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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a cornerstone in the management of large (≥20 mm) non-pedunculated colorectal polyps. Clinically significant post-EMR bleeding occurs in 7% of cases and is most frequently encountered in the right colon. We aimed to assess the use of prophylactic clip closure in preventing clinically significant post-EMR bleeding within the right colon. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial at a tertiary centre in Australia. Patients referred for the EMR of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps in the right colon were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) into the clip or control (no clip) group, using a computerised random-number generator. The primary endpoint was clinically significant post-EMR bleeding, defined as haematochezia necessitating emergency department presentation, hospitalisation, or re-intervention within 14 days post-EMR, which was analysed on the basis of intention-to-treat principles. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02196649, and has been completed. FINDINGS: Between Feb 4, 2016, and Dec 15, 2020, 231 patients were randomly assigned: 118 to the clip group and 113 to the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, clinically significant post-EMR bleeding was less frequent in the clip group than in the control group (four [3·4%] of 118 patients vs 12 [10·6%] of 113; p=0·031; absolute risk reduction 7·2% [95% CI 0·7-13·8]; number needed to treat 13·9). There were no differences between groups in adverse events, including delayed perforation (one [<1%] in the clip group vs one [<1%] in the control group) and post-EMR pain (four [3%] vs six [5%]). No deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Prophylactic clip closure can be performed following the EMR of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps of 20 mm or larger in the right colon to reduce the risk of clinically significant post-EMR bleeding. FUNDING: None.

2.
Int J Med Inform ; 156: 104610, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are considered the "gold standard" of care for patients with cancer but how well they function and the role they play in decision making varies widely. Although several observational tools have been developed to evaluate MDT performance, they are resource intensive and only assess MDT performance at a static point in time. The aim of this study was to develop a validated maturity model as a self-assessment instrument for MDTs to evaluate their performance and monitor improvement over time. METHODS: The authors used a three-phase methodology to develop a maturity model. In the first phase, using a modified Delphi technique, we identified 20 indicators (within five components), each having five levels of maturity [1]. In the second phase, further Delphi iterations were undertaken to refine the content and structure of the model. By the end of the second phase six components and 17 indicators had been established. In the third phase, the refined model was distributed to members from 11 MDTs to test for validity and reliability. 101 valid responses were received. Principal Component Analysis was used to determine the optimal number of components that fit the indicators. Factors with eigenvalue greater than one were extracted. Cronbach's alpha (α) was used to measure the internal consistency of components. Bivariate correlation analysis, measuring pair-wise relationships between indicators (r), was undertaken to assess convergent and discriminant validity. RESULTS: Five factors were extracted from Principal Component Analysis. For the factors extracted, 16 out of 17 indicators showed loadings greater than the 0.4 threshold. All components demonstrated good levels of internal consistency (α > 0.8) and convergent validity (r > 0.6). Discriminant validity cannot be established. Ratings for ease of use (3.6/5) and usefulness (3.4/5) were considered acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Further work is required to establish discriminant validity and refine the components and indicators. Once further refinement and validation are completed, the maturity model should be a simple tool for MDTs to measure their performance and monitor improvement over time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406645

RESUMO

AIMS: Iodine supplements are recommended for women planning pregnancy, but their impact on thyroid function during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and into pregnancy is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of iodine supplementation on thyroid function during COH. METHODS: One-hundred and six euthyroid women (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-2.5 mIU/L) planning their first COH cycle were subdivided according to iodine supplementation (nil, <6 months, ≥6 months) and compared to levothyroxine (LT4)-treated controls. Serial TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were recorded at four time points: (i) baseline, (ii) day 7 ovarian stimulation, (iii) ovulation trigger and (iv) two weeks post oocyte retrieval. Oocyte numbers, fertilisation rates and pregnancy outcome were recorded. RESULTS: TSH increased during COH for those women taking iodine supplements for ≥6 months (P = 0.025). One quarter recorded a TSH level >2.5 mIU/L before embryo transfer. A similar increase in TSH was demonstrated by LT4-dependent controls (P = 0.024) but not the remaining subgroups. Tg levels did not change during COH in any group but decreased significantly post oocyte retrieval if nil iodine (P < 0.0001) or supplemented for ≥6 months (P < 0.005). Iodine supplementation did not influence oocyte count, fertilisation or implantation rates. Women taking iodine for <6 months were four times more likely to achieve a live birth than women taking iodine for longer. CONCLUSIONS: Women taking iodine supplements for ≥6 months are less able to adapt to the thyroidal demands of COH, with responses comparable to LT4-dependent patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of change in muscle overactivity during repetitive grasp/release using dynamic computerized dynamometry (DCD; objective 1) and the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A; objective 2). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of an observational cohort study. SETTING: Hospital outpatient spasticity management service. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample (N=65), comprising adults with upper motor neuron syndrome affecting the arm after acquired brain injury (ABI; n=38) and participants without ABI (n=27). INTERVENTIONS: After clinical assessment, a subgroup of participants with ABI (n=28) underwent BTX-A injections as part of their spasticity management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Post hoc DCD data processing extracted the values of minimum force generation between 10 sequential contractions. The pattern of change was analyzed. RESULTS: The ABI injected group exerted greater force at baseline than both other groups (ABI injected=1.04 kg, ABI noninjected=0.74 kg, participants without ABI=0.53 kg; P=.011). After the first contraction, minimum force values increased for all groups and were greatest in the ABI injected group. With subsequent cycles, the group without ABI showed a linear pattern of decreasing force generation, whereas both ABI groups showed a quadratic increasing pattern, which was of greater magnitude in the ABI injected group. After injection, values for the ABI injected group showed a 51% reduction in inducible muscle overactivity (P=.003) to magnitudes similar to those of the ABI noninjected group. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that hand relaxation deteriorated during repetitive movements in people with spasticity, a feature hypothesized to adversely influence everyday hand function. After BTX-A injection, the magnitude but not the pattern of this inducible muscle overactivity improved.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(10): 1229-1239, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that catheter ablation in healthy ovine ventricular myocardium using low ionic 0.45% saline (half-normal saline [HNS]) and nonionic 5% dextrose in water (D5W) would result in larger lesions compared with use of 0.9% saline (normal saline [NS]). BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation using low and nonionic irrigants. METHODS: Open irrigated ablation was performed on 14 beating ovine hearts (NS, n = 5; HNS, n = 4; D5W, n = 5). Ablation was delivered by using identical parameters (ie, 30 W in power control mode, 60-second duration, contact force of 10-20 g in the endocardial ventricles and 5-10 g in the epicardium). Catheter orientation and tissue contact were optimized by using intracardiac echocardiography. Lesion width, depth, and volume and number of steam pops were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 196 lesions were analyzed (mean duration: 56.7 ± 8.3 seconds; mean contact force: 15.3 ± 6.1 g; and mean impedance drop: 31 ± 19.1 Ω). Compared with NS, HNS and D5W resulted in larger lesion volumes (NS 349.2 ± 245.1 mm3 vs HNS 645.7 ± 386.4 mm3 vs D5W 633.2 ± 387.1 mm3; HNS vs NS; P < 0.001; D5W vs NS; P < 0.001; D5W vs HNS; P = 0.87). However, D5W was associated with higher steam pop occurrence (NS 5% vs HNS 11% vs D5W 35%; HNS vs NS; P = 0.22; D5W vs NS; P < 0.001; D5W vs HNS; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Catheter ablation with HNS and D5W resulted in larger ablation lesions compared with NS but similar lesion dimensions between HNS and D5W. The increase in lesion size with HNS and D5W was associated with a higher incidence of steam pops, especially with D5W, compared with NS.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Solução Salina , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Glucose , Humanos , Pericárdio , Ovinos , Irrigação Terapêutica
6.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(12): 1891-1900, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce the risk of further cardiac events and improve the ability of people living with cardiovascular disease to manage their symptoms. However, many people who experience a cardiac event do not attend or fail to complete their CR program. Little is known about the characteristics of people who drop out compared to those who complete CR. AIMS: To identify subgroups of patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program who are more likely to dropout prior to final assessment by (1) calculating the dropout rate from the program, (2) quantifying the association between dropout and socio-demographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular risk factors, and (3) identifying independent predictors of dropout. METHODS: The study population is from a large metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, and consists of all participants consecutively enrolled in an outpatient CR program between 2006 and 2017. Items assessed included diagnoses and co-morbidities, quality of life (SF-36), psychological health (DASS-21), lifestyle factors and physical assessment. Dropout was defined as failure to complete the outpatient CR program and post CR assessment. RESULTS: Of the 3,350 patients enrolled in the CR program, 784 (23.4%; 95%CI: 22.0-24.9%) dropped out prior to completion. The independent predictors of dropout were smoking (OR 2.4; 95%CI: 1.9-3.0), being separated or divorced (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.5-2.6), younger age (<55 years) (OR 1.9; 95%CI: 1.6-2.4), obesity (OR 1.6; 95%CI: 1.3-2.0), diabetes (OR 1.6; 95%CI: 1.3-2.0), sedentary lifestyle (OR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1-1.6) and depressive symptoms (OR 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1-1.6). CONCLUSION: To improve the CR program completion rate, clinicians need to consider the impact of socio-demographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular risk factors on their patients' ability to complete CR. Tailored strategies which target the independent predictors of dropout are required to promote adherence to CR programs and thereby potentially reduce long-term cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
7.
Gut ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in the colon has been widely adopted, but there is limited data on the histopathological effects of the differing electrosurgical currents (ESCs) used. We used an in vivo porcine model to compare the tissue effects of ESCs for snare resection and adjuvant margin ablation techniques. DESIGN: Standardised EMR was performed by a single endoscopist in 12 pigs. Two intersecting 15 mm snare resections were performed. Resections were randomised 1:1 using either a microprocessor-controlled current (MCC) or low-power coagulating current (LPCC). The lateral margins of each defect were treated with either argon plasma coagulation (APC) or snare tip soft coagulation (STSC). Colons were surgically removed at 72 hours. Two specialist pathologists blinded to the intervention assessed the specimens. RESULTS: 88 defects were analysed (median 7 per pig, median defect size 29×17 mm). For snare ESC effects, 156 tissue sections were assessed. LPCC was comparable to MCC for deep involvement of the colon wall. For margin ablation, 172 tissue sections were assessed. APC was comparable to STSC for deep involvement of the colon wall. Islands of preserved mucosa at the coagulated margin were more likely with APC compared with STSC (16% vs 5%, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: For snare resection, MCC and LPCC did not produce significantly different tissue effects. The submucosal injectate may protect the underlying tissue, and technique may more strongly dictate the depth and extent of final injury. For margin ablation, APC was less uniform and complete compared with STSC.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on arterial intima-media thickness (IMT), a surrogate measure for cardiovascular disease, remains uncertain, in part because of the potential for non-SDB vascular risk factor interactions. In the present study, we determined predictors for common carotid (CCA) and femoral (CFA) artery IMT in an adult, sleep clinic cohort where non-SDB vascular risk factors (particularly diabetes) were eliminated or controlled. METHODS: We recruited 296 participants for polysomnography (standard SDB severity metrics) and CCA/CFA ultrasound examinations, followed by a 12 month vascular risk factor minimisation (RFM) and continuous positive pressure (CPAP) intervention for participants with a range of SDB severity (RFM Sub-Group, n = 157; apnea hyponea index [AHI]: 14.7 (7.2-33.2), median [IQR]). Univariable and multivariable linear regression models determined independent predictors for IMT. Linear mixed effects modelling determined independent predictors for IMT change across the intervention study. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Age, systolic blood pressure and waist:hip ratio were identified as non-SDB predictive factors for CCA IMT and age, weight and total cholesterol:HDL ratio for CFA IMT. No SDB severity metric emerged as an independent predictor for either CCA or CFA IMT, except in the RFM Sub-Group, where a 2-fold increase in AHI predicted a 2.4% increase in CFA IMT. Across the intervention study, CCA IMT decreased in those who lost weight, but there was no CPAP use interaction. CFA IMT, however, decreased by 12.9% (95%CI 6.8, 18.7%, p = 0.001) in those participants who both lost weight and used CPAP > = 4hours/night. CONCLUSION: We conclude that SDB severity has little impact on CCA IMT values when non-SDB vascular risk factors are minimised or not present. This is the first study, however, to suggest a potential linkage between SDB severity and CFA IMT values. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000250932 and ACTRN12620000694910.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia
9.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(5): 959-968.e2, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The endoscopic management of large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps involving the ileocecal valve (ICV-LNPCPs) remains challenging because of its unique anatomic features, with long-term outcomes inferior to LNPCPs not involving the ICV. We sought to evaluate the impact of technical innovations and advances in the EMR of ICV-LNPCPs. METHODS: The performance of EMR for ICV-LNPCPs was retrospectively evaluated in a prospective observational cohort of LNPCPs ≥20 mm. Efficacy was measured by clinical success (removal of all polypoid tissue during index EMR and avoidance of surgery) and recurrence at first surveillance colonoscopy. Accounting for the adoption of technical innovations, comparisons were made between an historical cohort (September 2008 to April 2016) and contemporary cohort (May 2016 to October 2020). Safety was evaluated by documenting the frequencies of intraprocedural bleeding, delayed bleeding, deep mural injury, and delayed perforation. RESULTS: Between September 2008 to October 2020, 142 ICV-LNPCPs were referred for EMR. Median ICV-LNPCP size was 35 mm (interquartile range, 25-50 mm). When comparing the contemporary (n = 66) and historical cohorts (n = 76) of ICV-LNPCPs, there were significant differences in clinical success (93.9% vs 77.6%, P = .006) and recurrence (4.6% vs 21.0%, P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: With technical advances, ICV-LNPCPs can be effectively and safely managed by EMR, independent of lesion complexity. Most patients experience excellent outcomes and avoid surgery.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Valva Ileocecal , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Humanos , Valva Ileocecal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(11): 2425-2434.e4, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ability of optical evaluation to diagnose submucosal invasive cancer (SMIC) prior to endoscopic resection of large (≥20 mm) nonpedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) is critical to inform therapeutic decisions. Prior studies suggest that it is insufficiently accurate to detect SMIC. It is unknown whether lesion morphology influences optical evaluation performance. METHODS: LNPCPs ≥20 mm referred for endoscopic resection within a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort were evaluated. Optical evaluation was performed prior to endoscopic resection with the optical prediction of SMIC based on established features (Kudo V pit pattern, depressed morphology, rigidity/fixation, ulceration). Optical evaluation performance outcomes were calculated. Outcomes were reported by dominant morphology: nodular (Paris 0-Is/0-IIa+Is) vs flat (Paris 0-IIa/0-IIb) morphology. RESULTS: From July 2013 to July 2019, 1583 LNPCPs (median size 35 [interquartile range, 25-50] mm; 855 flat, 728 nodular) were assessed. SMIC was identified in 146 (9.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.9%-10.8%). Overall sensitivity and specificity were 67.1% (95% CI, 59.2%-74.2%) and 95.1% (95% CI, 93.9%-96.1%), respectively. The overall SMIC miss rate was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3%-4.0%). Significant differences in sensitivity (90.9% vs 52.7%), specificity (96.3% vs 93.7%), and SMIC miss rate (0.6% vs 5.9%) between flat and nodular LNPCPs were identified (all P < .027). Multiple logistic regression identified size ≥40 mm (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8), rectosigmoid location (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7), and nodular morphology (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 2.8-18.9) as predictors of missed SMIC (all P < .039). CONCLUSIONS: Optical evaluation performance is dependent on lesion morphology. In the absence of features suggestive of SMIC, flat lesions can be presumed benign and be managed accordingly.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto
11.
Med Dosim ; 46(2): e1-e6, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941320

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dose to the skin surface underneath bolus, was accurately predicted by a 3D treatment planning system (TPS) in patients receiving 50 Gy/25# postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) using optically stimulated luminescent dosimetry (OSLD) for verification. In vivo dosimetry using OSLDs was performed in 20 consecutive patients receiving PMRT. An array of 9 OSLDs were applied to the chest wall or neobreast in a grid arrangement. Dosimetry data were recorded on 3 separate treatment fractions, averaged, and extrapolated to 25 fractions. On the 3D TPS, the predicted dose was calculated using the departmental planning algorithm at points corresponding to the OSLDs. The mean within patient difference between the planned and measured dose at each of the 9 points was calculated and Bland-Altman limits of agreement used to quantify the extent of agreement. Paired t-tests were used to test for evidence of systematic bias at each point. The coefficient of variation of the 3 OSLD readings per patient at each of the 9 points was low for 8 points (≤4.4%) demonstrating comparable dose received per fraction at these points. The mean ratio between the in vivo measured extrapolated OSLD (IVME OSLD) dose and the planned TPS dose ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 across all points (standard deviation range 0.05 to 0.08). The mean within patient difference between the IVME OSLD and planned TPS was <1 Gy at 7 of the 9 points and the t-test for evidence of systematic bias was significant (p = 0.03) at only 1 of the 9 points. Our commercially available 3D TPS closely predicted PMRT skin surface dose underneath bolus as verified by OSLDs. At all sites, the average ratio of delivered to predicted dose was >0.97 but <1. This practical and feasible OSLD assessment of only 3 of 25 fractions facilitates quality assurance of a TPS in predicting skin surface dose under bolus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dosimetria por Luminescência Estimulada Opticamente , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
12.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 711-717, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ABG samples are often obtained in trauma patients to assess shock severity. Venous blood gas (VBG) sampling, which is less invasive, has been widely used to assess other forms of shock. The study aim was to determine the agreement between VBG and ABG measurements in trauma. METHODS: Patients were enrolled at an Australian trauma centre between October 2016 and October 2018. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) between paired blood gas samples taken <30 min apart were used to quantify the extent of agreement. The impact of using only VBG measurements was considered using an a priori plan. Cases where venous sampling failed to detect 'concerning levels' were flagged using evidence-based cut-offs: pH ≤7.2, base deficit (BD) ≤-6, bicarbonate <21 and lactate ≥4. Case summaries of these patients were assessed by independent trauma clinicians as to whether an ABG would change expected management. RESULTS: During the study period 176 major trauma patients had valid paired blood gas samples available for analysis. The median time difference between paired measurements was 11 min (IQR 6-17). There was a predominance of men (81.8%) and blunt trauma (92.0%). Median Injury Severity Score was 13 (range 1-75) and inpatient mortality was 6.3%. Mean difference (ABG-VBG) and LOA between paired arterial and venous measurements were 0.036 (LOA -0.048 to 0.120) for pH, -1.27 mmol/L (LOA -4.35 to 1.81) for BD, -0.64 mmol/L (LOA -1.86 to 0.57) for lactate and -1.97 mmol/L (LOA -5.49 to 1.55) for bicarbonate. Independent assessment of the VBG 'false negative' cases (n=20) suggested an ABG would change circulatory management in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: In trauma patients VBG and ABG parameters displayed suboptimal agreement. However, in cases flagged as VBG 'false negative' independent review indicated that the availability of an ABG was unlikely to change management.


Assuntos
Gasometria , Choque Traumático/sangue , Veias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 203, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are now considered an essential part of cancer care decision-making, how they perform varies widely. The authors hypothesised that a comprehensive, multipronged improvement program, and associated annual member survey, could strengthen MDT performance across a whole cancer service. METHODS: The study comprised the introduction of a structured program, the Tumour Program Strengthening Initiative (TPSI) linked with an annual survey of member's perceptions of their performance. Three iterations of the survey have been completed (2017, 2018 and 2019). Generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used to test for a difference in the proportion of positive survey responses between 2017 and 2019 adjusted for team clustering. RESULTS: Twelve teams participated in TPSI. One hundred twenty-nine, 118 and 146 members completed the survey in 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively. Of the 17 questions that were asked in all three years, nine showed significant improvement and, of these, five were highly significant. Documenting consensus, developing Terms of Reference (TORs), establishing referral criteria and referring to clinical practice guidelines showed most improvement. Questions related to patient considerations, professional development and quality improvement (QI) activities showed no significant change. CONCLUSIONS: TPSI resulted in sustained and significant improvement. The MDT survey not only allowed MDT members to identify their strengths and weaknesses but also provided insights for management to flag priority areas for further support. Overall program improvement reflected the strengthening of the weakest teams as well as further improvement in highly performing MDTs. Importantly, the initiative has the potential to achieve behaviour change amongst clinicians.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019476, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749308

RESUMO

Background Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction detected by 2-dimensional global longitudinal strain post breast radiotherapy has been described in patients with breast cancer. We hypothesized that left ventricular dysfunction postradiotherapy may be site specific, based on differential segmental radiotherapy dose received. Methods and Results Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 months postradiotherapy on 61 chemotherapy-naïve women with left-sided breast cancer undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy. Radiation received within basal, mid, and apical regions for the 6 left ventricular walls was quantified from the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Anterior, anteroseptal, and anterolateral walls received the highest radiation doses, while inferolateral and inferior walls received the lowest. There was a progressive increase in the radiation dose received from basal to apical regions. At 6 weeks, the most significant percentage deterioration in strain was seen in the apical region, with greatest reductions in the anterior wall followed by the anteroseptal and anterolateral walls, with a similar pattern persisting at 12 months. There was a within-patient dose-response association between the segment-specific percentage deterioration in strain at 6 weeks and 12 months and the radiation dose received. Conclusions Radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer causes differential segmental dysfunction, with myocardial segments that receive the highest radiation dose demonstrating greatest strain impairment. Percentage deterioration in strain observed 6 weeks postradiotherapy persisted at 12 months and demonstrated a dose-response relationship with radiotherapy dose received. Radiotherapy-induced subclinical cardiac dysfunction is of importance because it could be additive to chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer. Long-term outcomes in patients with asymptomatic strain reduction require further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
15.
Pharm Stat ; 20(4): 840-849, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733578

RESUMO

Most clinical studies, which investigate the impact of therapy simultaneously, record the frequency of adverse events in order to monitor safety of the intervention. Study reports typically summarise adverse event data by tabulating the frequencies of the worst grade experienced but provide no details of the temporal profiles of specific types of adverse events. Such 'toxicity profiles' are potentially important tools in disease management and in the assessment of newer therapies including targeted treatments and immunotherapy where different types of toxicity may be more common at various times during long-term drug exposure. Toxicity profiles of commonly experienced adverse events occurring due to exposure to long-term treatment could assist in evaluating the costs of the health care benefits of therapy. We show how to generate toxicity profiles using an adaptation of the ordinal time-to-event model comprising of a two-step process, involving estimation of the multinomial response probabilities using multinomial logistic regression and combining these with recurrent time to event hazard estimates to produce cumulative event probabilities for each of the multinomial adverse event response categories. Such a model permits the simultaneous assessment of the risk of events over time and provides cumulative risk probabilities for each type of adverse event response. The method can be applied more generally by using different models to estimate outcome/response probabilities. The method is illustrated by developing toxicity profiles for three distinct types of adverse events associated with two treatment regimens for patients with advanced breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(5): 910-920, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528853

RESUMO

Atypical femur fractures (AFF) are a rare but serious complication of long-term bisphosphonate use. Although clearly defined by ASBMR criteria, a proportion of patients with AFFs may go unrecognized and the use of qualitative fracture criteria may lead to uncertainty in AFF diagnosis, with significant therapeutic implications. A score that rapidly and accurately identifies AFFs among subtrochanteric femur fractures using quantitative, measurable parameters is needed. In a retrospective cohort of 110 female patients presenting with AFFs or typical femur fractures (TFFs), multiple logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used to develop the Sydney AFF score. This score, based on demographic and femoral geometry variables, uses three dichotomized independent predictors and adds one point for each: (age ≤80 years) + (femoral neck width <37 mm) + (lateral cortical width at lesser trochanter ≥5 mm), (score, 0 to 3). In an independent validation set of 53 female patients at a different centre in Sydney, a score ≥2 demonstrated 73.3% sensitivity and 69.6% specificity for AFF (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.775, SE 0.063) and remained independently associated with AFF after adjustment for bisphosphonate use. The Sydney AFF score provides a quantitative means of flagging female patients with atraumatic femur fractures who have sustained an AFF as opposed to a TFF. This distinction has clear management implications and may augment current ASBMR diagnostic criteria. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Fraturas do Fêmur , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Med J Aust ; 214(4): 173-178, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and procedural outcomes of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING: Prospective observational study in three Australian tertiary referral centres, 5 May 2014 - 27 October 2019 (66 months). PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had undergone POEM for achalasia. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES: Eckardt scores calculated prior to POEM and six months, one year, and two years after POEM. The primary outcome was clinical success, defined as an Eckardt score of 3 or less without a second intervention. RESULTS: 142 patients underwent POEM for achalasia; their mean age was 52 years (SD, 18 years), 83 were men (58%), and the median length of hospital stay two days (IQR, 1-3 days). Their mean Eckardt score before POEM was 8.0 (SD, 2.4) and 1.1 (SD, 1.6) six months after POEM; it did not change significantly between six months and two years after POEM (mean monthly increase, 0.014 points; 95% CI, -0.001 to 0.029). A total of 127 patients (89%) improved clinically after POEM. Intra-procedural capnoperitoneum was the only risk factor associated with treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.08-7.51). Previous treatments - botulinum toxin injection (25 patients, 18%), endoscopic balloon dilatation (69, 49%), and Heller myotomy (14, 10%) - did not affect POEM outcomes. Five patients (4%) experienced major adverse events, including pneumonia, oesophageal leak, empyema and melaena, that were managed during admission and without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: POEM is an effective treatment for achalasia. Significant reductions in Eckardt scores achieved by six months are sustained at two years. POEM can be both a first line definitive therapy and a salvage therapy for patients not helped by other treatments.


Assuntos
Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Piloromiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Piloromiotomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(4): 1279-1288, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389361

RESUMO

Left atrial strain (LAS) on transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is increasingly recognised to have clinical utility in cardiovascular disease. Differences in LAS measurements between vendors remains a barrier for clinical use. We sought to compare LAS between two commonly used software platforms; the layer-specific endocardial and mid-myocardial measurements of LAS on General Electric (GE) Echopac were compared to TomTec strain. LAS was measured in 88 individuals with no previous cardiac history and 40 paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients, in sinus rhythm at TTE. Conventionally, LAS measured using GE Echopac is mid-myocardial strain (GE-mid); additionally, endocardial (GE-endo) LAS was evaluated. Both LAS measurements by GE were compared to TomTec-Arena (v2.30.02) measurements. Reservoir (ƐR), contractile (ƐCT) and conduit (ƐCD) phasic strain were evaluated. Both GE-mid and GE-endo LAS correlated well with TomTec LAS. On Bland-Altman analysis, GE-mid LAS measurements were systematically lower than TomTec LAS (ƐR: mean difference (MD) - 6.08%, limits of agreement (LOA) - 12%, 0%, ƐCT: MD - 0.8%, LOA - 7%, 5%, ƐCD: MD - 5.2% LOA - 12%, 1%). GE-endo LAS demonstrated no systematic difference from TomTec LAS, but had wider limits of agreement (ƐR: MD 0.41%, LOA - 7%, 8%, ƐCT: MD 0.50%, LOA - 6%, 7%, ƐCD: MD - 0.08%, LOA - 7%, 7%). ƐR had the best reproducibility. Mid-myocardial LAS, routinely evaluated by GE Echopac software, systematically underestimates LAS compared to TomTec. Using GE endocardial LAS eliminated this bias, but introduced greater variation between measurements. Serial measurements of LAS should therefore be performed on the same vendor system.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Ecocardiografia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Software , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although perforation is the most feared adverse event associated with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), limited data exists concerning its management. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of intra-procedural deep mural injury (DMI) in an international multi-center observational cohort of large (≥20 mm) non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent EMR for a LNPCP ≥20 mm were evaluated. Significant DMI (S-DMI) was defined as Sydney DMI Classification type III (muscularis propria injury, target sign) or type IV/V (perforation without or with contamination, respectively). The primary outcome was successful S-DMI defect closure. Secondary outcomes included technical success (removal of all visible polypoid tissue during index EMR), surgical referral and recurrence at first surveillance colonscopy (SC1). RESULTS: Between July 2008 to May 2020, 3717 LNPCPs underwent EMR. Median lesion size was 35mm (interquartile range (IQR) 25 to 45mm). Significant DMI was identified in 101 cases (2.7%), with successful defect closure in 98 (97.0%) using a median of 4 through-the-scope clips (TTSCs; IQR 3 to 6 TTSCs). Three (3.0%) patients underwent S-DMI-related urgent surgery. Technical success was achieved in 94 (93.1%) patients, with 46 (45.5%) admitted to hospital (median duration 1 day; IQR 1 to 2 days). Comparing LNPCPs with and without S-DMI, no differences in technical success (94 (93.1%) vs 3316 (91.7%); P = .62) or SC1 recurrence (12 (20.0%) vs 363 (13.6%); P = .15) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Significant DMI is readily managed endoscopically and does not appear to affect technical success or recurrence.

20.
Gut ; 70(9): 1691-1697, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large (≥20 mm) sessile serrated lesions (L-SSL) are premalignant lesions that require endoscopic removal. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is the existing standard of care but carries some risk of adverse events including clinically significant post-EMR bleeding and deep mural injury (DMI). The respective risk-effectiveness ratio of piecemeal cold snare polypectomy (p-CSP) in L-SSL management is not fully known. DESIGN: Consecutive patients referred for L-SSL management were treated by p-CSP from April 2016 to January 2020 or by conventional EMR in the preceding period between July 2008 and March 2016 at four Australian tertiary centres. Surveillance colonoscopies were conducted at 6 months (SC1) and 18 months (SC2). Outcomes on technical success, adverse events and recurrence were documented prospectively and then compared retrospectively between the subsequent time periods. RESULTS: A total of 562 L-SSL in 474 patients were evaluated of which 156 L-SSL in 121 patients were treated by p-CSP and 406 L-SSL in 353 patients by EMR. Technical success was equal in both periods (100.0% (n=156) vs 99.0% (n=402)). No adverse events occurred in p-CSP, whereas delayed bleeding and DMI were encountered in 5.1% (n=18) and 3.4% (n=12) of L-SSL treated by EMR, respectively. Recurrence rates following p-CSP were similar to EMR at 4.3% (n=4) versus 4.6% (n=14) and 2.0% (n=1) versus 1.2% (n=3) for surveillance colonoscopy (SC)1 and SC2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a historical comparison on the endoscopic management of L-SSL, p-CSP is technically equally efficacious to EMR but virtually eliminates the risk of delayed bleeding and perforation. p-CSP should therefore be considered as the new standard of care for L-SSL treatment.

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