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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809063

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. The single-cell expression landscape of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung cancer patients remains unknown. We sought to delineate single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We examined the expression levels and cellular distribution of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2-priming proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in 5 LUADs and 14 matched normal tissues by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. scRNA-seq of 186,916 cells revealed epithelial-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4. Analysis of 70,030 LUAD- and normal-derived epithelial cells showed that ACE2 levels were highest in normal alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and that TMPRSS2 was expressed in 65% of normal AT2 cells. Conversely, the expression of TMPRSS4 was highest and most frequently detected (75%) in lung cells with malignant features. ACE2-positive cells co-expressed genes implicated in lung pathobiology, including COPD-associated HHIP, and the scavengers CD36 and DMBT1. Notably, the viral scavenger DMBT1 was significantly positively correlated with ACE2 expression in AT2 cells. We describe normal and tumor lung epithelial populations that express SARS-CoV-2 receptor and proteases, as well as major host defense genes, thus comprising potential treatment targets for COVID-19 particularly among lung cancer patients.

2.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a 2-part study to evaluate the incorporation of veliparib, a PARP inhibitor, into chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the phase I part, patients were treated successively at 3 dose levels of veliparib (40, 80, and 120 mg) twice daily during CRT. In the phase II part, patients were randomized to receive veliparib or placebo during thoracic radiotherapy with concurrent weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel, followed by 2 cycles of consolidation carboplatin and paclitaxel with veliparib or placebo. The study was prematurely discontinued owing to the emergence of adjuvant immunotherapy as standard of care. RESULTS: Of 21 patients enrolled in phase I, 2 patients developed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs): 1 grade 3 esophagitis with dysphagia (at 40 mg) and 1 grade 3 esophagitis with dehydration (at 80 mg). No DLTs were seen at veliparib dose of 120 mg twice daily, which was selected for the phase II part that enrolled 31 eligible patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was not different between the 2 arms (P = .20). For the veliparib and placebo arms, response rates were 56% and 69%, PFS at 1 year 47% and 46%, and overall survival at 1 year 89% and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Veliparib with CRT was feasible and well tolerated. Efficacy could not accurately be determined because of early study closure. Nonetheless, there is enthusiasm for the evaluation of PARP inhibitors in lung cancer as predictive biomarkers are being developed and combinations with immunotherapy are attractive.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This signal finding study (S1400G) was designed to evaluate the efficacy of talazoparib in advanced stage squamous cell lung cancer harboring homologous recombination repair deficiency. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The full eligible population (FEP) had tumors with a deleterious mutation in any of the study-defined homologous recombination repair genes and without prior exposure to a PARP inhibitor. The primary analysis population (PAP) is a subset of FEP with alteration in ATM, ATR, BRCA1, BRCA2, or PALB2. Treatment consisted of talazoparib 1 mg daily continuously in 21-day cycles. A 2-stage design with exact 93% power and 1-sided 0.07 type I error required enrollment of 40 patients in the PAP in order to rule out an overall response rate (ORR) of 15% or less if the true ORR is ≥ 35%. RESULTS: The study enrolled 47 patients in the FEP, of whom 24 were in the PAP. The median age for the FEP was 66.7 years; 83% were male and 85% white. ORR in the PAP was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0, 21) with disease control rate of 54% (95% CI, 33, 74). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.4 months (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 5.2 months (95% CI, 4.0-10), respectively. In the FEP, ORR was 11% (95% CI, 3.6, 23), the disease control rate was 51% (95% CI, 36, 66), and the median duration of response was 1.8 months (95% CI, 1.3, 4.2). Median progression-free and overall survival were 2.5 months and 5.7 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: S1400G failed to show sufficient level of efficacy for single agent talazoparib in a biomarker defined subset of squamous lung cancer with homologous recombination repair deficiency.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 583-600, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade therapy and their EGFR wildtype counterpart. The mechanisms underlying this lack of clinical response have been investigated but remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts of resected lung adenocarcinomas (Profiling of Resistance Patterns of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancer of Thorax, Immune Genomic Profiling of NSCLC, and The Cancer Genome Atlas) and compared tumor immune microenvironment of EGFR-mutant tumors to EGFR wildtype tumors, to identify actionable regulators to target and potentially enhance the treatment response. RESULTS: EGFR-mutant NSCLC exhibited low programmed death-ligand 1, low tumor mutational burden, decreased number of cytotoxic T cells, and low T cell receptor clonality, consistent with an immune-inert phenotype, though T cell expansion ex vivo was preserved. In an analysis of 75 immune checkpoint genes, the top up-regulated genes in the EGFR-mutant tumors (NT5E and ADORA1) belonged to the CD73/adenosine pathway. Single-cell analysis revealed that the tumor cell population expressed CD73, both in the treatment-naive and resistant tumors. Using coculture systems with EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, T regulatory cell proportion was decreased with CD73 knockdown. In an immune-competent mouse model of EGFR-mutant lung cancer, the CD73/adenosine pathway was markedly up-regulated and CD73 blockade significantly inhibited tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our work revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC has an immune-inert phenotype. We identified the CD73/adenosine pathway as a potential therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

5.
Cancer Res ; 81(5): 1398-1412, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402388

RESUMO

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic epigenetic reprogramming event that occurs in a subset of tumor cells and is an initiating step toward invasion and distant metastasis. The process is reversible and gives plasticity to cancer cells to survive under variable conditions, with the acquisition of cancer stem cell-like characteristics and features such as drug resistance. Therefore, understanding survival dependencies of cells along the phenotypic spectrum of EMT will provide better strategies to target the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumors and prevent their ability to bypass single-inhibitor treatment strategies. To address this, we integrated the data from a selective drug screen in epithelial and mesenchymal KRAS/p53 (KP)-mutant lung tumor cells with separate datasets including reverse-phase protein array and an in vivo shRNA dropout screen. These orthogonal approaches identified AXL and MEK as potential mesenchymal and epithelial cell survival dependencies, respectively. To capture the dynamicity of EMT, incorporation of a dual fluorescence EMT sensor system into murine KP lung cancer models enabled real-time analysis of the epigenetic state of tumor cells and assessment of the efficacy of single agent or combination treatment with AXL and MEK inhibitors. Both two- and three-dimensional culture systems and in vivo models revealed that this combination treatment strategy of MEK plus AXL inhibition synergistically killed lung cancer cells by specifically targeting each phenotypic subpopulation. In conclusion, these results indicate that cotargeting the specific vulnerabilities of EMT subpopulations can prevent EMT-mediated drug resistance, effectively controlling tumor cell growth and metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that a novel combination of MEK and AXL inhibitors effectively bypasses EMT-mediated drug resistance in KRAS/p53-mutant non-small cell lung cancer by targeting EMT subpopulations, thereby preventing tumor cell survival.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 124(5): 857-859, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328609

RESUMO

The therapeutic landscape of drugs targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is rapidly expanding; however, an urgent unmet need remains for validated predictive biomarkers of response. SLFN11 has emerged as a promising predictor of sensitivity to DNA-damaging chemotherapies, and recently, been associated with sensitivity to PARP inhibition. We discuss its use as a predictive biomarker of response for targeting the DDR.

7.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322834

RESUMO

Biomarker-driven targeted therapies are lacking for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is common and lethal. Efforts to develop such therapies are hindered by a genomic landscape dominated by the loss of tumor suppressor function, including NOTCH1 that is frequently mutated in HNSCC. Clearer understanding of NOTCH1 signaling in HNSCCs is crucial to clinically targeting this pathway. Structural characterization of NOTCH1 mutations in HNSCC demonstrates that most are predicted to cause loss of function, in agreement with NOTCH1's role as a tumor suppressor in this cancer. Experimental manipulation of NOTCH1 signaling in HNSCC cell lines harboring either mutant or wild-type NOTCH1 further supports a tumor suppressor function. Additionally, the loss of NOTCH1 signaling can drive HNSCC tumorigenesis and clinical aggressiveness. Our recent data suggest that NOTCH1 controls genes involved in early differentiation that could have different phenotypic consequences depending on the cancer's genetic background, including acquisition of pseudo-stem cell-like properties. The presence of NOTCH1 mutations may predict response to treatment with an immune checkpoint or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. The latter is being tested in a clinical trial, and if validated, it may lead to the development of the first biomarker-driven targeted therapy for HNSCC.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079728

RESUMO

MYC stimulates both metabolism and protein synthesis, but it is unknown how cells coordinate these complementary programs. Previous work reported that in a subset of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, MYC activates guanosine triphosphate (GTP) synthesis and results in sensitivity to inhibitors of the GTP synthesis enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Here we demonstrated that primary MYCHigh human SCLC tumors also contain abundant guanosine nucleotides. We also found that elevated MYC in SCLCs with acquired chemoresistance rendered these otherwise recalcitrant tumors dependent on IMPDH. Unexpectedly, our data indicated that IMPDH links the metabolic and protein synthesis outputs of oncogenic MYC. Co-expression analysis placed IMPDH within the MYC-driven ribosome program, and GTP depletion prevented RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) from localizing to ribosomal DNA. Furthermore, the GTPases GPN1 and GPN3 were upregulated by MYC and directed Pol I to ribosomal DNA. Constitutively GTP-bound GPN1/3 mutants mitigated the effect of GTP depletion on Pol I, protecting chemoresistant SCLC cells from IMPDH inhibition. GTP therefore functions as a metabolic gate tethering MYC-dependent ribosome biogenesis to nucleotide sufficiency through GPN1 and GPN3. IMPDH dependence is a targetable vulnerability in chemoresistant, MYCHigh SCLC.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(12): 1919-1927, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916308

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few advancements in treating limited-stage SCLC (LS-SCLC) have been made in decades. We report here a phase 1/2 trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and pembrolizumab. METHODS: This single-center, open-label phase 1/2 study recruited adults with LS-SCLC or other neuroendocrine tumors and good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≤ 2). The primary end point was safety, as assessed by dose-limiting toxicities. Concurrent CRT consisted of etoposide and a platin with 45 Gy radiotherapy (30 twice daily). Prophylactic cranial irradiation (25 Gy, 10 fractions) was given at the physician's discretion. Pembrolizumab was started concurrently with CRT and continued for up to 16 cycles. The phase 1 portion consisted of a 3 + 3 design. Toxicity was assessed with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival, overall survival, and tumor response as measured by the immune-related response criteria. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were screened, and 40 were enrolled. All completed radiation therapy and received greater than or equal to one cycle of pembrolizumab. A total of 27 (61%) received percutaneous coronary intervention. One dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the phase 1 portion. There were no grade 5 toxicities, but there were three grade 4 events (two neutropenia, one respiratory failure). Pneumonitis rate was 15% (three grade 2 and three grade 3). All 17 esophagitis events (42.5%) were grades 1 to 2. At median follow-up time of 23.1 months, the median progression-free survival time was 19.7 months (95% confidence interval: 8.8‒30.5) and the median overall survival time was 39.5 months (95% confidence interval: 8.0‒71.0). CONCLUSION: Concurrent CRT and pembrolizumab for LS-SCLC was well tolerated and yielded favorable outcomes, providing a basis for randomized studies.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4520, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908154

RESUMO

Tumor extracellular matrix has been associated with drug resistance and immune suppression. Here, proteomic and RNA profiling reveal increased collagen levels in lung tumors resistant to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Additionally, elevated collagen correlates with decreased total CD8+ T cells and increased exhausted CD8+ T cell subpopulations in murine and human lung tumors. Collagen-induced T cell exhaustion occurs through the receptor LAIR1, which is upregulated following CD18 interaction with collagen, and induces T cell exhaustion through SHP-1. Reduction in tumor collagen deposition through LOXL2 suppression increases T cell infiltration, diminishes exhausted T cells, and abrogates resistance to anti-PD-L1. Abrogating LAIR1 immunosuppression through LAIR2 overexpression or SHP-1 inhibition sensitizes resistant lung tumors to anti-PD-1. Clinically, increased collagen, LAIR1, and TIM-3 expression in melanoma patients treated with PD-1 blockade predict poorer survival and response. Our study identifies collagen and LAIR1 as potential markers for immunotherapy resistance and validates multiple promising therapeutic combinations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544169

RESUMO

In order to improve treatment selection for high grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix (NECC), we performed a comparative genomic analysis between this rare tumor type and other cervical cancer types, as well as extra-cervical neuroendocrine small cell carcinomas of the lung and bladder. We performed whole exome sequencing on fresh-frozen tissue from 15 NECCs and matched normal tissue. We then identified mutations and copy number variants using standard analysis pipelines. Published mutation tables from cervical cancers and extra-cervical small cell carcinomas were used for comparative analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were used and a two-sided threshold of P < .05 was used for significance. In the NECC cohort, we detected a median of 1.7 somatic mutations per megabase (range 1.0-20.9). PIK3CA p.E545K mutations were the most frequency observed oncogenic mutation (4/15 tumors, 27%). Activating MAPK pathway mutations in KRAS (p.G12D) and GNAS (p.R201C) co-occurred in two tumors (13%). In total we identified PI3-kinase or MAPK pathway activating mutations in 67% of NECC. When compared to NECC, lung and bladder small cell carcinomas exhibited a statistically significant higher rate of coding mutations (P < .001 for lung; P = .001 for bladder). Mutation of TP53 was uncommon in NECC (13%) and was more frequent in both lung (103 of 110 tumors [94%], P < .001) and bladder (18 of 19 tumors [95%], P < .001) small cell carcinoma. These comparative genomics data suggest that NECC may be genetically more similar to common cervical cancer subtypes than to extra-cervical small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung and bladder. These results may have implications for the selection of cytotoxic and targeted therapy regimens for this rare disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genômica , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Colo do Útero/patologia , Cromograninas/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(9): 1449-1459, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389639

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression may vary in different disease sites and at different time points of the disease course. We aimed to investigate PD-L1 heterogeneity and its usefulness as a predictive value for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in patients with NSCLC. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was analyzed in 1398 patients with NSCLC. The predictive value of PD-L1 for ICIs in 398 patients with metastatic NSCLC was assessed. RESULTS: PD-L1 was significantly associated with biopsy sites (p = 0.004). Adrenal, liver, and lymph node (LN) metastases had the highest PD-L1 expression as a continuous variable and at 1% or 50% cutoff. PD-L1 expression was lower in bone and brain metastases. Among 112 patients with two specimens tested, 55 (49%) had major changes in PD-L1 falling into different clinically relevant categories (<1%, 1%-49%, ≥50%) at different time points. Previous ICI therapy was associated with significant decrease in PD-L1 compared with treatment-naive counterparts (p = 0.015). Patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with ICI (n = 398) were divided into three cohorts on the basis of biopsy sites: lung (n = 252), LN (n = 85), and distant metastasis (n = 61). Higher PD-L1 in lung or distant metastasis specimens was associated with higher response rate, longer progression-free survival, and overall survival. However, PD-L1 in LN biopsies was not associated with either response or survival. CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 varies substantially across different anatomical sites and changes during the clinical course. PD-L1 from different biopsy sites may have different predictive values for benefit from ICIs in NSCLC.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203277, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320035

RESUMO

Importance: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neoplasm requiring rapid access to subspecialized multidisciplinary care. For this reason, insurance coverage such as Medicaid may be associated with oncologic outcomes in this disproportionately economically vulnerable population. With Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, it is important to understand outcomes associated with Medicaid coverage among patients with SCLC. Objective: To determine the association of Medicaid coverage with survival compared with other insurance statuses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adult patients with limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) SCLC in the US National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2013. Data were analyzed in January 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients were analyzed with respect to insurance status. Associations of insurance status with survival were interrogated with univariate analyses, multivariable analyses, and propensity score matching. Results: A total of 181 784 patients with SCLC (93 131 [51.2%] female; median [interquartile range] age; 67 [60-75] years for patients with LS-SCLC and 68 [60-75] years for patients with ES-SCLC) were identified, of whom 70 247 (38.6%) had LS-SCLC and 109 479 (60.2%) had ES-SCLC. On univariate analyses of patients with LS-SCLC, Medicaid coverage was not associated with a survival advantage compared with being uninsured (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.08; P = .49). Likewise, on multivariable analyses of patients with ES-SCLC, compared with being uninsured, Medicaid coverage was not associated with a survival advantage (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03; P = .78). After propensity score matching, median survival was similar between the uninsured and Medicaid groups both among patients with LS-SCLC (14.4 vs 14.1 months; hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.12; P = .17) and those with ES-SCLC (6.3 vs 6.4 months; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.04; P = .92). Conclusions and Relevance: Despite of billions of dollars in annual federal and state spending, Medicaid was not associated with improved survival in patients with SCLC compared with being uninsured in the US National Cancer Database. These findings suggest that there are substantial outcome inequalities for SCLC relevant to the policy debate on the Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(5): 777-791, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the combination of anti-programmed cell death-1 or anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) with platinum chemotherapy is a standard of care for NSCLC, clinical responses vary. Even though predictive biomarkers (which include PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and inflamed immune microenvironment) are validated for immunotherapy, their relevance to chemoimmunotherapy combinations is less clear. We have recently reported that activation of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) innate immune pathway enhances immunotherapy response in SCLC. Here, we hypothesize that STING pathway activation may predict and underlie predictive correlates of antitumor immunity in NSCLC. METHODS: We analyzed transcriptomic and proteomic profiles in two NSCLC cohorts from our institution (treatment-naive patients in the Profiling of Resistance Patterns and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax study and relapsed patients in the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination study) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (N = 1320). Tumors were stratified by STING activation on the basis of protein or mRNA expression of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, phospho-STING, and STING-mediated chemokines (chemokine ligand 5 [CCL5] and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 [CXCL10]). STING activation in patient tumors and in platinum-treated preclinical NSCLC models was correlated with biomarkers of immunotherapy response. RESULTS: STING activation is associated with higher levels of intrinsic DNA damage, targetable immune checkpoints, and chemokines in treatment-naive and relapsed lung adenocarcinoma. We observed that tumors with lower STING and immune gene expression show higher frequency of serine-threonine kinase 11 (STK11) mutations; however, we identified a subset of these tumors that are TP53 comutated and display high immune- and STING-related gene expression. Treatment with cisplatin increases STING pathway activation and PD-L1 expression in multiple NSCLC preclinical models, including adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: STING pathway activation in NSCLC predicts features of immunotherapy response and is enhanced by cisplatin treatment. This suggests a possible predictive biomarker and mechanism for improved response to chemoimmunotherapy combinations.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(4): 520-540, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018053

RESUMO

The outcomes of patients with SCLC have not yet been substantially impacted by the revolution in precision oncology, primarily owing to a paucity of genetic alterations in actionable driver oncogenes. Nevertheless, systemic therapies that include immunotherapy are beginning to show promise in the clinic. Although, these results are encouraging, many patients do not respond to, or rapidly recur after, current regimens, necessitating alternative or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss ongoing investigations into the pathobiology of this recalcitrant cancer and the therapeutic vulnerabilities that are exposed by the disease state. Included within this discussion, is a snapshot of the current biomarker and clinical trial landscapes for SCLC. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps that should be addressed to advance the field in pursuit of reduced SCLC mortality. This review largely summarizes work presented at the Third Biennial International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer SCLC Meeting.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(2): 248-257, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Consolidation durvalumab after chemoradiation (CRT) is the current standard of care for locally advanced NSCLC. We hypothesized that adding immunotherapy concurrently with CRT (cCRT) would increase efficacy without additive toxicity. METHODS: This phase II study was conducted in two parts. Part 1 (n = 10) involved administration of conventionally fractionated CRT followed by consolidation chemotherapy (atezolizumab [two cycles] and maintenance atezolizumab up to 1 y). Part 2 (n = 30) involved administration of cCRT with atezolizumab followed by the same consolidation and maintenance therapies as in part 1. Programmed cell death ligand-1 staining cutoffs (1% or 50%) using Dako 22C3 immunohistochemistry were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The overall toxicities for part 1/2 were overall adverse events of grade 3 and above of 80%/80%; immune-related adverse events of grade 3 and above of 30%/20%; and pneumonitis of grade 2 and above of 10%/16%, respectively. In part 1, for preliminary efficacy results, with a median follow-up of 22.5 months, the median progression-free survival was 18.6 months, and the overall survival was 22.8 months. In part 2, with a median follow-up time of 15.1 months, the median progression-free survival was 13.2 months, and the overall survival was not reached. There was no difference in cancer recurrence regardless of programmed cell death ligand-1 status. CONCLUSIONS: Atezolizumab with cCRT is safe and feasible and has no added toxicities compared with historical rates.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 351, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: OX-40 co-stimulatory signaling plays a role in mounting anti-tumor immune responses and clinical trials targeting this pathway are ongoing. However, the association of with OX-40 protein expression with clinical outcomes and pathological features in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are largely unknown. METHODS: Surgically-resected stage I-III NSCLC specimens (N = 100) were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the following immune markers: OX-40, PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD57, CD68, FOXP3, granzyme B, and ICOS. Immune-related markers mRNA expression were also assessed. We evaluated the association of OX-40 levels with major clinicopathologic variables, including molecular driver mutations. RESULTS: OX-40 IHC expression was observed in all tested tumors, predominantly localized in the membrane of the tumor immune infiltrate, and was not associated with a specific clinicopathologic or molecular subtype. High OX-40 expression levels measured by IHC median score were associated with better overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002), independent of CD3/CD8, PD-L1, and ICOS expression. High OX-40 IHC score was associated with increased expression of immune-related genes such as CD3, IFN-gamma, ICOS, CD8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, granzyme K. CONCLUSIONS: High OX-40 IHC expression in the tumor immune infiltrate is associated with favorable prognosis and increased levels of immune-related genes including IFN-gamma in patients with surgically resected stage I-III NSCLC. Its prognostic utility is independent of PD-L1 and other common markers of immune activation. High OX-40 expression potentially identifies a unique subgroup of NSCLC that may benefit from co-stimulation with OX-40 agonist antibodies and potentially enhance the efficacy of existing immune checkpoint therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Receptores OX40/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Mol Cell ; 76(5): 838-851.e5, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564558

RESUMO

Intermediary metabolism in cancer cells is regulated by diverse cell-autonomous processes, including signal transduction and gene expression patterns, arising from specific oncogenotypes and cell lineages. Although it is well established that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, we lack a full view of the diversity of metabolic programs in cancer cells and an unbiased assessment of the associations between metabolic pathway preferences and other cell-autonomous processes. Here, we quantified metabolic features, mostly from the 13C enrichment of molecules from central carbon metabolism, in over 80 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines cultured under identical conditions. Because these cell lines were extensively annotated for oncogenotype, gene expression, protein expression, and therapeutic sensitivity, the resulting database enables the user to uncover new relationships between metabolism and these orthogonal processes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Neoplasias/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3485, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375684

RESUMO

MYC paralogs are frequently activated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) but represent poor drug targets. Thus, a detailed mapping of MYC-paralog-specific vulnerabilities may help to develop effective therapies for SCLC patients. Using a unique cellular CRISPR activation model, we uncover that, in contrast to MYCN and MYCL, MYC represses BCL2 transcription via interaction with MIZ1 and DNMT3a. The resulting lack of BCL2 expression promotes sensitivity to cell cycle control inhibition and dependency on MCL1. Furthermore, MYC activation leads to heightened apoptotic priming, intrinsic genotoxic stress and susceptibility to DNA damage checkpoint inhibitors. Finally, combined AURK and CHK1 inhibition substantially prolongs the survival of mice bearing MYC-driven SCLC beyond that of combination chemotherapy. These analyses uncover MYC-paralog-specific regulation of the apoptotic machinery with implications for genotype-based selection of targeted therapeutics in SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico
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