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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(2): 180-191, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027111

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are 2 conditions that have become important global public health problems. Emerging evidence supports a strong and independent association between NAFLD and the risk of new-onset HF, and there are multiple potential pathophysiological mechanisms by which NAFLD may increase risk of new-onset HF. The magnitude of this risk parallels the underlying severity of NAFLD, especially the level of liver fibrosis. Patients with NAFLD develop accelerated coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial alterations (mainly cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy), and certain arrhythmias (mainly atrial fibrillation), which may precede and promote the development of new-onset HF. This brief narrative review aims to provide an overview of the association between NAFLD and increased risk of new-onset HF, discuss the underlying mechanisms that link these 2 diseases, and summarize targeted pharmacological treatments for NAFLD that might also reduce the risk of HF.

2.
Liver Int ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007392

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recently re-defined and re-classified as metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), has become increasingly prevalent and emerged as a public health problem worldwide. To date, the precise pathogenic mechanisms underpinning MAFLD are not entirely understood, and there is no effective pharmacological therapy for NAFLD/MAFLD. As a newly discovered form of iron-dependent programmed cell death, ferroptosis can be involved in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, but the pathogenic connections and mechanisms that link MAFLD and ferroptosis have not been fully elucidated. The main characteristics of ferroptosis are the accumulation of lipid peroxides and reactive oxygen species. In this brief narrative review, the mechanisms of ferroptosis and its putative pathogenic role in MAFLD are discussed to highlight potential new research directions and ideas for the prevention and treatment of MAFLD.

3.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013596

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of fat in more than 5% of hepatocytes in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other secondary causes of hepatic steatosis. In 2020, the more inclusive term metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) - defined by broader diagnostic criteria - was proposed to replace the term NAFLD. The new terminology and revised definition better emphasize the pathogenic role of metabolic dysfunction and uses a set of definitive, inclusive criteria for diagnosis. Diagnosis of MAFLD is based on evidence of hepatic steatosis (as assessed by liver biopsy, imaging techniques or blood biomarkers and scores) in persons who are overweight or obese and have type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic dysregulation, regardless of the coexistence of other liver diseases or excessive alcohol consumption. The known association between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and our understanding that CKD can occur as a consequence of metabolic dysfunction suggests that individuals with MAFLD - who by definition have fatty liver and metabolic comorbidities - are at increased risk of CKD. In this Perspective article, we discuss the clinical associations between MAFLD and CKD, the pathophysiological mechanisms by which MAFLD may increase the risk of CKD and the potential drug treatments that may benefit both conditions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030323

RESUMO

There are no licensed treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but three different classes of antihyperglycaemic drugs-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-show promise in the treatment of the disease. We did a systematic review of randomised controlled trials examining the efficacy of PPAR agonists, GLP-1R agonists, or SGLT2 inhibitors for specifically treating NAFLD in adults with or without type 2 diabetes. A total of 25 active-controlled or placebo-controlled trials met our inclusion criteria: eight for PPAR agonists, ten for GLP-1R agonists, and seven for SGLT2 inhibitors. 2597 individuals (1376 [53%] men vs 1221 [47%] women; mean age 52 years (SD 6); mean BMI 32 kg/m2 (SD 3); 1610 [62%] with type 2 diabetes) were included. Pioglitazone, lanifibranor, and GLP1-R agonists (mostly liraglutide and semaglutide) improved individual histological features of NASH (ie, steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation) or achieved resolution of NASH without worsening of fibrosis. SGLT2 inhibitors (mostly empagliflozin and dapagliflozin) reduced liver fat content, as assessed by magnetic resonance-based techniques.

5.
Gut ; 71(1): 156-162, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies reported a significant association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether this risk changes with increasing severity of NAFLD remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CKD. DESIGN: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus from January 2000 to August 2020 using predefined keywords to identify observational studies with a follow-up duration of ≥1 year, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by blood biomarkers/scores, International Classification of Diseases codes, imaging techniques or biopsy. Data from selected studies were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modelling. RESULTS: 13 studies with 1 222 032 individuals (28.1% with NAFLD) and 33 840 cases of incident CKD stage ≥3 (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without accompanying overt proteinuria) over a median follow-up of 9.7 years were included. NAFLD was associated with a moderately increased risk of incident CKD (n=10 studies; random-effects HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.54; I 2 =60.7%). All risks were independent of age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes and other conventional CKD risk factors. Sensitivity analyses did not alter these findings. Funnel plot did not reveal any significant publication bias. CONCLUSION: This large and updated meta-analysis indicates that NAFLD is significantly associated with a~1.45-fold increased long-term risk of incident CKD stage ≥3. Further studies are needed to examine the association between the severity of NAFLD and risk of incident CKD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medição de Risco
6.
Metabolism ; 128: 154958, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) incidence and prevalence increasing, it is necessary to identify patients with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 stages). We evaluated the performance of new biomarkers and algorithms for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. METHODS: Data from two Asian cohorts (including 851 biopsy-proven MAFLD [578 from Wenzhou, 273 from Hong Kong]) were studied. The association between N-terminal propeptide of type 3 collagen (PRO-C3) and the histologic stage of liver fibrosis was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to test the diagnostic performance of serum PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score for advanced fibrosis and compared them to other established non-invasive tests. RESULTS: Serum PRO-C3 levels increased progressively across liver fibrosis stages and correlated with advanced fibrosis (P < 0.001). The ADAPT score had an AUROC of 0.865 (95% confidence interval 0.829-0.901) for advanced fibrosis; the accuracy, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 81.4%, 82.2% and 96.1%, respectively. This result was better compared to that of PRO-C3 alone or other non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, Fibrosis-4, BARD, and NAFLD fibrosis score). In subgroup analyses (including sex, age, diabetes, NAFLD activity score, body mass index or serum alanine aminotransferase levels), the ADAPT score had good diagnostic performance. CONCLUSION: PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in MAFLD patients and reduce the need for liver biopsy.

7.
8.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3624-3630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790034

RESUMO

Rationale: Since non-invasive tests for prediction of liver fibrosis have a poor diagnostic performance for detecting low levels of fibrosis, it is important to explore the diagnostic capabilities of other non-invasive tests to diagnose low levels of fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the performance of radiomics based on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting any liver fibrosis in individuals with biopsy-proven metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Methods: A total of 22 adults with biopsy-confirmed MAFLD, who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT, were enrolled in this study. Sixty radiomics features were extracted from whole liver region of interest in 18F-FDG PET images. Subsequently, the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method was performed and a subset of two features mostly related to the output classes and low redundancy between them were selected according to an event per variable of 5. Logistic regression, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, 5-Nearest Neighbor and linear discriminant analysis models were built based on selected features. The predictive performances were assessed by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The mean (SD) age of the subjects was 38.5 (10.4) years and 17 subjects were men. 12 subjects had histological evidence of any liver fibrosis. The coarseness of neighborhood grey-level difference matrix (NGLDM) and long-run emphasis (LRE) of grey-level run length matrix (GLRLM) were selected to predict fibrosis. The logistic regression model performed best with an AUROC of 0.817 [95% confidence intervals, 0.595-0.947] for prediction of liver fibrosis. Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that 18F-FDG PET radiomics may have clinical utility in assessing early liver fibrosis in MAFLD.

9.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 32, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a strong risk factor for liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It remains uncertain why T2DM increases the risk of liver fibrosis. It has been suggested that growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) concentrations increase the risk of liver fibrosis. We aimed to investigate (a) whether GDF-15 concentrations were associated with liver fibrosis and involved in the relationship between T2DM and liver fibrosis and (b) what factors linked with T2DM are associated with increased GDF-15 concentrations. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with NAFLD (61% men, 42.4% T2DM) were studied. Serum GDF-15 concentrations were measured by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE)-validated thresholds were used to assess liver fibrosis. Regression modelling, receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Sobel test statistics were used to test associations, risk predictors and the involvement of GDF-15 in the relationship between T2DM and liver fibrosis, respectively. RESULTS: Patients with NAFLD and T2DM (n = 42) had higher serum GDF-15 concentrations [mean (SD): 1271.0 (902.1) vs. 640.3 (332.5) pg/ml, p < 0.0001], and a higher proportion had VCTE assessed ≥F2 fibrosis (48.8 vs. 23.2%, p = 0.01) than those without T2DM. GDF-15 was independently associated with liver fibrosis (p = 0.001), and GDF-15 was the most important single factor predicting ≥F2 or ≥F3 fibrosis (≥F2 fibrosis AUROC 0.75, (95% CI 0.63-0.86), p < 0.001, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values of 56.3%, 86.9%, 69.2% and 79.1%, respectively). GDF-15 was involved in the association between T2DM and ≥F2 fibrosis (Sobel test statistic 2.90, p = 0.004). Other factors associated with T2DM explained 60% of the variance in GDF-15 concentrations (p < 0.0001). HbA1c concentrations alone explained 30% of the variance (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 concentrations are a predictor of liver fibrosis and potentially involved in the association between T2DM and liver fibrosis in NAFLD. HbA1c concentrations explain a large proportion of the variance in GDF-15 concentrations.

10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(12): 3464-3473, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), both with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a risk factor for CVD morbidity and mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether there is an association between NAFLD and impaired cardiac autonomic function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the first 4979 participants from the Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, we randomly recruited 173 individuals with T2DM and 183 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls. Participants underwent ultrasonography and vibration-controlled transient elastography (Fibroscan®, Echosens) to assess hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness. The low-to-high-frequency (LF/HF) power ratio and other heart rate variability (HRV) measures were calculated from a 20-min resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to derive a measure of cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance. Among the 356 individuals recruited for the study, 117 had NAFLD and T2DM, 56 had T2DM alone, 68 had NAFLD alone, and 115 subjects had neither condition. Individuals with T2DM and NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.90-10.6) and individuals with NAFLD alone (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.59-7.29), but not those with T2DM alone, had a substantially increased risk of having cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance, compared with those without NAFLD and T2DM. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Fibroscan®-measured liver stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance, regardless of the presence or absence of T2DM, liver stiffness, and other potential confounding factors.

11.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(10): e00417, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The longitudinal relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality, and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration, sleep quality, and NAFLD development. METHODS: Using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, sleep duration and quality were evaluated for 143,306 NAFLD-free Korean adults with a mean age of 36.6 years, who were followed for an average of 4.0 years. Hepatic steatosis (HS) was assessed using ultrasonography and liver fibrosis by the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) or the NAFLD fibrosis score. Flexible parametric proportional hazard models were used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were 27,817 subjects with incident HS, of whom 1,471 had incident HS plus intermediate/high FIB-4. Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals) for incident HS comparing sleep durations of ≤5, 6, 8, and ≥ 9 hours with 7 hours were 1.19 (1.14-1.23), 1.07 (1.04-1.10), 0.98 (0.94-1.02), and 0.95 (0.87-1.03), respectively. The corresponding HRs for incident HS plus intermediate/high FIB-4 were 1.30 (1.11-1.54), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), 1.11 (0.93-1.33), and 1.08 (0.71-1.63). The association between sleep duration and HS plus intermediate/high FIB-4 was inverse in individuals with good sleep quality but tended to be U-shaped in those with poor sleep quality. The results were similar if FIB-4 was replaced by the NAFLD fibrosis score. DISCUSSION: In young adults, short sleep duration was independently associated with an increased risk of incident NAFLD with or without intermediate/high fibrosis score, suggesting a role for inadequate sleep quantity in NAFLD risk and severity.

12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101145, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646997

RESUMO

Background: There is an unmet need for non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in non-specialized settings. We aimed to develop and validate a non-invasive test for diagnosing NASH in individuals with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We developed a non-invasive test named the acNASH index that combines serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a derivation cohort of 390 Chinese NAFLD patients admitted to the hepatology center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (China) between December 2016 and September 2019 and subsequently validated in five external cohorts of different ethnicities of patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (pooled n=1,089). Findings: The performance of the acNASH index for identifying NASH (defined as NAFLD activity score ≥5 with score of ≥1 for each steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning) was good in the derivation cohort with an area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0·818 (95%CI 0·777-0·860). A cutoff of acNASH index <4·15 gave a sensitivity (Se) of 91%, a specificity (Sp) of 48% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 83% for ruling-out NASH, conversely, a cutoff of acNASH >7·73 gave a Sp of 91%, Se of 53% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85% for ruling-in NASH. In the pooled validation cohort (n=1,089), the diagnostic performance of the index was also good with AUROC=0·805 (95%CI 0·780-0·830), NPV of 93% for ruling-out NASH and PPV of 73% for ruling-in NASH. Subgroup analyses showed similar performance in patients with diabetes or subjects with normal serum transaminase levels. Interpretation: The acNASH index shows promising utility as a simple non-invasive biomarker for diagnosing NASH among adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD of different ethnicities from different countries. Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (82070588), High Level Creative Talents from Department of Public Health in Zhejiang Province (S2032102600032) and Project of New Century 551 Talent Nurturing in Wenzhou.

14.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(11): 903-913, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported a significant association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the magnitude of the risk and whether this risk changes with the severity of NAFLD remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CVD events. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception to July 1, 2021, to identify eligible observational studies examining the risk of incident CVD events amongst adult (age ≥18 years) individuals with and without NAFLD and in which NAFLD was diagnosed by imaging, International Classification of Diseases codes, or liver biopsy. The primary outcomes were CVD death, non-fatal CVD events, or both. Data from selected studies were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models to obtain summary hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. The quality of the evidence was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. This study is registered on Open Science Framework, number osf.io/5z7gf. FINDINGS: We identified 36 longitudinal studies with aggregate data on 5 802 226 middle-aged individuals (mean age 53 years [SD 7]) and 99 668 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal CVD events over a median follow-up of 6·5 years (IQR 5·0-10·2). NAFLD was associated with a moderately increased risk of fatal or non-fatal CVD events (pooled random-effects HR 1·45, 95% CI 1·31-1·61; I2=86·18%). This risk markedly increased across the severity of NAFLD, especially the stage of fibrosis (pooled random-effects HR 2·50, 95% CI 1·68-3·72; I2=73·84%). All risks were independent of age, sex, adiposity measures, diabetes, and other common cardiometabolic risk factors. Sensitivity analyses did not modify these results. INTERPRETATION: NAFLD is associated with an increased long-term risk of fatal or non-fatal CVD events. CVD risk is further increased with more advanced liver disease, especially with higher fibrosis stage. These results provide evidence that NAFLD might be an independent risk factor for CVD morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Liver Int ; 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There remains a need to develop a non-invasive, accurate and easy-to-use tool to identify patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Successful clinical and preclinical applications demonstrate the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques to improve medical diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic tool, based on QUS analysis, for identifying NASH. METHODS: A total of 259 Chinese individuals with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in the study. The histological spectrum of NAFLD was classified according to the NASH clinical research network scoring system. Radiofrequency (RF) data, raw data of iLivTouch, was acquired for further QUS analysis. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was used to select the most useful predictive features. RESULTS: Eighteen candidate RF parameters were reduced to two significant parameters by shrinking the regression coefficients with the LASSO method. We built a novel QUS score based on these two parameters, and this QUS score showed good discriminatory capacity and calibration for identifying NASH both in the training set (area under the ROC curve [AUROC]: 0.798, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.731-0.865; Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = .755) and in the validation set (AUROC: 0.816, 95% CI 0.725-0.906; Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = .397). Subgroup analysis showed that the QUS score performed well in different subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The QUS score, which was developed from QUS, provides a novel, non-invasive and practical way for identifying NASH.

16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(2): 343-353, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the effect of fatty liver disease on breast density is unknown. We investigated whether fatty liver is a risk factor for changes in breast density over ~ 4 years of follow-up in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study included 74,781 middle-aged Korean women with mammographically determined dense breasts at baseline. Changes in dense breasts were identified by more screening mammograms during follow-up. Hepatic steatosis (HS) was measured using ultrasonography. Flexible parametric proportional hazards models were used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and a Weibull accelerated failure time model (AFT) was used to determine the time ratios (TRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 4022 women experienced resolution of the dense breasts. The association between HS and dense breast resolution differed by the menopause status (P for interaction < 0.001). After adjusting for body mass index and other covariates, the aHRs (95% CI) for dense breast resolution comparing HS to non-HS were 0.81 (0.70-0.93) in postmenopausal women, while the association was converse in premenopausal women with the corresponding HRs of 1.30 (1.18-1.43). As an alternative approach, the multivariable-adjusted TR (95% CI) for dense breast survival comparing HS to non-HS were 0.81 (0.75-0.87) and 1.19 (1.06-1.33) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between HS and changes in dense breasts differed with the menopause status. HS increased persistent dense breast survival in postmenopausal women but decreased it in premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hepatopatias , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
17.
BJGP Open ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis assessment services using transient elastography are growing in primary care. These services identify patients requiring specialist referral for liver fibrosis, and provide an opportunity for recommending lifestyle change. However, there are uncertainties regarding service design, effectiveness of advice given, and frequency of follow-up. AIM: To assess the following: (a) effectiveness of standard care lifestyle advice for weight management and alcohol consumption; (b) uptake for liver rescan; and (c) usefulness of a 4.5-year time interval of rescanning in monitoring progression of liver fibrosis. DESIGN & SETTING: Analysis of patient outcomes 4.5 years after the first 'liver service' attendance that included transient elastography in five GP practices in Southampton, UK. METHOD: Outcomes included weight, alcohol consumption, rescan uptake, time interval between scans, and change in liver fibrosis stage. RESULTS: A total of 401 participants were recontacted. Mean standard deviation (± SD) weight loss was 1.2 kg±8.4 kg (P = 0.005); Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) grade increased by 7.8% (P ≤0.001). A total of n = 116/401 participants were eligible for liver rescanning and n = 59/116 (50.9%) agreed to undergo rescanning. Mean ± SD time interval between scans was 53.6±3.4 months. Liver fibrosis progressed from mild (≥6.0 kPa-8.1 kPa) to significant fibrosis (8.2 kPa-9.6 kPa) in 3.4% of patients; from mild to advanced fibrosis (9.7 kPa-13.5 kPa) and cirrhosis (≥13.6 kPa) in 15.3% of patients, and did not progress in 81.3%. No baseline factors were independently associated with liver fibrosis progression at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Rescan recall attendance and adherence to lifestyle changes needs improving. Optimum time interval between scans remains uncertain. After a mean interval of 53.6 months between scans, and with no specific predictors indicated, a substantial minority (18.7%) experienced a deterioration in fibrosis grade.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects approximately 25% of the global adult population. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the associations between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease (CVD), arrhythmias, cardiac conduction defects, myocardial remodelling and heart failure. We also discuss the potential mechanisms that mediate or attenuate the strength of these associations, and briefly summarize the effect of treatments that both ameliorate NAFLD and decrease risk of CVD. METHODS: Searches of PubMed were performed by the two authors using the terms listed in Appendix. We limited the timeframe to the last decade due to the vast amount of research in the field (up to April 2021) for meta-analyses, reviews and original papers. Only articles published in English were considered. RESULTS: NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of fatal/non-fatal CVD events and other cardiac and arrhythmic complications (left ventricular hypertrophy, aortic-valve sclerosis and certain arrhythmias), independently of common CVD risk factors. There are probably several underlying mechanisms, including hepatic/systemic insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, hypertension and pro-atherogenic, pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory mediators released from the steatotic/inflamed liver that may be involved. Some genetic polymorphisms, such as PNPLA3 (rs738409 C>G) and TM6SF2 (rs58542926 C>T), may worsen the liver disease, but also attenuate the strength of the association between NAFLD and CVD, possibly via their effects on lipoprotein metabolism. Of the currently tested drugs for treating NAFLD that also benefit the vasculature, pioglitazone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are the most promising. CONCLUSIONS: The complex interplay between the liver and cardiometabolic risk factors contributes to CVD, arrhythmias and cardiac disease in NAFLD. There is an urgent need for a multidisciplinary approach to manage both liver disease and cardiometabolic risk, and to test the cardiovascular and cardiac effects of new drugs for NAFLD.

19.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(9): 743-753, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265276

RESUMO

With the global epidemics of obesity and associated conditions, including type 2 diabetes, metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and cognitive changes, the prevalence of multimorbidity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In this Review, a panel of international experts from across the spectrum of metabolic diseases come together to identify the challenges and provide perspectives on building a framework for a virtual primary care-driven, patient-centred, multidisciplinary model to deliver holistic care for patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and associated metabolic diseases. We focus on clinical care and innovative trial design for metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and associated metabolic diseases. This work represents a call to action to promote collaboration and partnerships between stakeholders for improving the lives of people with, or at risk of, metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and associated metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(11): 2270-2278, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary carbohydrate restriction or ketogenic diets are known to be beneficial in preventing liver fat accumulation. However, the effect of ketonemia on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in nondiabetic population is largely unknown. We investigated the association between fasting ketonuria and the risk of incident NAFLD in healthy adults. METHODS: A cohort of 153,076 nondiabetic Koreans with no hepatic steatosis and low probability of fibrosis at baseline was followed for a median of 4.1 years. The outcome was incident hepatic steatosis with or without liver fibrosis, and it was assessed by liver ultrasound and noninvasive fibrosis indices, including fibrosis-4 and the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). Parametric proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for outcome according to ketonuria status. RESULTS: Within 677,702.1 person-years of follow-up, 31,079 subjects developed hepatic steatosis. Compared with no ketonuria (reference), fasting ketonuria was significantly associated with a decreased risk of incident hepatic steatosis, with multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) of 0.81 (0.78-0.84). The corresponding HRs for incident hepatic steatosis with intermediate-to-high NFS were 0.79 (0.69-0.90). Similar associations were observed replacing NFS with fibrosis-4. In addition, the presence of persistent ketonuria at both baseline and subsequent visit was associated with the greatest decrease in the adjusted HR for incident NAFLD. DISCUSSION: Ketonuria was associated with a reduced risk of developing incident hepatic steatosis with and without intermediate-to-high probability of advanced fibrosis in a large cohort of nondiabetic healthy individuals. The role of hyperketonemia in the prevention of NAFLD requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Jejum , Cetose/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
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