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Environ Int ; 124: 49-57, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639907


Recent studies have proven that vegetables cultivated in peri-urban areas are exposed to a greater concentration of organic microcontaminants (OMCs) and trace elements (TEs) than those grown in rural areas. In this study, the occurrence and human health risk of chemical contaminants (16 TEs and 33 OMCs) in edible parts of lettuce, tomato, cauliflower, and broad beans from two farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona and one rural site outside the peri-urban area were assessed. The concentration of TEs and OMCs (on fresh weight basis) ranged from non-detectable to 17.4 mg/kg and from non-detectable to 256 µg/kg, respectively. Tomato fruits showed the highest concentration of TEs and OMCs. Principal component analysis indicated that the occurrence of chemical contaminants in vegetables depended on the commodity rather than the location (peri-urban vs rural). Risk assessment using hazardous quotient (HQ) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approaches showed that the risk for the consumption of target vegetables in the peri-urban area was low and similar to that observed for the rural site. Total HQ values for TEs were always below 1, and a minimum consumption of 150 g/day for children and 380 g/day for adults is required to reach the TTC due to the presence of pesticides. Further studies are needed to estimate the combined effect of TEs and OMCs on human health.

Agricultura , Contaminação de Alimentos , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1166-1174, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801210


Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 µg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 ·â€¯10-5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 µg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops.

Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alface/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Irrigação Agrícola , Cidades , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 599-600: 1140-1148, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511359


Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Bodar and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Batavia) were seasonally surveyed in 4 farm plots in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona. A pristine site, where rain-groundwater is used for irrigation, was selected for background concentrations. The average concentration levels of TEs and CECs in the irrigation water impacted by treated wastewater (TWW) were 3 (35±75µgL-1) and 13 (553±1050ngL-1) times higher than at the pristine site respectively. Principal component analysis was used to classify the irrigation waters by chemical composition. To assess the impact of the occurrence of these contaminants on agriculture, a seed germination assay (Lactuca sativa L) and real field-scale study of crop productivity (i.e., lettuce and tomato) were used. Although irrigation waters from the peri-urban area exhibited a higher frequency of detection and concentration of the assessed chemical contaminants than those of the pristine site (P1), no significant differences were found in seed phytotoxicity or crop productivity. In fact, the crops impacted by TWW showed higher productivity than the other farm plots studied, which was associated with the higher nutrient availability for plants.

Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha
J Hazard Mater ; 323(Pt A): 386-393, 2017 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143287


Although crop uptake of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) from irrigation water and soils has been previously reported, successful mitigation strategies have not yet been established. In this study, soil was amended with a wood-based biochar (BC) at two rates (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) to evaluate the effect on mitigation of EOC uptake (i.e. bisphenol A, caffeine, carbamazepine, clofibric acid, furosemide, ibuprofen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, triclosan, and tonalide) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). After 28 days of irrigation with water containing EOCs at 15µgL-1, the average EOC concentration in roots and leaves decreased by 20-76% in biochar amended soil relative to non BC-amended soil. In addition, the enantiomeric fractions (EF) of ibuprofen (IBU) in biochar amended soils (EF=0.58) and unamended soils (EF=0.76) suggest that the IBU sorbed fraction in BC is more recalcitrant to its biodegradation.

Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal/química , Alface/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
J Hazard Mater ; 305: 139-148, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26651071


The widespread distribution of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the water cycle can lead to their incorporation in irrigated crops, posing a potential risk for human consumption. To gain further insight into the processes controlling the uptake of organic microcontaminants, Batavia lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown under controlled conditions was watered with EOCs (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, sulfonamides, ß-blockers, phenolic estrogens, anticonvulsants, stimulants, polycyclic musks, biocides) at different concentrations (0-40µgL(-1)). Linear correlations were obtained between the EOC concentrations in the roots and leaves and the watering concentrations for most of the contaminants investigated. However, large differences were found in the root concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0.27-733) and leaf translocation concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0-3) depending on the persistence of the target contaminants in the rhizosphere and the specific physicochemical properties of each one. With the obtained dataset, a simple predictive model based on a linear regression and the root bioconcentration and translocation factors can be used to estimate the concentration of the target EOCs in leaves based on the dose supplied in the irrigation water or the soil concentration. Finally, enantiomeric fractionation of racemic ibuprofen from the initial spiking mixture suggests that biodegradation mainly occurs in the rhizosphere.

Alface/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Ibuprofeno/farmacocinética , Modelos Lineares , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(8): 2000-7, 2012 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22293031


Although a myriad of organic microcontaminants may occur in irrigation waters, little attention has been paid to their incorporation in crops. In this work, a systematic approach to assess the final fate of both ionizable and neutral organic contaminants taken up by plants is described. In vitro uptake of triclosan (TCS), hydrocinnamic acid (HCA), tonalide (TON), ibuprofen (IBF), naproxen (NPX), and clofibric acid (CFA) were studied in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L) and spath ( Spathiphyllum spp.) as model plants. After 30 days incubation, analyte depletion from the culture medium was 85-99% (lettuce) and 51-81% (spath). HCA, NPX, and CFA exhibited the highest depletion rate in both plant species. Lettuce plant tissue analysis revealed an accumulation of all compounds except for HCA. These compounds reached a peak in tissue concentration followed by a sudden drop, probably due to the plant detoxification system and analyte depletion from the culture medium. Kinetic characterization of the uptake and detoxification processes was fitted to a pseudo-first-order rate. Compounds with a carboxylic group in their structure exhibited higher uptake rates, possibly due to the contribution of an ion trap effect. Molecular weight and log K(ow) played a direct role in uptake in lettuce, as proven by the significant correlation of both properties to depletion and by the correlation of molecular weight to kinetic uptake rates.

Araceae/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alface/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Araceae/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cinética , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo