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2.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 19: 100604, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463370

RESUMO

Oxysterols are 27-carbon oxidation products of cholesterol metabolism. Oxysterols possess several biological actions, including the promotion of cell death. Here, we examined the ability of 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), cholestane-3ß-5α-6ß-triol (triol), and a mixture of 5α-cholestane-3ß,6ß-diol and 5α-cholestane-3ß,6α-diol (diol) to promote cell death in a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). We determined cell viability, after 24-h incubation with oxysterols. These oxysterols promoted apoptosis. At least part of the observed effects promoted by 7-KC and triol arose from an increase in the expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway mediator, smoothened. However, this increased expression was apparently independent of sonic hedgehog expression, which did not change. Moreover, these oxysterols led to increased expression of LXRα, which is involved in cellular cholesterol efflux, and the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. Diols did not affect these pathways. These results suggested that the sonic hedgehog and LXRα pathways might be involved in the apoptotic process promoted by 7-KC and triol.

3.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 7305028, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881226

RESUMO

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important pathophysiological role in pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Previously, we demonstrated that serum MIF is increased in pediatric PHT associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). In the present study, we determined possible associations between MIF levels, hemodynamic and histological parameters, and mitochondrial carbamyl-phosphate synthetase I (CPSI) T1405N polymorphism in a similar population. The asparagine 1405 variant (related to A alleles in the C-to-A transversion) has been shown to be advantageous in pediatric PHT compared to the threonine 1405 variant (C alleles). Forty-one patients were enrolled (aged 2-36 months) and subsequently divided into 2 groups after diagnostic evaluation: the high-pulmonary blood flow (high PBF) group (pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio 2.58 (2.21-3.01), geometric mean with 95% CI) and the high-pulmonary vascular resistance (high PVR) group (pulmonary vascular resistance 6.12 (4.78-7.89) Wood units × m2). Serum MIF was measured using a chemiluminescence assay. The CPSI polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by high-resolution melting analysis. Medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries was assessed by the histological examination of biopsy specimens. Serum MIF was elevated in patients compared to controls (p = 0.045), particularly in the high-PVR group (n = 16) (p = 0.022) and in subjects with the AC CPSI T1405N genotype (n = 16) compared to those with the CC genotype (n = 25) (p = 0.017). Patients with high-PVR/AC-genotype profile (n = 9) had the highest MIF levels (p = 0.030 compared with the high-PBF/CC-genotype subgroup, n = 18). In high-PVR/AC-genotype patients, the medial wall thickness of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries was directly related to MIF levels (p = 0.033). There were no patients with the relatively rare AA genotype in the study population. Thus, in the advantageous scenario of the asparagine 1405 variant (AC heterozygosity in this study), heightened pulmonary vascular resistance in CHD-PHT is associated with medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries where MIF chemokine very likely plays a biological role.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/sangue , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Hemodinâmica/genética , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Lactente
4.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 14(2): 246-255, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideally, vasodilator therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) should have a favorable impact on markers of vascular dysfunction, in addition to their known effects on hemodynamics, cardiac function, and patient's physical capacity. METHODS: We analyzed circulating (plasma) markers of endothelial and platelet activation/dysfunction (enzyme-linked immunoassays) in the specific setting of advanced PAH associated with congenital heart disease, during the course of sildenafil and tadalafil therapies. Thirty-one patients were enrolled (age 10-54 years), most of them with chronic hypoxemia and elevated hematocrit. Drugs were administered orally for 6 months (sildenafil [n = 16], 20 mg t.i.d.; tadalafil [n = 15], single daily dose of 40 mg). Measurements were performed at baseline, and 90 and 180 days. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients had elevated baseline ß-thromboglobulin (ß-TG, P = .002), P-selectin (P = .027), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, P = .009), and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag, P = .010). Thrombomodulin was importantly reduced (TM, P < .001), while soluble CD40 Ligand was not changed (P = .320). Tadalafil administration was associated with improvement of ß-TG (P = .004), t-PA (P = .003) and TM (P = .046) levels, while P-selectin was improved by sildenafil treatment only (P = .034). VWF:Ag improved transiently in the sildenafil group (P = .019). Both therapies were associated with improvement of the physical capacity (functional class and distance walked during the 6-minute test, P < .05), hematocrit and hemoglobin level (P < .05), and health-related quality of life (physical and mental components, P < .05). CONCLUSION: In PAH associated with congenital heart disease, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors seem to have beneficial actions at microcirculatory level, beyond the proposed effects as vasodilators.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Citrato de Sildenafila/administração & dosagem , Tadalafila/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/administração & dosagem , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 505(4): 1043-1049, 2018 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309650

RESUMO

Oxysterols are 27-carbon oxidation products of cholesterol metabolism. Oxysterols possess several biological actions, including the promotion of cell death. Here, we examined the ability of several oxysterols to induce short-term death in cancerous (human breast cancer and mouse skin melanoma cells) and non-cancerous (human endothelial cells and lung fibroblasts) cell lines. We determined cell viability, Ki67 expression, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis after 24-h incubations with oxysterols. We found that different oxysterols had different effects on the studied parameters. Moreover, the effects depended on cell type and oxysterol concentration. Three cytotoxic oxysterols (7-ketocholesterol, cholestane-3ß-5α-6ß-triol, and 5α-cholestane-3ß,6ß-diol) inhibited the S phase and stimulated the G0/G1 or G2/M phases. These oxysterols promoted apoptosis, determined with Annexin V and propidium iodide assays. These results showed that different oxysterols have cytotoxic effects depending on the cell line. The findings suggest a potential pharmacological utility of cytotoxic oxysterols.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxisteróis/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Oncotarget ; 9(18): 14160-14174, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581835

RESUMO

Oxysterols are cholesterol oxygenated derivatives which possess several biological actions. Among oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is known to induce cell death. Here, we hypothesized that 7KC cytotoxicity could be applied in cancer therapeutics. 7KC was incorporated into a lipid core nanoemulsion. As a cellular model the murine melanoma cell line B16F10 was used. The nanoparticle (7KCLDE) uptake into tumor cells was displaced by increasing amounts of low-density-lipoproteins (LDL) suggesting a LDL-receptor-mediated cell internalization. 7KCLDE was mainly cytostatic, which led to an accumulation of polyploid cells. Nevertheless, a single dose of 7KCLDE killed roughly 10% of melanoma cells. In addition, it was observed dissipation of the transmembrane potential, evidenced with flow cytometry; presence of autophagic vacuoles, visualized and quantified with flow cytometry and acridine orange; and presence of myelin figures, observed with ultrastructural microscopy. 7KCLDE impaired cytokenesis was accompanied by changes in cellular morphology into a fibroblastoid shape which is supported by cytoskeletal rearrangements, as shown by the increased actin polymerization. 7KCLDE was injected into B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. 7KCLDE accumulated in the liver and tumor. In melanoma tumor 7KCLDE promoted a >50% size reduction, enlarged the necrotic area, and reduced intratumoral vasculature. 7KCLDE increased the survival rates of animals, without hematologic or liver toxicity. Although more pre-clinical studies should be performed, our preliminary results suggested that 7KCLDE is a promising novel preparation for cancer chemotherapy.

7.
J Cell Physiol ; 233(7): 5420-5430, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219187

RESUMO

Neonatal cardiomyocytes are instrumental for disease modeling, but the effects of different cell extraction methods on basic cell biological processes remain poorly understood. We assessed the influence of two popular methods to extract rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, Pre-plating (PP), and Percoll (PC) on cell structure, metabolism, and function. Cardiomyocytes obtained from PP showed higher gene expression for troponins, titin, and potassium and sodium channels compared to PC. Also, PP cells displayed higher levels of troponin I protein. Cells obtained from PC displayed higher lactate dehydrogenase activity and lactate production than PP cells, indicating higher anaerobic metabolism after 8 days of culture. In contrast, reactive oxygen species levels were higher in PP cells as indicated by ethidium and hydroxyethidium production. Consistent with these data, protein nitration was higher in PP cells, as well as nitrite accumulation in cell medium. Moreover, PP cells showed higher global intracellular calcium under basal and 1 mM isoprenaline conditions. In a calcium-transient assessment under electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz), PP cells displayed higher calcium amplitude than cardiomyocytes obtained from PC and using a traction force microscope technique we observed that PP cardiomyocytes showed the highest relaxation. Collectively, we demonstrated that extraction methods influence parameters related to cell structure, metabolism, and function. Overall, PP derived cells are more active and mature than PC cells, displaying higher contractile function and generating more reactive oxygen species. On the other hand, PC derived cells display higher anaerobic metabolism, despite comparable high yields from both protocols.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Troponina I/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Citoplasma/genética , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
8.
Oncotarget ; 9(18): p. 14160-14174, 2018.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15289

RESUMO

Oxysterols are cholesterol oxygenated derivatives which possess several biological actions. Among oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is known to induce cell death. Here, we hypothesized that 7KC cytotoxicity could be applied in cancer therapeutics. 7KC was incorporated into a lipid core nanoemulsion. As a cellular model the murine melanoma cell line B16F10 was used. The nanoparticle (7KCLDE) uptake into tumor cells was displaced by increasing amounts of low-density-lipoproteins (LDL) suggesting a LDL-receptor-mediated cell internalization. 7KCLDE was mainly cytostatic, which led to an accumulation of polyploid cells. Nevertheless, a single dose of 7KCLDE killed roughly 10% of melanoma cells. In addition, it was observed dissipation of the transmembrane potential, evidenced with flow cytometry; presence of autophagic vacuoles, visualized and quantified with flow cytometry and acridine orange; and presence of myelin figures, observed with ultrastructural microscopy. 7KCLDE impaired cytokenesis was accompanied by changes in cellular morphology into a fibroblastoid shape which is supported by cytoskeletal rearrangements, as shown by the increased actin polymerization. 7KCLDE was injected into B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. 7KCLDE accumulated in the liver and tumor. In melanoma tumor 7KCLDE promoted a > 50% size reduction, enlarged the necrotic area, and reduced intratumoral vasculature. 7KCLDE increased the survival rates of animals, without hematologic or liver toxicity. Although more pre-clinical studies should be performed, our preliminary results suggested that 7KCLDE is a promising novel preparation for cancer chemotherapy.

9.
Pulm Circ ; 7(3): 635-642, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704136

RESUMO

In patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, life expectancy is usually longer than in patients with other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We conducted a cohort study in which patients were followed over a long period of time in an attempt to identify potential predictors of clinical outcomes. Sixty-seven treatment-naïve patients were enrolled (age range = 12-60 years; median age = 33 years). Baseline demographic, diagnostic, and functional parameters, plasma levels of endothelial dysfunction markers, and treatment-related data were tested for possible correlations with event-free survival. Patients were started on oral PAH drugs at the beginning of follow-up (n = 23), during follow-up (n = 33), or remained untreated (n = 11). The duration of follow-up was 0.54-9.89 years (median = 7.13 years), with an overall survival rate of 82% and an event-free survival rate of 70%. The estimated mean for event-free survival time was 7.71 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.86-8.55 years). Of the 16 variables that were analyzed, the duration of exposure to PAH drugs was identified as an independent protective factor (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.25 for quartiles, 95% CI = 0.14-0.47, P < 0.001). The initial functional class (HR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.01-9.34; P = 0.048), the severity of right ventricular dysfunction (HR = 2.51 [mild, moderate or severe dysfunction]; 95% CI = 1.22-5.19; P = 0.013) and plasma von Willebrand factor concentration (HR = 1.74 for quartiles; 95% CI = 1.07-2.83; P = 0.026) were identified as risk factors. The length of exposure to oral PAH therapies influences survival favorably in Eisenmenger patients. This may be of interest for communities where access to medications is restricted.

10.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 207(Pt B): 223-230, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669640

RESUMO

Oxysterols are oxidized products of cholesterol that play several roles in various pathophysiological processes, including the control of lipid metabolism, immunological processes, and cytotoxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells with properties of self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into other cell types, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the effects of oxysterols on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and the main signaling pathways involved in this process.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxisteróis/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oxisteróis/química , Oxisteróis/metabolismo
11.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 207(Pt B): 231-238, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663071

RESUMO

Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation products formed through enzymatic or autoxidation mechanisms. 7-ketocholeterol (7KC) is one of most abundant oxysterols found in atherosclerotic lesions. Its role in atherosclerosis pathogenesis has been broadly studied in a variety of models. The arterial microenvironment is a multicellular dynamic compartment that, among other systemic factors, is continuously stimulated by 7KC. Endothelial cells have a key role on that environment, being in intimate contact with both the blood stream and the vessel wall, the site of disease origin. 7KC has been shown to promote endothelial cell death and/or dysfunction, depending on its concentration. However, its contribution to the cell microenvironment through cell stimulation has not received much attention. Here we applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics followed by bioinformatics workflow to analyze the effect of a non-toxic 7KC concentration on endothelial cell protein expression and secretion in vitro. Trypsin digests were prepared from the secretome of the endothelial cells and from the total cell pellet after 24h exposure to 7KC. All samples were analyzed by high resolution and accurate mass nano-LC MS/MS. After database search and statistical analysis, differentially expressed proteins were selected for further studies. Our workflow identified 1805 secreted proteins and 2203 intracellular proteins, and of these, 48 and 53, respectively, were regulated. Regulated proteins upon 7KC exposure are involved in unfolded protein response, vascular homeostasis, and reduced control of angiogenesis. Moreover, blood coagulation was another main pathway regulated through Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI), an antithrombotic agent associated with coronary disease that we found to be more than 2 times downregulated. Taken together, these data show differential endothelial protein regulation and secretion upon 7KC exposure for short time periods under non-toxic conditions. Herewith, these data support the role of 7KC in atherosclerosis pathophysiology and thus reinforce the deleterious effect of endothelial cells stress in the arterial microenvironment.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetocolesteróis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Peptides ; 68: 113-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25305549

RESUMO

Mastoparan is an α-helical and amphipathic tetradecapeptide obtained from the venom of the wasp Vespula lewisii. This peptide exhibits a wide variety of biological effects, including antimicrobial activity, increased histamine release from mast cells, induction of a potent mitochondrial permeability transition and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Here, the effects of mastoparan in malignant melanoma were studied using the murine model of B16F10-Nex2 cells. In vitro, mastoparan caused melanoma cell death by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA degradation and cell death signaling. Most importantly, mastoparan reduced the growth of subcutaneous melanoma in syngeneic mice and increased their survival. The present results show that mastoparan induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway protecting the mice against tumor development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Venenos de Vespas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Estresse Oxidativo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Malar J ; 13: 224, 2014 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24906577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. RESULTS: Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was associated with forest fragmentation.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Reação Transfusional , Doadores de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 68(4): 531-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23778350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag) were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity). The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years). The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001). An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081), was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029) and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004). Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group), preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79), 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183), and 37.43 (95% CI 1.79 to 782.73). CONCLUSION: Low plasma ADAMTS-13 activity is a risk factor for postoperative bleeding in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, particularly in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/sangue , Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Proteínas ADAM/fisiologia , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Análise de Variância , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fator de von Willebrand/fisiologia
15.
Clinics ; 68(4): 531-536, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-674249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag) were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity). The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years). The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001). An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081), was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029) and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004). Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group), preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79), 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183), and 37.43 (95% ...


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas ADAM/sangue , Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Proteínas ADAM/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Western Blotting , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fator de von Willebrand/fisiologia
16.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 86(1): 80-8, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23500544

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins responsible for the translocation of several substances across membranes using the chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis. ABC transporters participate in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cholesterol and lipid transportation and multidrug resistance. Oxysterols are the products of cholesterol oxidation, formed by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. The role of oxysterols in cholesterol metabolism and several diseases has been widely investigated, but many questions remain to be answered. Several lines of evidence link ABC transporter functions with cholesterol and oxysterol metabolism. This review discusses ABC transporters, oxysterols, and how they interact with each other.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores X do Fígado , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo
17.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 13(1): 186-92, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931421

RESUMO

Azidothymidine (AZT) is an antiretroviral drug that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the NF-κB pathway. As multiple myeloma (MM) presents with constitutive activation of NF-κB, we analyzed the effect of AZT on human MM cell lines. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of AZT in human MM cell lines sensitive (8226/S) or resistant to doxorubicin (8226/DX5) and human T cell lymphoblast-like cells, uterine sarcoma cells, and HUVEC using MTT assay. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated in vivo in nude mice xenografted with 8226/S tumor. The effect of AZT on the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and the NF-κB pathway was analyzed in the xenografts using real-time polymerase chain reaction. AZT was effective against both 8226/S and 8226/DX5 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner (p = 0.02) in vitro and promoted cell cycle arrest in S phase in these cells. The tumor volume was lower in mice treated with AZT compared to untreated mice (p = 0.0003). AZT down-regulated the pro-proliferative genes encoding AKT1, MYC, STAT1, MAPK8, MAPK9, CCL-3, Bcl-3, and cyclin D2; pro-angiogenenic genes encoding VEGF and IL8; and genes involved in cell adhesion (ICAM1 and FN1) and the NF-κB pathway. AZT up-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor gene FOXP1 and the pro-apoptotic genes encoding BID, Bcl-10, and caspase-8. Thus, we demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of AZT in human MM cell lines for the first time. Our data may provide the rationale for future clinical trials of AZT for treating MM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Zidovudina/farmacologia
18.
Lipids ; 47(7): 679-86, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22684913

RESUMO

Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and anti-atherogenic function.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Kidney Int Suppl (2011) ; 1(3): 77-82, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25028628

RESUMO

Amniotic fluid (AF) contains a variety of cell types derived from fetal tissues that can easily grow in culture. These cells can be obtained during amniocentesis for prenatal screening of fetal genetic diseases, usually performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. Of particular interest, some expanded sub-populations derived from AF cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and maintain prolonged undifferentiated proliferation, which are defining properties of stem cells. These human AF stem cells (hAFSCs) exhibit multilineage potential and can differentiate into the three germ layers. They have high proliferation rates and express mesenchymal and embryonic markers, but do not induce tumor formation. In this study, hAFSCs derived from amniocentesis performed at 16-20 weeks of pregnancy were isolated, grown in culture, and characterized by flow cytometry and by their potential ability to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. After 4-7 passages, 5 × 105 hAFSCs were inoculated under the kidney capsule of Wistar rats that were subjected to an experimental model of chronic renal disease, the 5/6 nephrectomy model (Nx). After 30 days, Nx rats treated with hAFSCs displayed significant reductions in blood pressure, proteinuria, macrophages, and α-smooth muscle actin expression compared with Nx animals. These preliminary results suggest that hAFSCs isolated and expanded from AF obtained by routine amniocentesis can promote renoprotection in the Nx model. Considering that the AF cells not used for fetal karyotyping are usually discarded, and that their use does not raise ethical issues, they may represent an alternative source of stem cells for cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

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