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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007065, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its first detection in the Caribbean in late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has affected 51 countries in the Americas. The CHIKV epidemic in the Americas was caused by the CHIKV-Asian genotype. In August 2014, local transmission of the CHIKV-Asian genotype was detected in the Brazilian Amazon region. However, a distinct lineage, the CHIKV-East-Central-South-America (ECSA)-genotype, was detected nearly simultaneously in Feira de Santana, Bahia state, northeast Brazil. The genomic diversity and the dynamics of CHIKV in the Brazilian Amazon region remains poorly understood despite its importance to better understand the epidemiological spread and public health impact of CHIKV in the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a large CHIKV outbreak (5,928 notified cases between August 2014 and August 2018) in Boa vista municipality, capital city of Roraima's state, located in the Brazilian Amazon region. We generated 20 novel CHIKV-ECSA genomes from the Brazilian Amazon region using MinION portable genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that despite an early introduction of the Asian genotype in 2015 in Roraima, the large CHIKV outbreak in 2017 in Boa Vista was caused by an ECSA-lineage most likely introduced from northeastern Brazil. Epidemiological analyses suggest a basic reproductive number of R0 of 1.66, which translates in an estimated 39 (95% CI: 36 to 45) % of Roraima's population infected with CHIKV-ECSA. Finally, we find a strong association between Google search activity and the local laboratory-confirmed CHIKV cases in Roraima. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the potential of combining traditional surveillance with portable genome sequencing technologies and digital epidemiology to inform public health surveillance in the Amazon region. Our data reveal a large CHIKV-ECSA outbreak in Boa Vista, limited potential for future CHIKV outbreaks, and indicate a replacement of the Asian genotype by the ECSA genotype in the Amazon region.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(2): 174-182, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a public health problem in the rural and urban areas of 19 countries in the Americas. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of triatomines collected from both intra- and peridomiciliary areas in eleven municipalities of Southeastern Ceará, Brazil, from 2009 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,364 triatomine specimens, including nymphs and adults, were collected, and 31,736 (98.06%) of these were examined. More nymphs were collected than adults, and the greatest number of triatomines (n = 8,548) was collected in 2010, for which the infection rate was 1.3%, with the highest rate of infections observed for specimens from Quixere. The species collected during the study were identified as Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus, with T. pseudomaculata being the most abundant (n = 19,962). CONCLUSIONS: These results verify the presence of triatomines in both intra- and peridomiciliary areas, thereby ensuring persistence of the pathogen and consequently, the disease, as the presence of infected vectors in households is an important risk factor. According to these findings, the Chagas Disease Control Program should intensify its efforts in order to prevent the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Panstrongylus/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(5): 1483-1494, 2018 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768603

RESUMO

In 2005, a pharmaceutical care service was created in the State of Ceará to provide pharmacotherapeutic follow-up for individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease). After 10 years of operation, an evaluation was conducted to assess the degree of satisfaction of patients treated under the service. This prospective study used a questionnaire comprising the following sections: socioeconomic data; infrastructure, facilities and operations; pharmaceutical care; and importance of the service. Seventy patients of both sexes and over 18 years of age were interviewed between August 2014 and May 2015. As for infrastructure, location and operation, the average grades show a high level of patient satisfaction. Regarding pharmaceutical care, most patients reported being satisfied and considered "being well treated" to be the most important aspect during treatment. In addition, all patients (100%) rated the service as very important and would recommend it to other individuals. Overall, the study showed a high level of patient satisfaction with the service. There is, however, still much to work to be done on this service in order to promote greater access and qualified care to fully achieve a humanized model focused on patient needs.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(5): 1483-1494, Mai. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890596

RESUMO

Resumo O Serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica ao paciente com doença de Chagas do estado do Ceará foi criando em 2005, com a finalidade de proporcionar seguimento farmacoterapêutico àqueles com esta morbidade. Decorridos 10 anos de atuação, objetivou-se avaliar a satisfação dos pacientes atendidos no serviço. Tratou-se de um estudo prospectivo, empregando um questionário subdividido nas seções: dados socioeconômicos; infraestrutura, localização e funcionamento; cuidado farmacêutico e importância do serviço. Foram entrevistados 70 pacientes de ambos os sexos e acima de 18 anos, entre agosto de 2014 e maio de 2015. Quanto à infraestrutura, localização e funcionamento, as notas obtidas mostraram que os pacientes estão satisfeitos com os parâmetros analisados. Com relação ao cuidado farmacêutico, a maioria dos pacientes mostrou-se satisfeita, tendo o "ser bem atendido" como aspecto mais importante durante o atendimento. Em relação à importância do serviço, 100% o considerou muito importante e o indicaria para outras pessoas. De modo geral, o estudo demonstrou um alto nível de satisfação com o serviço. Há muito a ser trabalhado neste serviço, como promover maior acesso e qualificação do atendimento, contribuindo para a concretização de um modelo humanizado, centrado nas necessidades do paciente.


Abstract In 2005, a pharmaceutical care service was created in the State of Ceará to provide pharmacotherapeutic follow-up for individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease). After 10 years of operation, an evaluation was conducted to assess the degree of satisfaction of patients treated under the service. This prospective study used a questionnaire comprising the following sections: socioeconomic data; infrastructure, facilities and operations; pharmaceutical care; and importance of the service. Seventy patients of both sexes and over 18 years of age were interviewed between August 2014 and May 2015. As for infrastructure, location and operation, the average grades show a high level of patient satisfaction. Regarding pharmaceutical care, most patients reported being satisfied and considered "being well treated" to be the most important aspect during treatment. In addition, all patients (100%) rated the service as very important and would recommend it to other individuals. Overall, the study showed a high level of patient satisfaction with the service. There is, however, still much to work to be done on this service in order to promote greater access and qualified care to fully achieve a humanized model focused on patient needs.

6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 174-182, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897071

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a public health problem in the rural and urban areas of 19 countries in the Americas. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of triatomines collected from both intra- and peridomiciliary areas in eleven municipalities of Southeastern Ceará, Brazil, from 2009 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,364 triatomine specimens, including nymphs and adults, were collected, and 31,736 (98.06%) of these were examined. More nymphs were collected than adults, and the greatest number of triatomines (n = 8,548) was collected in 2010, for which the infection rate was 1.3%, with the highest rate of infections observed for specimens from Quixere. The species collected during the study were identified as Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus, with T. pseudomaculata being the most abundant (n = 19,962). CONCLUSIONS: These results verify the presence of triatomines in both intra- and peridomiciliary areas, thereby ensuring persistence of the pathogen and consequently, the disease, as the presence of infected vectors in households is an important risk factor. According to these findings, the Chagas Disease Control Program should intensify its efforts in order to prevent the spread of the disease.

7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(3): 334-340, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole (BNZ) is a drug available for the etiological treatment of Chagas disease. However, this drug is toxic and has a limited effectiveness on the chronic phase of this disease, often leading to poor treatment adherence. METHODS:: This is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted at the Pharmaceutical Care Service for Chagas disease patients of the Federal University of Ceará. Drug-related problems (DRPs) and pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) were classified according to the Second Consensus of Granada. RESULTS:: The average age of patients with Chagas disease was 62 years, with the majority residing in the Ceará countryside (86.7%), and having low education levels (63.3% with elementary school education). Regarding family income, most patients belonged to a household that earned ≤1-2 times the minimum wage per month. Approximately 73% of these patients complied with the BNZ treatment, and nearly 7% underwent therapy interruption after medical evaluation. A total of 189 DRPs were identified, of which 51.9% (n=98) were classified as potential, and 48.1% (n=91) as actual. The most frequent DRPs were related to safety (qualitative safety; n=70; 37%), necessity (non-adherence; n=52; 27.5%), and effectiveness (qualitative effectiveness/non-optimal drug selection; n=45; 23.8%). Among the 216 PIs conducted, the majority were related to patient education (n=168; 77.8%) and pharmacological strategy (n=42; 19.4%). CONCLUSIONS:: This study indicates the need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in patients with Chagas because of the high number of therapeutic interventions, DRPs (approximately 3 DRPs/patient), BNZ adherence, and polypharmacy.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 334-340, May-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896976

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION Benznidazole (BNZ) is a drug available for the etiological treatment of Chagas disease. However, this drug is toxic and has a limited effectiveness on the chronic phase of this disease, often leading to poor treatment adherence. METHODS: This is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted at the Pharmaceutical Care Service for Chagas disease patients of the Federal University of Ceará. Drug-related problems (DRPs) and pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) were classified according to the Second Consensus of Granada. RESULTS: The average age of patients with Chagas disease was 62 years, with the majority residing in the Ceará countryside (86.7%), and having low education levels (63.3% with elementary school education). Regarding family income, most patients belonged to a household that earned ≤1-2 times the minimum wage per month. Approximately 73% of these patients complied with the BNZ treatment, and nearly 7% underwent therapy interruption after medical evaluation. A total of 189 DRPs were identified, of which 51.9% (n=98) were classified as potential, and 48.1% (n=91) as actual. The most frequent DRPs were related to safety (qualitative safety; n=70; 37%), necessity (non-adherence; n=52; 27.5%), and effectiveness (qualitative effectiveness/non-optimal drug selection; n=45; 23.8%). Among the 216 PIs conducted, the majority were related to patient education (n=168; 77.8%) and pharmacological strategy (n=42; 19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in patients with Chagas because of the high number of therapeutic interventions, DRPs (approximately 3 DRPs/patient), BNZ adherence, and polypharmacy.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 215(3): 387-395, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003350

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 7 million people in Latin American areas of endemicity. About 30% of infected patients will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocarditis. Further studies are necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease progression. Transcriptome analysis has been increasingly used to identify molecular changes associated with disease outcomes. We thus assessed the whole-blood transcriptome of patients with Chagas disease. Microarray analysis was performed on blood samples from 150 subjects, of whom 30 were uninfected control patients and 120 had Chagas disease (1 group had asymptomatic disease, and 2 groups had CCC with either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]). Each Chagas disease group displayed distinct gene expression and functional pathway profiles. The most different expression patterns were between CCC groups with a preserved or reduced LVEF. A more stringent analysis indicated that 27 differentially expressed genes, particularly those related to natural killer (NK)/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, separated the 2 groups. NK/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity could play a role in determining Chagas disease progression. Understanding genes associated with disease may lead to improved insight into CCC pathogenesis and the identification of prognostic factors for CCC progression.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Disfunção Ventricular/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia
10.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 57(5): 431-3, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603232

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 57(2): 145-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923894

RESUMO

By controlling the transmission of Chagas disease, the challenge of providing assistance to millions of infected patients that reach old age arises. In this study, the socioeconomic, demographic and comorbidity records of all elderly chagasic patients followed at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of the Chagas Disease Research Laboratory were assessed. The information related to the clinical form of the disease was obtained from medical records provided by the Walter Cantídio University Hospital. The profile of the studied population was: women (50.5%); mean age of 67 years; retired (54.6%); married (51.6 %); high illiteracy rate (40.2%); and family income equal to the minimum wage (51.5%). The predominant clinical forms of Chagas disease were cardiac (65.3%) and indeterminate (14.7%). The main electrocardiographic changes were the right bundle branch block (41.0%), associated or not with the anterosuperior left bundle branch block (27.4%). The average number of comorbidities per patient was 2.23 ± 1.54, with systemic arterial hypertension being the main one found (67.0%). It was found that the elderly comprise a vulnerable group of patients that associate aging with cardiac and/or digestive disorders resulting from the evolution of Chagas disease and other comorbidities, which requires special attention from health services to ensure more appropriate medical and social care.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(2): 145-152, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-744729

RESUMO

By controlling the transmission of Chagas disease, the challenge of providing assistance to millions of infected patients that reach old age arises. In this study, the socioeconomic, demographic and comorbidity records of all elderly chagasic patients followed at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of the Chagas Disease Research Laboratory were assessed. The information related to the clinical form of the disease was obtained from medical records provided by the Walter Cantídio University Hospital. The profile of the studied population was: women (50.5%); mean age of 67 years; retired (54.6%); married (51.6 %); high illiteracy rate (40.2%); and family income equal to the minimum wage (51.5%). The predominant clinical forms of Chagas disease were cardiac (65.3%) and indeterminate (14.7%). The main electrocardiographic changes were the right bundle branch block (41.0%), associated or not with the anterosuperior left bundle branch block (27.4%). The average number of comorbidities per patient was 2.23 ± 1.54, with systemic arterial hypertension being the main one found (67.0%). It was found that the elderly comprise a vulnerable group of patients that associate aging with cardiac and/or digestive disorders resulting from the evolution of Chagas disease and other comorbidities, which requires special attention from health services to ensure more appropriate medical and social care.


Controlando-se a transmissão da doença de Chagas, surge o desafio de prestar assistência a milhões de pacientes infectados que chegam à velhice. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os registros socioeconômicos, demográficos e de comorbidades de todos os pacientes chagásicos idosos acompanhados no Serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica do Laboratório de Pesquisa em Doença de Chagas. As informações relacionadas à forma clínica da doença foram obtidas a partir de registros médicos disponibilizados pelo Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio. O perfil da população estudada foi de: mulheres (50,5%); idade média de 67 anos; aposentados (54,6%); casados (51,6%); alta taxa de analfabetismo (40,2%); e renda familiar de um salário mínimo (51,5%). As formas clínicas predominantes da doença de Chagas foram a cardíaca (65,3%) e a indeterminada (14,7%). As principais alterações eletrocardiográficas foram o bloqueio de ramo direito (41,0%), associado ou não ao bloqueio ântero superior esquerdo (27,4%). O número médio de comorbidades por paciente foi de 2,23 ± 1,54, sendo a hipertensão arterial sistêmica a principal encontrada (67,0%). Verificou-se que os idosos constituem grupo vulnerável de pacientes que associam o envelhecimento com as alterações cardíacas e/ou digestivas resultantes da evolução da doença de Chagas e outras comorbidades, o que exige atenção especial dos serviços de saúde para um atendimento médico e social mais adequado.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 46(6): 776-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24474023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of trypanocidal therapy in the chronic phase of Chagas disease remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 13 patients with chronic Chagas disease were treated with benznidazole (5mg/kg/day/60 days) and surveyed via antibody measurement and conventional electrocardiogram over the course of 4 years. RESULTS: The antibody titers were significantly reduced after 4 years (p<0.05). Most of the patients showed maintenance of the initial clinical picture (electrocardiographic), with the exception of 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although trypanocidal therapy in the chronic phase of Chagas disease was of limited effectiveness, we believe that it is beneficial in treating these patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Eletrocardiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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