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1.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1)2020. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121008

RESUMO

La prevalencia de enfermedad renal ha aumentado considerablemente en la última década y está previsto que crezca en los próximos años. Recientemente, diversos modelos se han utilizado para entender los procesos fisiopatológicos de daño renal y para la búsqueda de futuros candidatos farmacológicos. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una descripción de la evidencia actual de modelos in vitro e in vivo de nefrotoxicidad, nefropatía diabética y deshidratación, y los fundamentos de las principales vías de señalización fisiopatológicas, con el fin de proponer biomarcadores candidatos para futura investigación farmacológica. Actualmente, los roedores constituyen un pilar importante en estudios de daño renal, existiendo diferencias específicas según el estímulo nocivo, lo que sugiere considerar para un modelo relevante aspectos como especie, cepa, género y estructuras renales objetivo. Diversas estructuras renales se han complementado in vitro, principalmente a partir de líneas celulares, como del epitelio tubular, podocitos, células mesangiales glomerulares y conducto colector medular interno. Este enfoque se ha utilizado como complementario en modelos de nefrotoxicidad por exposición a aminoglucósidos (principalmente), deshidratación por cloruro de sodio hiperosmolar, y nefropatía diabética por medio de glucosa alta y productos derivados de glucólisis y glicación. Recientemente, estos modelos han mostrado similitud en diversas rutas de señalización celular, con algunos biomarcadores en común, entre múltiples causas de daño renal como el daño oxidativo, disfunción mitocondrial, procesos inflamatorios, desregulación de sistemas de defensa y sobrevivencia celular, y apoptosis. El enfoque en seleccionar biomarcadores relevantes contribuirá al diseño de estrategias terapéuticas de nefroprotectores sobre múltiples factores etiológicos.


The prevalence of kidney disease has increased considerably in the last decade and is expected to growth in the coming years. Recently, various models have been used to understand the pathophysiological processes of kidney damage and to search for future pharmacological candidates. The aim of this review is to provide a description of the current evidence of in vitro and in vivo models of nephrotoxicity, diabetic nephropathy and dehydration, and the foundations of the main pathophysiological signaling pathways, in order to propose candidate biomarkers for future drug discovery. Currently, rodents are an important pillar in studies of kidney damage, with specific differences depending on the noxious stimulus, which suggests considering aspects such as species, strain, gender and target structures for a relevant model. Several renal structures have been complemented through in vitro approaches, mainly using cell lines, such as the tubular epithelium, podocytes, glomerular mesangial cells and inner medullary collecting duct. These cells have been used as models of nephrotoxicity by exposure to aminoglycosides (mainly), dehydration by exposure to hyperosmolar sodium chloride, and diabetic nephropathy by exposure to high glucose and products derived from glycolysis and glycation. Recently, these models have shown common cell signaling pathways on multiple etiologies of kidney injury, sharing several biomarkers such as oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of defense systems and cell survival, and apoptosis. Approaching kidney injury based on the selection of relevant biomarkers will contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for nephroprotection on multiple etiological factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Ratos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Biomarcadores , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Roedores , Ratos Wistar , Apoptose , Epitélio , Células Mesangiais , Glucose/análise
2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(1): 7-15, 2018. ^c27 cmtab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-965169

RESUMO

Plantas nodrizas son aquellas especies vegetales útiles para la sobrevivencia y convivencia de otras especies. Abies guatemalensis Rehder (pinabete), es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción y para asegurar su sobrevivencia es necesario estudiar sus plantas nodrizas. Se colectaron seis especies de plantas nodrizas provenientes de bosque Los Cuervos, Ixchiguán, San Marcos, se secaron a la sombra en un horno, hasta obtener un porcentaje de humedad < 10%. Se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos por percolación y concentración empleando rotavapor; los aceites senciales fueron extraídos por hidrodestilación con Neoclevenger. Para los análisis de actividad biológica se realizaron ensayos contra bacterias, hongos, levaduras, larvas de insectos, nauplios de Artemia salina y actividad antioxidante. Los aceites esenciales presentaron un porcentaje de rendimiento < 0.3%. Cinco de los seis extractos etanólicos demostraron baja actividad antimicrobiana y larvicida (CIM: 1 mg/mL). Respecto a la actividad antioxidante por DPPH, Acaena elongata (CI50 de 0.21 [0.019, 0.23] mg/mL) y Rubus trilobus (CI50 0.32 [0.31, 0.33] mg/mL) presentaron los mejores resultados y Buddleja megalocephala (CI50 0.75 [0.72, 0.77] mg/mL) presentó actividad moderada. Estos hallazgos estimulan a continuar la investigación de plantas nodrizas para identificar las moléculas responsables de la actividad antioxidante y definir su posible aplicación como antioxidantes para la prevención o tratamiento de patologías humanas o para la preservación de alimentos o uso cosmético, permitiendo que las comunidades conserven y aprovechen de manera sostenible dichas especies.


Nurse plants are species useful for the survival and coexistence of other plants. Abies guatemalensis Rehder (fir) is an endemic species in danger of extinction and in order to ensure its survival, it is necessary to study their nurse plants. Six species of nurse plants were collected from Los Cuervos forest, Ixchiguán, San Marcos, they were dried in the shade and in an oven until a moisture content < 10% was obtained. Ethanol extracts were obtained by percolation followed by concentration in rotavapor; essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation with Neoclevenger. Assays for biological activity were established against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, insect larvae, nauplii of Artemia salina and antioxidant activity. The essential oils yields were < 0.3%. Extracts have little antimicrobial and larvicidal activity with a MIC 1 mg/mL of the ethanol extracts. The free radical trapping activity assay evaluated by DPPH, yielded good results: Acaena elongata (IC50 of 0.21 [0.019, 0.23] mg/mL) and Rubus trilobus (IC50 0.32 [0.31, 0.33] mg/mL) and moderate activity in Buddleja megalocephala (IC50 0.75 [0.72, 0.77] mg/mL). These findings stimulate research on nurse plants to identify the molecules responsible for the antioxidant activity and to define its possible application for the prevention or treatment of human pathologies or for the preservation of food or cosmetic use, allowing the communities to preserve and take advantage on a sustainable way.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Antioxidantes/análise
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(1): 83-89, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-965202

RESUMO

La elaboración de un manuscrito y su publicación en revistas indexadas, es la culminación de un proyecto de investigación, es la forma en que los investigadores comparten el nuevo conocimiento con sus pares y constituye el principal mecanismo de visibilidad personal e institucional, a nivel nacional e internacional. El presente ensayo tuvo como objetivo elaborar una guía básica de cómo preparar un manuscrito y brindar elementos prácticos para lograr su publicación. Se describen los 10 pasos básicos, que señalan el orden en que deben abordarse las secciones de un artículo científico, así como el contenido de las mismas. Finalmente se presenta una tabla que mediante preguntas e indicaciones, resume el contenido de cada una de las secciones del artículo. Se espera que con esta guía, los investigadores encuentren una herramienta útil que les ayude a escribir y publicar artículos científicos.


Preparing and publishing a scientific manuscript in peer reviewed journals, is the final phase of a research project, it represents the way of sharing new knowledge with other scientists, and is the principal mechanism for personal and institutional visibility at national and international level. The objective of this essay was to prepare a basic guide on how to write a manuscript and to provide practical elements to achieve its publication. Ten basic steps are described, which point out the order to approach the sections of a scientific paper, as well as the content of each section. Finally the paper presents a table which by using questions and indications provides tips for writing each section of a scientific paper. It is expected that this guide will help young scientists to write and publish scientific papers.


Assuntos
Artigo de Revista , Publicações Científicas e Técnicas , Componentes de Publicações
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 4(1): 49-57, 20170600. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-882836

RESUMO

El selenio (Se) es un elemento esencial para el ser humano que se encuentra en pequeñas cantidades en los suelos, pero se acumula en ciertas plantas, proporcionando beneficios como antioxidante, antiinflamatorio y quemopreventivo por la presencia de unas 25 selenoproteínas que participan en diversas acciones de bienestar, lactancia, desarrollo, reproducción y salud de la progenie. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de Se en hojas de vegetales utilizados tradicionalmente en la alimentación guatemalteca. Se colectaron hojas de materiales cultivados para los mercados locales de nueve hierbas nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrescens y Solanum wendlandii) y dos introducidas de reconocido uso alimenticio (Moringa oleifera y Spinacia oleracea), se secaron en un horno de convección forzada para lograr una humedad < 10% y se digirieron 0.25 ± 0.02 g de hojas en una mezcla de ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico que se calentó hasta la digestión total de la materia. El Se fue determinado por el método de reflexión total de rayos X, utilizando un estándar interno de itrio (Y) el que se midió utilizando reflectores de cuarzo en un espectrómetro de reflexión total de rayos X. De todas las especies evaluadas, únicamente A. hybridus demostró cantidades cuantificables de Se. Se determinó que 100 g de materia vegetal seca de A. hybridus proporciona 0.355 mg de Se, por lo que su consumo semanal puede contribuir con el requerimiento de este micronutriente para un adulto.


Selenium (Se) is an essential element for the human being; it is in small amounts in the soil but it accumulates in certain plants, providing benefits as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive, due to the presence of about 25 selenoproteins that participate in different welfare and development actions, lactation, reproduction and health of the progeny. This study aimed to assess Se content in leaves of nine native plants traditionally used in Guatemalan food (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrescens and Solanum wendlandii) and two internationally uses herbs (Moringa oleifera, Spinacia oleracea). Se was determined by total reflection X-ray method. Plants were dried in a forced convection oven to constant weight, then were digested by weighing 0.25 ± 0.02 g of dry plant material with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acid, and warmed to achieve complete digestion. Using a yttrium (Y) internal standard were measured using quartz reflectors Spectrometer Total reflection X-ray. Of all native plant species tested, only A. hybridus there were measurable amounts of Se. It was determined that 100 g of dry plant material of A. hybridus provides 0.355 mg of Se, so its weekly consumption by an adult might contribute to satisfied the requirement of this microelement.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubídio/administração & dosagem , Estrôncio/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação
6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 4(2): 203-216, 2017. ilus 27 cm
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-965052

RESUMO

Existen pocos estudios científicos que demuestren el valor terapéutico de las plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional centroamericana para tratar el envenenamiento ofídico. En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad de los extractos etanólicos de nueve plantas de uso etnomédico en Centroamérica (Acacia hindsii, Aristolochia maxima, Bursera simaruba, Cissampelos pareira, Eryngium foetidum, Hamelia patens, Pimenta dioica, Piper peltatum y Sansevieria hyacinthoides) para inhibir el efecto coagulante del veneno de Bothrops asper. Tres de ellas (B. simaruba, E. foetidum y P. dioica) también fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su capacidad inhibitoria de los efectos fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2) y proteolítico del veneno. Las plantas fueron colectadas en Guatemala, secadas, extraídas con etanol y los efectos inhibitorios evaluados in vitro después de preincubar concentraciones variables de extracto con concentraciones fijas de veneno. Los resultados demostraron que ninguno de los extractos logró inhibir los efectos coagulante y PLA2, pero los extractos clorofilados de P. dioica y E. foetidum inhibieron efectivamente la actividad proteolítica del veneno. El tamizaje fitoquímico, mediante ensayos macro y semimicrométricos de cromatografía en capa fina, demostró la presencia de metabolitos secundarios reportados con actividad antiproteolítica (flavonoides, antocianinas, catequinas y taninos) en la composición química de los extractos de E. foetidum y P. dioica. Su efecto sobre el veneno se evaluó mediante electroforesis SDS-PAGE, demostrándose que no está mediado por degradación proteolítica de los componentes del veneno. El aislamiento y caracterización específica de sus metabolitos secundarios en futuros estudios, permitirá determinar el mecanismo de acción inhibitoria ejercido por estos extractos.


Medicinal plants have been traditionally used in Central America to treat snakebite envenomations, however, very few scientific studies aimed to demonstrate their efficacy and safety have been performed. In this study, ethanolic extracts of nine plants used in the region by traditional healers in snakebite cases (Acacia hindsii, Aristolochia maxima, Bursera simaruba, Cissampelos pareira, Eryngium foetidum, Hamelia patens, Pimenta dioica, Piper peltatum and Sansevieria hyacinthoides) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the coagulant effect induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. Three of these extracts (B. simaruba, E. foetidum and P. dioica) were also evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and proteolytic activities of the venom. Plants were collected in Guatemala, dried, extracted with ethanol, and their inhibitory effects were evaluated in vitro after pre-incubation of several amounts of each extract with a challenge concentration of venom. Results showed that none of the extracts inhibited the coagulant and PLA2 effects; however, chlorophyllated extracts of E. foetidum and P. dioica effectively inhibited the proteolytic activity of the venom. Phytochemical analysis of these extracts, conducted by macrometric assays and semimicroanalysis by thin layer chromatography, identified secondary metabolites (flavones, anthocyanins, catequines and tannins) whose anti-proteolytic activities have been widely reported. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the mechanism of inhibition is not related to proteolytic degradation of the venom proteins by the plant extracts. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active venom inhibitory compounds of these plants, aimed to understand their mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Plantas Medicinais/química , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Antídotos/análise
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 178: 307-22, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26680589

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Central America, most Maya women use ethnomedicines for all aspects of their reproductive cycle including menstruation, pregnancy and menopause. However, very few of these plants have been documented, collected and tested in appropriate pharmacological assays to determine possible safety and efficacy. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of information on the ethnomedical uses, ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacological research for medicinal plants used for women's reproductive health in Guatemala, with a special emphasis on the Q'eqchi Maya of the Lake Izabal region, to demonstrate therapeutic potential and support future research in the field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reviews of the ethnobotanical, ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological literature were performed for 30 plants collected in the Lake Izabal region of Guatemala and used by the Q'eqchi Maya for treatment of reproductive health issues were performed up to and including July 2015 using multiple databases, library searches for abstracts, books, dissertations, and websites. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Review of the published research confirms that many of the plants used by Q'eqchi Maya women for the management of reproductive health issues have pharmacological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, progestagenic and/or serotonergic effects, that support the use of these plants and provide plausible mechanisms of action for their traditional uses. Furthermore, a new serotonin agonist, 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5, 6-Z-fadyenolide was isolated, thereby demonstrating an untapped potential for drug discovery. However, to date much of the pharmacological assays have been in vitro only, and few in vivo studies have been performed. Considering the large percentage of the Maya population in Guatemala that use traditional medicines, there remains a significant lack of pharmacological and toxicological data for these plants. Future research should focus on the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants using in vivo preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as chemical analysis. Since medicinal plants from the Piperaceae are most commonly used as traditional medicines by the Q'eqchi Maya women, and new bioactive compounds have been identified from Piper species, investigations of commonly used plants from this family would be an appropriate place to start. Data generated from such studies would contribute to Guatemala's national effort to promote a complementary relationship between traditional Maya medicine and public health services.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde da Mulher
8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 2(2): 119-126, jul.-dic. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834323

RESUMO

Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas sustancias pueden obtenerse de diferentes fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armilla-riella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus). Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF) y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH) y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico)(ABTS). Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados en el extracto acuoso fueron: fenoles totales 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g, DPPH CI 50 0.93 mg/mL (IC95% 0.65-1.28) y en ABTS CI50 0.96 mg/mL (IC 95% 0.63-1.35); los resultados en el extracto etanólico fueron: Fenoles totales 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 2.75 mg/mL (IC 95% 2.46-3.07) y 4.13 mg/mL (IC 95% 2.67-5.88). Se evidencia de esta forma que las especies de basidiomicetos estudiadas presentan actividad antioxidante por lo cual pueden ser una fuente potencial de antioxidantes naturales.


Antioxidants are essential in the body to prevent oxidative damage. These antioxidant substances are obtained from different sources such as fruits, plants and mushrooms. In Guatemala, diverse species of mushrooms are commercialized and consumed, however their antioxidant activity has not been documented in Guatemala. The goal of this study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from edible basidiomycete’s species: Agaricus aff. bisporus, A. brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus and Pleurotus ostreatus. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used as a qualitative method to determine the presence of antioxidant activity, subsequently, three in vitro macrometric assays were used: the quantification of total phenolics, reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-pricrilhidrazil (DPPH) radical, and discoloration of the acid reagent 2.2 ‘-azinobis-(acid-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation. Aqueous extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than ethanolic in all the quantitative techniques used. The specie that showed greater antioxidant activity in both extracts was B. edulis, whose results of aqueous extract were as follows: Total phenolics 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g , DPPH IC50 0.93 mg/mL (CI95% 0.65-1.28) and ABTS IC50 0.96 mg/mL (CI95% 0.63-1.35); results of ethanolic extract were: Total phenolics 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH IC50 2.75 mg/mL (CI95% 2.46-3.07) and ABTS IC50 4.13 mg/mL (CI95% 2.67-5.88). Based in the result of the study all the basidiomycete’s species that were evaluated have antioxidant activity, therefore, are potential sources of natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Agaricus campestris , Amanita , Alimento Funcional
9.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 2(2): 141-147, jul.-dic. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834326

RESUMO

La elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares, en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. sabdariffa, para reducir los lípidos séricos en dos grupos de individuos, con valores de triglicéridos mayores de 150 mg/dL, al recibir una dosis de 15 mg de antocianinas totales al día, dividida entres veces, por un periodo de dos meses para establecer su influencia, dependiendo del momento de su administración, un grupo recibiéndola antes de la comida y otro durante la misma. El extracto de H. sabdariffa mostró un efecto hipotrigliceridémico significativo (p = 0.034), al finalizar el tratamiento, únicamente al administrar el extracto antes de las comidas. Al mismo tiempo, no se observó alteración en los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol contenido en las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y colesterol contenido en las proteínas de alta densidad en ninguno de los dos grupos evaluados. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos acuosos de H. sabdariffa podrían ser utilizados para ejercer una acción en los triglicéridos plasmáticos, dependiente del consumo de alimentos, y del momento de administración.


Elevated blood lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, has become a common health risk worldwide, not only for cardiovascular diseases, especially in the case of cholesterol and triglycerides, but also in pancreatic, corneal, spleen and liver problems. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., is a medicinal plant of the Malvaceae family, its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of an aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at a dose of 15 mg of anthocyanins daily, divided in three times a day, either before or during meals, over a period of 2 months, to decrease plasma triglycerides in subjects with values above 150 mg/dL, in order to establish the influence of the time of administration in this effect. The extract showed a hypotriglyceridemic effect (p = 0.034) in the first and second month of treatment, only when administered before meals. At the same time, no significant changes were observed in levels of total cholesterol, cLDL, cHDL in any of the evaluated groups. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa could be used to reduce action in plasma triglycerides levels only when administered prior to meals.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antocianinas , Dislipidemias/sangue , Extratos Vegetais , Triglicerídeos
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 2(1): 25-37, ene.-jun. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834312

RESUMO

Se determinó la capacidad de los extractos de seis plantas de uso etnomédico (Acacia hindsii, Aristolochia maxima, Cissampelos pareira, Hamelia patens, Piper peltatum y Sansevieria hyacinthoides) para neutralizar los efectos proteolítico y fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2) del veneno de Bothrops asper, la principal especie causante de envenenamiento en el país. Estos efectos, indicadores de la capacidad miotóxica, hemorrágica e inflamatoria del veneno, se evaluaron en ensayos controlados in vitro. Las plantas fueroncolectadas, secadas y extraídas por percolación con etanol. Los resultados demuestran que ninguno de los extractos posee actividad PLA2 o proteo-lítica intrínseca a las dosis estudiadas. Se determinó que tres de los extractos neutralizaron pobremente (< 50%) los efectos estudiados: S. hyacinthoides neutralizó 13.90 ± 6.41% del efecto PLA2 y P. peltatum y C. pareira el 32.98 ± 5.51% y 24.52 ± 7.45%, respectivamente, del efecto proteolítico. Por ello, ningún extracto se evaluó en pruebas de neutralización de la letalidad en ratones. Se concluye que no es recomendable el uso aislado de estas plantas en el tratamiento del envenenamiento por mordedura de B. asper, aunque posiblemente las que demostraron alguna actividad puedan resultar potenciadas al usarse en combinación con otras plantas, como se hace en las recetas tradicionales. Dada la complejidad de los componentes del veneno y sus efectos fisiopatológicos, falta investigar la capacidad de las plantas estudiadas para neutralizar las coagulopatías, edema y miotoxicidad producidas durante el envenenamiento.


Many plants are reported to be used in Guatemalan traditional medicine as antidotes against various effects of the snakebite; however, very few attempts have been made to evaluate their neutralizing capacity in controlled experiments. Six plants (Acacia hindsii, Cissampelos pareira; Hamelia patens, Piper peltatum, Sansevieria hyacinthoides and Aristolochia maxima) were evaluated in vitro for their ability to neutralize phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and proteolytic effects of the venom of Bothrops asper, the snake responsible for approximately half of the snakebite envenomations in Central America. These effects are indicatives of the ability of B. asper venom to produce myotoxicity, hemorrhage and inflammation. Plants were collected, dried and extracted by maceration with ethanol. After pre-incubation of several amounts of each extract with a challenge dose of venom, S. hyacinthoides demonstrated a low neutralizing capacity (< DE 50) of the PLA2 effect (13.90 ± 6.41%); C. pareira (32.98 ± 5.51%) and P. peltatum (24.52 ± 7.45%) neutralized less than 50% of the proteolytic effect. The results suggest that neither of the tested plants should be used individually to treat the main effects of B. asperenvenomation. However, the three low-active extracts might be potentiated when used in mixtures composed of several plants, as prepared by traditional healers. Given the complexity of the venom components and the multiple pathologic effects produced by B. asper envenomation, more tests are required to fully investigate the ability of this plants to neutralize the coagulant, fibrin(ogen)olytic, edematizing and myotoxic effects of the venom.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade , Plantas Medicinais , Neutralização , Soros Imunes/administração & dosagem , Soros Imunes/envenenamento
11.
Rev cienc méd pinar río ; 18(4)jul.-ago.2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-59665

RESUMO

La fascitis necrotizante es una infección rápidamente progresiva de la piel y de los tejidos blandos, que suele asociarse con una importante toxicidad sistémica. Es considerada una urgencia dermatológica. Se presenta el caso clínico de un recién nacido sin antecedentes perinatales patológicos que con 12 días de vida; ingresó en cuidados especiales neonatales por una infección grave de partes blandas en la región torácica que evolucionó al shock. La clínica, hemoquímica y la microbiología confirmaron el diagnóstico de una fascitis necrotizante. En su evolución requirió una valoración multidisciplinaria e inmediato tratamiento quirúrgico agresivo por caumatología; que consistió en la resección, con desbridamiento amplio y completo de todos los tejidos necróticos. Al mes de vida, se decidió realizar un injerto libre de piel que se extrajo de la propia madre (injerto homólogo). Fue egresado después de 3 meses de estancia hospitalaria con una recuperación completa y sin evidencia de daños orgánicos. La fascitis necrotizante en el recién nacido es considerada una urgencia dermatológica inusual(AU)


Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection of the skin and soft tissues, often associated with a significant systemic toxicity. It is considered a dermatological emergency. The case of a newborn with 12 days of life and with no pathological perinatal history is presented; admitted for special neonatal cares service due to a severe soft tissue infection in the thoracic region that evolved to shock. Clinical, microbiology and chemistry testing confirmed the diagnosis of a necrotizing fasciitis. In its evolution, it was required a multidisciplinary and immediate aggressive surgical treatment by burnt specialists; which consisted of resection, with broad and complete removal of all necrotic tissue. After one month of life, we decided to perform a free skin graft taken from the mother herself (homologous graft). The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 months, with a full recovery and no evidence of organ damage. Newborn necrotizing fasciitis is considered an unusual dermatological emergency(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pele/patologia , Fasciite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Fasciite Necrosante/patologia , Recém-Nascido/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Necrose/cirurgia
12.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 18(4): 705-713, jul.-ago. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-740071

RESUMO

Introducción: la fascitis necrotizante es una infección rápidamente progresiva de la piel y de los tejidos blandos, que suele asociarse con una importante toxicidad sistémica. Es considerada una urgencia dermatológica. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso clínico de un recién nacido sin antecedentes perinatales patológicos que con 12 días de vida; ingresó en cuidados especiales neonatales por una infección grave de partes blandas en la región torácica que evolucionó al shock. La clínica, hemoquímica y la microbiología confirmaron el diagnóstico de una fascitis necrotizante. En su evolución requirió una valoración multidisciplinaria e inmediato tratamiento quirúrgico agresivo por caumatología; que consistió en la resección, con desbridamiento amplio y completo de todos los tejidos necróticos. Al mes de vida, se decidió realizar un injerto libre de piel que se extrajo de la propia madre (injerto homólogo). Fue egresado después de 3 meses de estancia hospitalaria con una recuperación completa y sin evidencia de daños orgánicos. Conclusiones: la fascitis necrotizante en el recién nacido es considerada una urgencia dermatológica inusual.


Introduction: necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection of the skin and soft tissues, often associated with a significant systemic toxicity. It is considered a dermatological emergency. Clinical case: the case of a newborn with 12 days of life and with no pathological perinatal history is presented; admitted for special neonatal cares service due to a severe soft tissue infection in the thoracic region that evolved to shock. Clinical, microbiology and chemistry testing confirmed the diagnosis of a necrotizing fasciitis. In its evolution, it was required a multidisciplinary and immediate aggressive surgical treatment by burnt specialists; which consisted of resection, with broad and complete removal of all necrotic tissue. After one month of life, we decided to perform a free skin graft taken from the mother herself (homologous graft). The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 months, with a full recovery and no evidence of organ damage. Conclusions: newborn necrotizing fasciitis is considered an unusual dermatological emergency.

13.
Dominguezia ; 30(2): 19-26, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1005834

RESUMO

Estudios científicos sobre P. patulum, llevados a cabo en Guatemala, han dado resultados interesantes que podrían tener aplicación en la industria de cosméticos, condimentos, aromas y medicamentos. Por ese motivo, este estudio tuvo como finalidad contribuir en la búsqueda de variables anatómicas para el diagnóstico, y así poder elaborar descripciones y cartillas micrográficas que describan la especie con claridad, que sirvan para diferenciar una especie de otra, y evitar adulteraciones, debido a que existe una gran semejanza morfológica entre las especies del género Piper. En este estudio se detectaron dos caracteres diagnósticos para la lámina: tipos de tricomas y su distribución espacial, y tres para el pecíolo: forma en corte transversal, tipos de tricomas y su distribución espacial. (AU)


Assuntos
Piperaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Guatemala
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24023569

RESUMO

Assays in vitro and in vivo were performed on extract from roots and leaves from the Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VPR and VPF, resp.). In phenylephrine (1 µ M) precontracted rings, VPR (0.01-300 µ g/mL) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation (maximum response (MR) = 75.4 ± 4.0%, EC50 = 5.97 (3.8-9.3) µ g/mL, n = 6]); this effect was significantly modified after removal of the endothelium (EC50 = 39.6 (27.2-57.6) µ g/mL, P < 0.05). However, VPF-induced vasorelaxation was less effective compared to VPR. When rings were preincubated with L-NAME (100 µ M) or indomethacin (10 µ M), the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by VPR was significantly attenuated (MR = 20.9 ± 2.3%, 34.2 ± 2.9%, resp., P < 0.001). In rings denuded endothelium, precontracted with KCl (80 mM), or in preparations pretreated with KCl (20 mM) or tetraethylammonium (1 or 3 mM), the vasorelaxant activity of VPR was significantly attenuated (MR = 40.0 ± 8.2, n = 5; 50.5 ± 6.0%; 49.3 ± 6.4%; 46.8 ± 6.2%; resp., P < 0.01). In contrast, neither glibenclamide (10 µ M), barium chloride (30 µ M), nor 4-aminopyridine (1 mM) affected VPR-induced relaxation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypotension induced by VPR seems to involve, at least in part, a vascular component. Furthermore, endothelium-independent relaxation induced by VPR involves K(+) channels activation, most likely due to BKCa channels, in the rat superior mesenteric artery.

15.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 22(2): 239-248, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-624661

RESUMO

Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, known as zarzaparrilla, is a climbing shrub from Tropical America. The rhizome is popularly used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and tonic. Since 1983 studies are being conducted in Guatemala for validation of the ethnobotanical uses, particularly in vitro demonstration of antimicrobial activity, using wild material, with high variability and some taxonomic problems. This article reports the taxonomic determination, cultivation of drug material, evaluation of use by in vitro and in vivo pharmacological assays, and phytochemical characterization. Extracts from cultivated material was evaluated by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunomodulatory models, confirming the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Phytochemistry was done in the crude drug and extracts. Quality control parameters are described (micrographic drawings and phytochemical characteristics). Evidence is presented that cultivated rhizome has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, validating the popular use and helping the industrial development of phytopharmaceutical products.

16.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 21(2): 34-43, 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-655678

RESUMO

Los agentes químicos son los métodos de conservación más usados, pero no cumplen con el concepto de natural o seguro demandado por los consumidores, ya que algunos presentan cierta toxicidad. Por eso la industria busca antimicrobianos naturales para la conservación de alimentos. El propósito fue evaluar la actividad contra Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291 y dos aislamientos clínicos (C. jejuni UVG 62-1773-6 y C. coli UVG 62-1769-9) de extractos diclorometánico (ED), metanólico (EM) y aceite esencial (AE) de Cornutia grandifolia, Eryngium foetidum, Fernaldia pandurata, Lippia alba L. chiapasensis, L. graveolens, Ocimum micranthum, Pimienta dioica, Piper auritum, P.jacquemontianum, Psidiumguajava y Tagetes lucida.


Assuntos
Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Conservação de Alimentos , Plantas Medicinais
17.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 21(2): 70-81, 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-655682

RESUMO

El presente trabajo es una revisión sobre la actividad biológica de extractos naturales con potencial medicinal o agroindustrial, en el cual se muestra que las especies vegetales del género Litsea distribuidas en Mesoamérica podrían constituir una fuente importante en el desarrollo de potenciales medicamentos y como biocontroladores tales como antitumoral, antiviral, antimicrobiana, antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, y en control fitosanitario como insecticida, plaguicida y repelente., entre otras. El desarrollo de un producto natural involucra la selección de la especie empleando criterios etnobotánicos o por bioprospección, los métodos de extracción estudio químico para el aislamiento y elucidación estructural de las moléculas responsables de la actividad y pruebas biológicas realizadas mediante ensayos in vitro, in vivo, toxicológicos y clínicos...


Assuntos
Indicadores e Reagentes , Litsea , Praguicidas , Extratos Vegetais
18.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 21(4): 587-593, jul.-ago. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-596229

RESUMO

The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4 percent), while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4 percent), camphene (16.6 percent) and limonene (13.9 percent) being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL). Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL), was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL), and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL). The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL), and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL) and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL). None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21754942

RESUMO

There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP), known as "Valeriana del monte", and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FST), strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5%) and time spent (44.7%) in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

20.
Pharm Biol ; 49(9): 907-19, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21592008

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Subcutaneous mycoses are chronic infections caused by slow growing environmental fungi. Latin American plants are used in folk medicine to treat these afflictions. Moreover, the potential of the rich Latin American biodiversity for this purpose has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to screen Latin American plant extracts against two species of subcutaneous fungi: Sporothrix schenckii and Fonsecaea pedrosoi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ninety-five organic extracts from 151 Latin American plants were screened against two subcutaneous fungi by the agar dilution method at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of active extracts were determined. Positive (amphothericin B) and negative (50% ethanol) controls were used. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twenty eight extracts showed activity at ≤100 µg/mL. Of these, four extracts from Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum DC (Asteraceae), Plumeria rubra L (Apocynaceae), Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth. (Bignoniaceae), and Trichostigma octandum (L.), H. Walter showed activity against F. pedrosoi at MIC 12.5 µg/mL; and, four extracts from Bourreria huanita (Lex.) Hemsl. (Boraginaceae), Phytolacca bogotensis Kunth (Phytolaccaceae), Monnina xalapensis Kunth (Polygalaceae) and Crataegus pubescens (C. Presl) C. Presl (Rosaceae) against S. schenckii. This is the first report on antifungal activity of the Latin American plants against these two subcutaneous fungi. CONCLUSION: S. schenkii and F. pedrosoi were inhibited by B. huanita (MIC: 12.5 and 25 µg/mL), G. gaudichaudianum (MIC: 50 and 12.5 µg/mL) and T. triflora (MIC: 25 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sporothrix/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Etanol/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , América Latina , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Terminalia/química , Terminalia/metabolismo
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