It also hinders intervention development. We conducted in-depth interviews or focus groups with 60 women who had undergone fistula surgery 6-24 months prior at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 2014. Transcripts were analysed for experiences and consequences of enacted, anticipated and internalised stigma. Narratives revealed experiences with enacted stigma, including gossip, verbal abuse and social exclusion. Women also anticipated and feared stigma in the future. Internalised stigma reports revealed shame and low self-esteem: self-worth reduction, feeling disgraced and envisioning no future. Consequences included social isolation, changes to normal activities, non-disclosure and poor mental health. Refining stigma theory to specific conditions has resulted in a more nuanced understanding of stigma dimensions, manifestations, mechanisms and consequences, permitting comparison across contexts and populations and the development of stigma-reduction interventions. These lessons should be applied to fistula, acknowledging unique features: concealability, the potential for treatment, lack of community awareness and the social consequences of stillbirth. Reducing fistula-related stigma requires timely surgery and supportive care, stigma-reduction interventions and addressing the complex societal structures that perpetuate fistula.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e027991, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female genital fistula is a debilitating traumatic injury, largely birth-associated, globally affecting up to 2 million women, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula has significant physical, psychological and economic consequences. Women often face challenges in reintegrating and resuming prior roles despite successful surgery. Synthesising the evidence on services adjunct to fistula surgery and their outcomes is important for developing the evidence base for best practices and identifying research priorities. This scoping review seeks to examine the range of rehabilitation and reintegration services provided as adjunct to genital fistula surgery, map the existing programming and outcomes, and identify areas for additional research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our scoping review is informed by existing methodological frameworks and will be conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-ScR guidelines. The search strategy will be applied to nine biomedical, public health and social science databases. The initial search was completed on 27 September 2018. Grey literature will be identified through targeted Google searches and from organisational websites identified as relevant by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Campaign to End Fistula. We will iteratively build our search strategy through term harvesting and review, and search reference lists of reports and articles to identify additional studies. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, followed by full-text screening of all potentially relevant articles and standardised data extraction. Articles eligible for inclusion will discuss research or programmatic efforts around service provision in adjunct to surgery among females with genital fistula. Data will be presented in summary tables accompanied by narrative description. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for a scoping review. Our results can be used to inform policy, serve as support for funding and development of reintegration programmes and highlight areas for subsequent research. Results will be disseminated at relevant conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Fístula Vaginal/reabilitação , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estigma Social , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia
20.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002895, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global transition to use of dolutegravir (DTG) in WHO-preferred regimens for HIV treatment is limited by lack of knowledge on use in pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship between drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics, PK), including in breastmilk, and impact on viral suppression when initiated in the third trimester (T3). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In DolPHIN-1, HIV-infected treatment-naïve pregnant women (28-36 weeks of gestation, age 26 (19-42), weight 67kg (45-119), all Black African) in Uganda and South Africa were randomised 1:1 to dolutegravir (DTG) or efavirenz (EFV)-containing ART until 2 weeks post-partum (2wPP), between 9th March 2017 and 16th January 2018, with follow-up until six months postpartum. The primary endpoint was pharmacokinetics of DTG in women and breastfed infants; secondary endpoints included maternal and infant safety and viral suppression. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of DTG was undertaken at day 14 and 2wPP following administration of a medium-fat breakfast, with additional paired sampling between maternal plasma and cord blood, breastmilk and infant plasma. No differences in median baseline maternal age, gestation (31 vs 30 weeks), weight, obstetric history, viral load (4.5 log10 copies/mL both arms) and CD4 count (343 vs 466 cells/mm3) were observed between DTG (n = 29) and EFV (n = 31) arms. Although DTG Ctrough was below the target 324ng/mL (clinical EC90) in 9/28 (32%) mothers in the third trimester, transfer across the placenta (121% of plasma concentrations) and into breastmilk (3% of plasma concentrations), coupled with slower elimination, led to significant infant plasma exposures (3-8% of maternal exposures). Both regimens were well-tolerated with no significant differences in frequency of adverse events (two on DTG-ART, one on EFV-ART, all considered unrelated to drug). No congenital abnormalities were observed. DTG resulted in significantly faster viral suppression (P = 0.02) at the 2wPP visit, with median time to <50 copies/mL of 32 vs 72 days. Limitations related to the requirement to initiate EFV-ART prior to randomisation, and to continue DTG for only two weeks postpartum. CONCLUSION: Despite low plasma DTG exposures in the third trimester, transfer across the placenta and through breastfeeding was observed in this study, with persistence in infants likely due to slower metabolic clearance. HIV RNA suppression <50 copies/mL was twice as fast with DTG compared to EFV, suggesting DTG has potential to reduce risk of vertical transmission in mothers who are initiated on treatment late in pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02245022.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/farmacocinética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacocinética , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacocinética , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacocinética , Adulto , Alquinos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos , Feminino , HIV/genética , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Troca Materno-Fetal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Gravidez , Piridonas , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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