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1.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171416

RESUMO

In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described (AU)


En el mundo global, el conocimiento de las enfermedades infecciosas importadas es esencial en la práctica diaria, tanto para el microbiólogo-parasitólogo como para el clínico en enfermedades infecciosas que atiende a viajeros internacionales. Entre los destinos turísticos más visitados se encuentran muchos países tropicales o subtropicales, donde el riesgo de contraer una enfermedad infecciosa es más elevado. La SEIMC ha considerado pertinente la elaboración de un documento de consenso que sirva de ayuda tanto a médicos de Atención Primaria como a especialistas en Medicina Interna, Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical que atienden a viajeros que regresan con infecciones tras un viaje a zonas tropicales y subtropicales. Se han excluido de forma explícita los aspectos de prevención de estas y las infecciones importadas por inmigrantes, objeto de otros documentos de la SEIMC. Varios tipos de profesionales (clínicos, microbiólogos y parasitólogos) han desarrollado este documento de consenso tras evaluar los datos disponibles basados en la evidencia para proponer una serie de datos clave acerca de este aspecto. Inicialmente se revisan los aspectos generales acerca de la evaluación general del viajero que regresa con una potencial infección. En un segundo bloque se señalan los datos clave (agentes causales, procedimientos diagnósticos y medidas terapéuticas) de los síndromes infecciosos principales en el viajero que regresa (síndrome gastrointestinal (diarrea aguda o persistente), síndrome febril sin foco aparente, lesiones cutáneas localizadas e infecciones respiratorias). Finalmente se describen las características en viajeros especiales como la viajera embarazada y el viajero inmunodeprimido (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Consenso , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Microbiologia , Microbiologia/organização & administração , Saúde do Viajante , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração
2.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(3): 187-193, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396090

RESUMO

In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/terapia , Humanos , Viagem
3.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(10): 661-684, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158740

RESUMO

La eosinofilia es frecuente en viajeros e inmigrantes, siendo las helmintosis su principal etiología. El valor predictivo positivo de la eosinofilia para una infección parasitaria es bajo en viajeros. La eosinofilia puede ser un hallazgo incidental o sintomático, y constituye un reto clínico debido a la baja sensibilidad y especificidad de las técnicas parasitológicas directas e indirectas, respectivamente. Requiere una aproximación estructurada basada en áreas geográficas, riesgos de exposición ambientales y conductuales, y síntomas asociados. La evaluación inicial debe incluir anamnesis y exploración física dirigidas, analítica básica, examen coproparasitológico completo y serología de Strongyloides stercoralis, complementada con otras pruebas según procedencia y sospecha clínica. El tratamiento empírico con albendazol y/o ivermectina (más praziquantel si hay riesgo de esquistosomiasis) es una opción en eosinofilias persistentes no filiadas tras estudio, y en personas en las que la evaluación inicial o el seguimiento no se puedan asegurar. En pacientes con riesgo de estrongiloidosis candidatos a inmunodepresión farmacológica está indicado el cribado y tratamiento previo para prevenir el síndrome de hiperinfestación (AU)


Eosinophilia is a common finding in international travelers and immigrants, being an helmintic infection its main etiology. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for an helmintosis is low in travellers. Eosinophilia may be an incidental finding, or symptomatic, and it represents a clinical challenge due to the low sensitivity and specificity of direct and indirect parasitological diagnostic tests, respectively. It requires a structured approach based on geographical areas, environmental exposures and behavioral risks, and associated symptoms. The initial assessment should include a comprehensive and tailored anamnesis and physical examination, basic laboratory tests, a complete parasitological examination of stool samples and a Strongyloides stercoralis serology, supplemented with other explorations guided by epidemiological and clinical suspicion. Empiric treatment with albendazole and/or ivermectin (plus praziquantel if risk of schistosomiasis) is an option for unidentified persistent eosinophilia after study, and in persons in whom a proper assessment or follow-up cannot be assured. In patients at risk for estrongiloidosis who are candidates for immunosuppressive therapies, it is indicated a prior screening and treatment to prevent a future hyperinfestation syndrome (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Saúde do Viajante , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2
4.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(10): 661-684, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884406

RESUMO

Eosinophilia is a common finding in international travelers and immigrants, being an helmintic infection its main etiology. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for an helmintosis is low in travellers. Eosinophilia may be an incidental finding, or symptomatic, and it represents a clinical challenge due to the low sensitivity and specificity of direct and indirect parasitological diagnostic tests, respectively. It requires a structured approach based on geographical areas, environmental exposures and behavioral risks, and associated symptoms. The initial assessment should include a comprehensive and tailored anamnesis and physical examination, basic laboratory tests, a complete parasitological examination of stool samples and a Strongyloides stercoralis serology, supplemented with other explorations guided by epidemiological and clinical suspicion. Empiric treatment with albendazole and/or ivermectin (plus praziquantel if risk of schistosomiasis) is an option for unidentified persistent eosinophilia after study, and in persons in whom a proper assessment or follow-up can not be assured. In patients at risk for estrongiloidosis who are candidates for immunosuppressive therapies, it is indicated a prior screening and treatment to prevent a future hyperinfestation syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico
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