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1.
IDCases ; 22: e00999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194551

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacterias (NTM) are important pathogens responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases in humans. Although exposure is widespread since they are distributed in the environment, the development of the disease is rare. It will depend on the specific species, their virulence (only 50 have been found to cause disease), and the host's immune response. M Mycobacterium Malmoense is a NTM first reported in 1977 at Malmö, Sweden, based on four cases of lung infections. After these, other infections have been reported mainly involving the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary infections are limited to cervical adenitis, and rarely to tenosynovitis and disseminated disease. We are hence reporting, to our knowledge, the first case of M. malmoense as the cause of bacterial endocarditis in the world.

2.
Med Hypotheses ; 145: 110345, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080459

RESUMO

With the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been different reports about the development of autoimmune diseases once the infection is controlled. After entering the respiratory epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2-the virus that causes the disease-triggers a severe inflammatory state in some patients known as "cytokine storm" and the development of thrombotic phenomena-both conditions being associated with high mortality. Patients additionally present severe lymphopenia and, in some cases, complement consumption and autoantibody development. There is a normalization of lymphocytes once the infection is controlled. After this, autoimmune conditions of unknown etiology may occur. A hypothesis for the development of post-COVID-19 autoimmunity is proposed based on the consequences of both a transient immunosuppression (both of innate and acquired immunity) in which self-tolerance is lost and an inappropriate form of immune reconstitution that amplifies the process.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In southwestern Colombia there is a notable variety of snakes that belong to the Viperidae family (vipers). The particular clinical manifestation related to species is poorly reported. METHODS: Based on a prospective study about envenomation caused by vipers from 2011 to 2019 at the Fundación Valle del Lili Hospital, Cali, in southwest Colombia, we selected cases of admitted patients in which the snakes responsible were fully identified. They were cataloged by clinical syndrome according to prevalent signs (edema-inducing, necrotizing, blister-inducing, procoagulant, anticoagulant or myotoxic) and were related to the species that caused the envenomation. RESULTS: From a cohort of 53 patients, 21 patients (16 males [72.7%]) with an average age of 35 (3-69) y were included. The syndromes associated with envenomation were anticoagulant and necrotizing effects of Bothrops asper (five patients [22.7%]), blister-inducing and anticoagulant effects of Bothrops rhombeatus (five [22.7%]), anticoagulant effects of Bothrops punctatus (three patients [13.6%]), edema-inducing and anticoagulant effects of Bothriechis schlegelii (five [22.7%]), edema-inducing and myotoxic effects of Bothrocophias colombianus (one [4.5%]), edema-inducing and myotoxic effects of Bothrocophias myersi (one [4.5%]) and edema-inducing effects of Porthidium nasutum (one [4.5%]). CONCLUSION: In southwestern Colombia there is notable variety in species of snakes belonging to the family Viperidae (vipers) whose envenomation causes various clinical syndromes.

4.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 3: 100027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743512

RESUMO

Background: B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), and their receptors BAFF-R, BCMA, and TACI are crucial factors for the survival of B lymphocytes. Recent evidence has also demonstrated the importance of BAFF/APRIL signaling in lupus nephritis (LN). This study evaluated the relationships between LN clinical characteristics and the urinary expression levels of BAFF, APRIL, and cognate receptors to assess their potential value as disease biomarkers. Methods: Expression levels of these genes were assessed in urine samples collected from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients before renal biopsy using reverse transcription real-time PCR. Results: Thirty-five patients with LN were included. Most of the patients were female (82.86%) with median Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) of 15. BAFF mRNA was detectable in 28.57%, APRIL mRNA in 42.85%, BR3 mRNA in 48.57%, and TACI mRNA in 42.85% of urine samples. On the other hand, urinary (u)BCMA mRNA was not found in any sample. Urinary expression of most biomarkers was detected with greater frequency in class III and IV LN compared to class V LN. The expression level of uBR3 mRNA was correlated with SLEDAI-2K and histological activity index. Conclusion: Urinary expression of BAFF/APRIL signaling factors, especially TACI, APRIL, and BR3 mRNAs, may be useful biomarkers for LN.

5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 479-483, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519164

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new and highly contagious infectious disease emerged in Wuhan, China. The etiologic agent was identified as a novel coronavirus, now known as Severe Acute Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent research has revealed that virus entry takes place upon the union of the virus S surface protein with the type I transmembrane metallo-carboxypeptidase, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) identified on epithelial cells of the host respiratory tract. Virus triggers the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α and also promotes downregulation of ACE-2, which promotes a concomitant increase in levels of angiotensin II (AT-II). Both TNF-α and AT-II have been implicated in promoting overexpression of tissue factor (TF) in platelets and macrophages. Additionally, the generation of antiphospholipid antibodies associated with COVID-19 may also promote an increase in TF. TF may be a critical mediator associated with the development of thrombotic phenomena in COVID-19, and should be a target for future study.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Trombose/virologia , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(12): 3639-3642, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514679

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to describe both clinical and treatment needs in six patients who had a previous diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and were infected with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We report RA patients who acquired CHIKV infection, treated from the Fundación Valle del Lili Hospital, Cali, Colombia, between August 2014 and September 2015. Data of demographic information, clinical and laboratory findings, DAS28 score, dose of glucocorticoids (GC), or conventional or DMARD use was collected before, during CHIKV infection, and 6 months of follow-up. Five women and one man were analyzed, with an average age of 66 years, who had been receiving low doses of GC (4 mg of prednisolone/day on average). Two patients were being treated with methotrexate (MTX) and etanercept, one with MTX and other with etanercept, with an average DAS28 of 2.00 at the last control consultation. At the time of CHIKV infection, they presented an average DAS28 of 3.98, requiring more than double their usual dose of GC (average dose 8.75 mg/day of prednisolone). One patient required a change from etanercept to adalimumab and three others started rituximab, tocilizumab, and tofacitinib as second-line medication. A case series of patients with RA in remission are presented, who when contracting CHIKV infection developed exacerbation of their underlying disease, which in general was difficult to control. An increase in the doses of GC and change or induction to the use of second-line medications (anti-TNF, anti-CD20, or Janus kinase inhibitor) were required. Key Points • The clinical outcome of RA patients with CHIKV infections is not well known. • A group of RA patients, who were in clinical remission, were affected during the 2014-2015 CHIKV epidemic and treated in a hospital in southwestern Colombia, and had severe reactivation of their RA. • Some patients with RA in remission and who had CHIKV infection required an increase in the glucocorticoid, in addition to starting second-line medications (anti-TNF, anti-CD20, or Janus kinase inhibitor) or their modification.

7.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 30: 101079, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477861

RESUMO

Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that involve the joints of the axial skeleton, peripheral joints and have extra-articular manifestations. Treatment includes inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor α. Currently there are five approved inhibitors: a soluble receptor, Etanercept and four monoclonal. Etanercept has very low toxicity with pulmonary adverse reactions being very rare. We present the case of a patient who developed respiratory symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates of rapid evolution after the third dose of treatment with Etanercept.

8.
Reumatol Clin ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that can have an important impact on the patient's quality of life. To make an objective evaluation of the components of the disease, clinimetric tools such as the ESSPRI have been designed. The objective of this study is to adapt this scale to the Spanish language. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study to validate clinimetric scales, carried out in Cali, Colombia. A translation of the original English version of ESSPRI into Spanish was made and applied to patients with SS, as well as PROFAD and ESSDAI, as an activity marker. The reliability index of the questionnaire in Spanish with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated to compare the scales. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were also evaluated. RESULTS: ESSPRI, PROFAD and ESSDAI were applied to 42 patients with SS, 97.62% were women. The average result of the ESSPRI was 5.8 (±4.6), with a reliability coefficient of .8034 and a correlation with PROFAD of .5800 (P=.0001), and of -.0848 (P=.593) with ESSDAI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Reliability with the applied version of ESSPRI in Spanish was adequate. A discrepancy was found between this scale and ESSDAI, which highlights the importance of applying both tools to ensure objective monitoring of disease control and its impact on the quality of life of patients with SS.

9.
J Proteomics ; 220: 103758, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247171

RESUMO

Venoms of the viperid genus Bothrocophias, restricted to Colombia and Ecuador, are poorly known. Only a proteomic analysis of B. campbelli venom has been described. In this work we present a proteomic study of B. myersi venom, its biological activities, and describe the clinical characteristics of a patient bitten by this species. B. myersi venom mainly consists of phospholipases A2 (54.0%) and metalloproteinases (21.5%), among proteins of twelve different families. This venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, myotoxic, edema-forming, and lethal activities. Enzymatic activities did not show statistically significant differences in comparison to Bothrops asper venom, but B. myersi venom displayed weaker hemorrhagic and coagulant activities. Polyvalent Viperidae antivenoms produced in Costa Rica and Colombia cross-recognized B. myersi venom by ELISA, however only the latter neutralized its lethal activity in mice when tested at a ratio of 3 mg venom/mL antivenom, suggesting it should be useful to treat envenomings inflicted by this species. A patient bitten by B. myersi developed edema and myotoxicity, evidenced by an increased creatine kinase activity in plasma. A good correlation was found between experimental biological activities of Bothrocophias myersi venom and the clinical features of an envenoming provoked by this species. SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomic characterization, toxicity, immunorecognition and neutralization of Bothrocophias myersi venom have been determined for the first time. The distribution of this pit viper is restricted to Colombia and Ecuador, and its venom contains a high proportion of phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases. The polyvalent antivenom produced in Colombia neutralized the lethal activity of this venom in vivo, and therefore should be effective in the treatment of envenomings by this snake.

10.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 26(7S Suppl 2): S153-S157, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Its prognosis and factors associated with mortality are not completely clear, although invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), use of cyclophosphamide, a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and infections are associated with high mortality rates. We investigated clinical and immunologic characteristics and factors associated with mortality in a cohort of Latin American patients with SLE who developed DAH. METHODS: A medical records review study was conducted of patients with SLE who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with DAH between 2011 and 2018. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients with SLE presented with DAH during the study period, of whom 11 (64.70%) were women. The median age was 28 (19-38.5) years. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) on admission to the ICU was 15.94 ± 10.07. All patients received pulse methylprednisolone and therapeutic plasma exchange, and 13 (76. %) also received cyclophosphamide. During the hospital stay, 5 patients (29.41%) died. A high SLEDAI on admission, low albumin, and days of IMV and inotropic/vasoactive support were statistically significant in comparing nonsurvivors with survivors. Other scales of disease severity commonly used in the ICU, however, were not significantly associated with a fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoalbuminemia, longer duration of IMV or inotropic/vasoactive treatment, and a high SLEDAI are potential prognostic factors for mortality in patients with SLE and DAH admitted to the ICU.

12.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 26(4): 260-267, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138818

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease that can affect quality of life, cause disability, including progression to systemic complications in patients. In order to evaluate these components, several clinimetric scales have been used in pSS. Methods: In order to describe the most commonly used clinimetric scales in pSS, a systematic search of articles was carried out using Google Scholar, Scielo, Embase, Academic Search Ultimate, and Medline databases. Pubmed was used for the search in Medline, with the MeSH terms: 'Clinimetry'; 'Clinimetrics'; 'Quality of life'; 'Activity Index'; 'Scales'; 'Sjögren's syndrome'; linked with the Boolean connector AND. A total of 1081 articles published up to May 2018 were reduced to the 51 of the most relevant after application of inclusion criteria. Results: The most commonly used clinimetric scales in the evaluation of systemic involvement and quality of life in patients with pSS are described. Conclusion: Clinimetric methods are very useful from the point of view of follow-up, evaluation of response to treatment, perception of the disease by patients, and objective evaluation of clinical trials in pSS.


RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de Sjögren primario (SSp) es una enfermedad autoinmune, cuyo compromiso se puede ver reflejado en la calidad de vida, incapacidad y progresión a complicaciones en los pacientes. Con el fin de evaluar estos componentes, diversas escalas clinimétricas se han utilizado en el SSp. Métodos: Para describir las escalas de clinimetría más utilizadas en el SSp, se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en las bases de datos Google Scholar, Scielo, Embase, Academic Search Ultimate y Medline. Se empleó Pubmed para la búsqueda en Medline, con los términos MeSH: «Clinimetry¼; «Clinimetrics¼; «Quality of life¼; « Activity index¼; «Scales¼; «Sjögren's syndrome¼; enlazados con el conector booleano AND. Se incluyeron 1.081 artículos publicados hasta mayo de 2018, que luego de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión, se redujeron a 51 con la mayor relevancia. Resultados: Se describen las escalas de clinimetría más usadas en la evaluación del compromiso sistémico y de la calidad de vida en los pacientes con SSp. Conclusión: Los métodos clinimétricos tienen gran utilidad desde el punto de vista de seguimiento, evaluación de respuesta a tratamiento, percepción de la enfermedad por parte de los pacientes y evaluación objetiva de ensayos clínicos en el SSp.

13.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396036

RESUMO

There is little information on either the transition state occurring between slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, as well as about its neurobiological bases. This transition state, which is known as the intermediate state (IS), is well-defined in rats but poorly characterized in cats. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of the perilocus coeruleus α nucleus (PLCα) in the pontine tegmentum of cats induced two states: wakefulness with muscle atonia and a state of dissociated sleep we have called the SPGO state. The SPGO state has characteristics in common with the IS, such including the presence of ponto-geniculo-occipital waves (PGO) and EEG synchronization with δ wave reduction. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (1) to characterize the IS in the cat and, (2), to study the analogy between the SPGO and the different sleep stages showing PGO activity, including the IS. Polygraphic recordings of 10 cats were used. In seven cats carbachol microinjections (20-30 nL, 0.01-0.1 M) were delivered in the PLCα. In the different states, PGO waves were analyzed and power spectra obtained for the δ, θ, α, and ß bands of the EEG from the frontal and occipital cortices, and for the θ hippocampal band. Statistical comparisons were made between the values obtained from the different states. The results indicate that the IS constitutes a state with characteristics that are distinct from both the preceding SWS and the following REM sleep, and that SPGO presents a high analogy with the IS. Therefore, the SPGO state induced by administering carbachol in the PLCα nucleus seems to be an expression of the physiological IS of the cat. Consequently, we propose that the PLCα region, besides being involved in the mechanisms of muscle atonia, may also be responsible for organizing the transition from SWS to REM sleep.

14.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 3(2)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, which may extend to extra-articular organs. Extra-articular manifestations have been considered as prognostic features in RA, and pericardial disease is one of the most frequent occurrences. Rheumatoid arthritis pericarditis is usually asymptomatic and is frequently found on echocardiography as pericardial thickening with or without mild effusion. Severe and symptomatic cases are rare, but pericardial masses are even rarer. We report a patient with erosive, nodular seropositive RA, and progressive functional deterioration owing to a giant pericardial mass compressing the right cardiac chambers. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was a 79-year-old man. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pericardial lesion measuring 10 × 9 × 6 cm with complex structures in its interior, which had compressive effects on the right atrium and right ventricle, severely limiting diastole. Late gadolinium enhancement of the lesion walls and pericardium suggested pericarditis. Surgical resection was performed, and a soft mass with liquid content was extracted. The patient recovered well with improvements in symptoms and the functional status. Histopathological studies ruled out neoplasm, vasculitis, and infection, and the entire mass showed fibrinoid material associated with fibrinoid pericarditis. DISCUSSION: Symptomatic RA pericarditis is a rare cardiac manifestation of RA, whilst associated significant haemodynamic compromise is even rarer. The condition could manifest with a giant compressive pericardial mass composed of fibrinous material, with particular involvement of the right ventricle. Exclusion of other conditions, such as neoplasms and infections, is necessary.

15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(7): 2023, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111364

RESUMO

The presentation of data on the Table 3 of the published version of the above mentioned article was incorrect. The heading "Bacterial infections" should be presented under the heading "Infections". The original article has been corrected.

16.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(7): 1865-1871, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with high mortality rates. This study aimed to describe the main causes of death in a case series of SLE patients attended in a single center in Colombia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review and analysis of records of SLE patients who died between January 2011 and June 2017. We extracted the main causes of death and described variables associated with this outcome as well as variables associated with the disease and its treatment. RESULTS: From a total of 1776 patients with SLE, we identified 49 fatal cases (89.8% women, n = 44). The average age at death was 40.6 years (SD 17.4), and patients had a median of 4.5 years (IQR 2-8) of disease duration. The main findings included lymphopenia in 44 patients (89.9%), biopsy-confirmed lupus nephritis (LN)-types IV and VI-in 38 (77.6%), catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) in 8 (16.3%), and persistent hypocomplementemia (C3 and C4) in 8 (16.3%). The median SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2K) score at the time of death was 19 (IQR 11-39). The main cause of death was SLE activity and lupus-induced damage in 22 (44.9%) patients. CONCLUSION: The main causes of death included SLE activity refractory to immunosuppressive treatment, and nosocomial bacterial infections. The patients who died had persistently high SLEDAI scores, types IV and VI LN, associated antiphospholipid syndrome, and persistent hypocomplementemia, requiring severe immunosuppression and prolonged hospitalization.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/mortalidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/mortalidade , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 2: 100024, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743510

RESUMO

Objective: Bariatric surgery is a widely used procedure for the treatment of obesity. Our aim is to describe the main immunological changes in patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Methods: A prospective study was conducted within a cohort of patients undergoing bariatric surgery and without previous evidence of systemic or organ-specific autoimmune diseases in whom 3 blood samples were collected - one day before surgery (Time 0), and 5 (Time 1) and 10 months (Time 2) after surgery. Results: Thirty four obese patients underwent surgery (Time 0):30(88.24%) were women, mean age 38.3 years. When comparing Time 0 and Time 2, there were statistically significant changes in CD4+T cell count, with an increase from 1074/mL(IQR:860-1316) to 1217.5/mL(IQR:838-1510),p = 0.0002. The CD4/CD8 ratio increased from 2.2(IQR: 1.7-2.7) to 2.4(1.8-2.8), p = 0.0001. As for humoral variables, the C3 fraction of complement decreased from 164 ±â€¯40.6 mg/dL to 112.4 ±â€¯31.4 mg/dL(p < 0.001) and C4 decreased from 29.3 ±â€¯10.1 mg/dL to 22.5 ±â€¯7.1(p = 0.0009) at Time 2. Four patients with negative ANAs at baseline, showed positive ANAs at Time 2.One patient developed anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies >200 IU/mL at Time 2. Conclusions: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery show immunological changes which might eventually lead to develop an autoimmune disease.

20.
Adv Respir Med ; 2018 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594999

RESUMO

Here the cases of three female patients who received long-term rituximab treatment for seropositive, erosive and deforming rheumatoid arthritis was reported. After rituximab treatment, they presented with recurrent sinusitis and pneumonia, followed by the subsequent development of bronchiectasis. A temporal relationship between rituximab treatment and the onset of respiratory complications was exposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

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