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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900286, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality among breast cancer survivors. Although body mass index (BMI) is associated with CVD risk, adipose tissue distribution may better identify patients with a high risk of CVD after breast cancer. METHODS: Among 2,943 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer without prior CVD, we used International Classification of Diseases (9th and 10th revisions) codes to identify incidence of nonfatal stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or CVD death. From clinically acquired computed tomography scans obtained near diagnosis, we measured visceral adiposity (centimeters squared), subcutaneous adiposity (centimeters squared), and intramuscular adiposity (fatty infiltration into muscle [Hounsfield Units, scored inversely]). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per SD increase in adiposity accounting for competing risks and adjusting for demographics, smoking, cancer treatment, and pre-existing CVD risk factors. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 56 (12) years. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 328 CVD events occurred. Each SD increase in visceral or intramuscular adiposity was associated with an increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.29] and HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.37]), respectively). Excess visceral and intramuscular adiposity occurred across all BMI categories. Among normal-weight patients, each SD greater visceral adiposity increased CVD risk by 70% (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.10 to 2.62]). CONCLUSION: Visceral and intramuscular adiposity were associated with increased CVD incidence after breast cancer diagnosis, independent of pre-existing CVD risk factors and cancer treatments. The increased CVD incidence among normal-weight patients with greater visceral adiposity would go undetected with BMI alone. Measures of adipose tissue distribution may help identify high-risk patients and tailor CVD prevention strategies.

2.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Weight cycling, defined as intentional weight loss followed by unintentional weight regain, may attenuate the benefit of intentional weight loss on endometrial cancer risk. We summarized the literature on intentional weight loss, weight cycling after intentional weight loss, bariatric surgery, and endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases published between January 2000 and November 2018. We followed Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We qualitatively summarized studies related to intentional weight loss and weight cycling due to the inconsistent definition, and quantitatively summarized studies when bariatric surgery was the mechanism of intentional weight loss. RESULTS: A total of 127 full-text articles were reviewed, and 13 were included (bariatric surgery n=7, self-reported intentional weight loss n=2, self-reported weight cycling n=4). Qualitative synthesis suggested that, compared with stable weight, self-reported intentional weight loss was associated with lower endometrial cancer risk (RR range 0.61-0.96), whereas self-reported weight cycling was associated with higher endometrial cancer risk (OR range 1.07-2.33). The meta-analysis yielded a 59% lower risk of endometrial cancer following bariatric surgery (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the notion that intentional weight loss and maintenance of a stable, healthy weight can lower endometrial cancer risk. Strategies to improve awareness and maintenance of weight loss among women with obesity are needed to reduce endometrial cancer risk.

3.
Prev Med ; : 105822, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470024

RESUMO

To lower risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD), national guidelines recommend lifestyle changes followed by use of lipid-lowering medications when appropriate. Previous studies have questioned whether individuals taking these medications are less likely to modify their dietary intake and physical activity, resulting in increased body mass index (BMI). We assessed BMI and CVD clinical risk factors over time between lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers in a diverse cohort of middle-aged and older men. The cohort consisted of 63,357 men who enrolled in the California Men's Health Study between 2002 and 2003 and were not taking lipid-lowering medications at baseline. Lipid-lowering medication use was determined over twelve years of follow-up. BMI and other CVD risk factors were assessed with longitudinal linear mixed effect models adjusting for possible confounders. Overall, lipid-lowering medication users had higher BMI than nonusers (p < .0001); however, there was a decrease over time for both groups (p < .0001). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides decreased for users and nonusers (p < .0001). While HDL-C was higher for nonusers (p < .05), over time this measure increased in both groups (p < .0001). We found no evidence of increases in BMI after initiation of lipid-lowering medication in this cohort. Instead, BMI decreased and several cholesterol-related CVD risk factors improved for lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers. This suggests that men placed on lipid-lowering medications do not view them as a panacea for their increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Instead, they appear to perceive them as one component of a multi-pronged strategy including lifestyle and nutrition as suggested by current guidelines.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274146

RESUMO

Concerns about reverse causality and selection bias complicate the interpretation of studies of body mass index (BMI) and mortality in older adults. The objective of this manuscript is to investigate methodological explanations for the apparent attenuation of obesity-related risks in older adults. We used data from 68,132 participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial in this analysis. All of the participants were postmenopausal women aged 50-79 at baseline (1993-1998). To examine reverse causality and selective attrition, we compared rate ratios from inverse probability of treatment (IPTW) and censoring (IPCW) weighted Poisson marginal structural models to results from an unweighted adjusted Poisson regression model. The estimated mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for BMI 30-34.9, 35-39.9 and ≥40 kg/m2 were 0.86 (0.77, 5.48), 0.85 (0.72, 0.99), and 0.88 (0.72, 1.07) in the unweighted model. The corresponding mortality rate ratios were 0.96 (0.86, 1.07), 1.12 (0.97, 1.29), and 1.31 (1.08, 1.57) in the marginal structural model. Results from the IPTW and IPCW weighted marginal structural model were attenuated in low BMI categories and increased in high BMI categories. The results demonstrate the importance of accounting for reverse causality and selective attrition in studies of older adults.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quantity and distribution of adipose tissue may be prognostic measures of mortality in colorectal cancer patients and such associations may vary by patient sex. METHODS: This cohort included 3,262 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were quantified using computed tomography. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Restricted cubic splines estimated statistical associations with two-sided P values. RESULTS: Visceral adipose tissue was prognostic of mortality in a reverse L-shaped pattern (nonlinear P=0.02); risk flat to a threshold (≈260 cm2), then increased linearly. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was prognostic of mortality in a J-shaped pattern (nonlinear P<0.001); risk was higher at extreme (<50 cm2) but lower at intermediate values (>50 to ≤ 560 cm2). Patient sex modified the prognostic associations between visceral adipose tissue (Pinteraction=0.049) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (Pinteraction=0.04) with mortality. Among men, visceral adiposity was associated with mortality in a J-shaped pattern (nonlinear P=0.003), whereas among women, visceral adiposity was associated with mortality in a linear pattern (linear P=0.008). Among men, subcutaneous adiposity was associated with mortality in an L-shaped pattern (nonlinear P=0.01), whereas among women, subcutaneous adiposity was associated with mortality in a J-shaped pattern (nonlinear P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were prognostic of mortality in patients with colorectal cancer; the shape of these associations were often nonlinear and varied by patient sex. These results offer insight into the potential biological mechanisms that link obesity with clinical outcomes in patients with cancer, suggesting that the dysregulated deposition of excess adiposity is prognostic of mortality.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197337, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339542

RESUMO

Importance: Current public health guidelines for obesity prevention and control focus on promoting a normal body mass index (BMI), rarely addressing central obesity, which is reflected by high waist circumference (WC) and common in the general population. Studies of the association of normal-weight central obesity with long-term health outcomes are sparse. Objective: To examine associations of normal-weight central obesity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in postmenopausal women in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: A nationwide prospective cohort study of 156 624 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative at 40 clinical centers in the United States between 1993 and 1998. These women were observed through February 2017. Data analysis was performed from September 15, 2017, to March 13, 2019. Exposures: Different combinations of BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; normal weight: BMI, 18.5-24.9; overweight: BMI, 25.0-29.9; and obesity: BMI, ≥30) and WC (normal: WC, ≤88 cm and high: WC, >88 cm). Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Results: Of the 156 624 women (mean [SD] age, 63.2 [7.2] years), during 2 811 187 person-years of follow-up, 43 838 deaths occurred, including 12 965 deaths from cardiovascular disease (29.6%) and 11 828 deaths from cancer (27.0%). Compared with women with normal weight and no central obesity and adjusted for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and hormone use, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.20-1.42) among women with normal weight and central obesity, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.94) among women with overweight and no central obesity, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.13-1.20) for women with overweight and central obesity, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.94) for women with obesity and no central obesity, and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.27-1.34) for women with obesity and central obesity. Compared with normal weight without central obesity, normal-weight central obesity was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46) and cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). Conclusions and Relevance: Normal-weight central obesity in women was associated with excess risk of mortality, similar to that of women with BMI-defined obesity with central obesity. These findings underscore the need for future public health guidelines to include the prevention and control of central obesity, even in individuals with normal BMI.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inventory of cancer survivorship cohorts is necessary to identify important gaps in what is being studied among cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of cancer survivor cohorts, to determine the scope and scale of information collected on demographic, biopsychosocial, and selected clinical variables from cancer survivors. Cohorts were eligible for inclusion in the environmental scan if the study was conducted in the United States, reported in English, and consisted of data collected from cancer survivors post-diagnosis and followed for at least one year. RESULTS: Out of the 131 cohorts identified, 62 were eligible. There were 23 cancer sites represented and more than half of the studies included breast cancer survivors (n=34). The next most commonly included cancers were leukemia (n=22) and lymphoma (n=23). The majority (n=59) collected information on clinical characteristics and basic diagnostic information, patient demographic characteristics (n=57), patient-reported symptoms (n=44), lifestyle (n=45), and psychological (n=42) characteristics. Half collected biospecimens (n=35) and biomarkers (n=35); fewer collected CAM use (n=19) and social characteristics (n=27). CONCLUSIONS: Extensive data are available in cancer cohorts to study important questions relevant to cancer survivors. Cohorts should consider collecting information on social and environmental factors, as well as biospecimen collection and biomarker analyses, and should include survivors from cancer sites less likely to be studied. IMPACT: This information can assist researchers in understanding the types of information currently being gathered from cancer survivors for further analysis and identify areas where more research is needed.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

10.
Clin Trials ; : 1740774519846862, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MsFLASH (Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health) Network recruited into five randomized clinical trials (n = 100-350) through mass mailings. The fifth trial tested two interventions for postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms (itching, pain, irritation, dryness, or pain with sex) and thus required a high level of sensitivity to privacy concerns. For this trial, in addition to mass mailings we pilot tested a social media recruitment approach. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting healthy midlife women with bothersome vulvovaginal symptoms to participate in the Vaginal Health Trial through Facebook advertising. METHODS: As part of a larger advertising campaign that enrolled 302 postmenopausal women for the 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Vaginal Health Trial from April 2016 to February 2017, Facebook advertising was used to recruit 25 participants. The target population for recruitment by mailings and by Facebook ads included women aged 50-70 years and living within 20 miles of study sites in Minneapolis, MN and Seattle, WA. Design of recruitment letters and Facebook advertisements was informed by focus group feedback. Facebook ads were displayed in the "newsfeed" of targeted users and included a link to the study website. Response rates and costs are described for both online ads and mailing. RESULTS: Facebook ads ran in Minneapolis for 28 days and in Seattle for 15 days, with ads posted and removed from the site as needed based on clinic flow and a set budget limit. Our estimated Facebook advertising reach was over 200,000 women; 461 women responded and 25 were enrolled at a cost of US$14,813. The response rate per estimated reach was 0.22%; costs were US$32 per response and US$593 per randomized participant. The social media recruitment results varied by site, showing greater effectiveness in Seattle than in Minneapolis. We mailed 277,000 recruitment letters; 2166 women responded and 277 were randomized at a cost of US$98,682. The response rate per letter sent was 0.78%; costs were US$46 per response and US$356 per randomized participant. Results varied little across sites. CONCLUSION: Recruitment to a clinical trial testing interventions for postmenopausal vaginal symptoms is feasible through social media advertising. Variability in observed effectiveness and costs may reflect the small sample sizes and limited budget of the pilot recruitment study.

11.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 75: 47-55, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132616

RESUMO

In diseases such as cancer, patients suffer from degenerative loss of skeletal muscle (cachexia). Muscle wasting and loss of muscle function/performance (sarcopenia) can also occur during advanced aging. Assessing skeletal muscle mass in sarcopenia and cachexia is therefore of clinical interest for risk stratification. In comparison with fat, body fluids and bone, quantifying the skeletal muscle mass is more challenging. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the gold standard techniques for cancer diagnostics and analysis of progression, and therefore a valuable source of imaging for in vivo quantification of skeletal muscle mass. In this paper, we design a novel deep neural network-based algorithm for the automated segmentation of skeletal muscle in axial CT images at the third lumbar (L3) and the fourth thoracic (T4) levels. A two-branch network with two training steps is investigated. The network's performance is evaluated for three trained models on separate datasets. These datasets were generated by different CT devices and data acquisition settings. To ensure the model's robustness, each trained model was tested on all three available test sets. Errors and the effect of labeling protocol in these cases were analyzed and reported. The best performance of the proposed algorithm was achieved on 1327 L3 test samples with an overlap Jaccard score of 98% and sensitivity and specificity greater than 99%.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.

13.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(7): 967-972, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095251

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are up to 4-fold more likely than individuals without a history of cancer to develop cardiovascular disease. Clinical care guidelines recommend that physicians counsel patients with CRC regarding the association between obesity (defined using body mass index [BMI] calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and cardiovascular disease risk; however, this recommendation is based on expert opinion. Objective: To determine which measures of body composition are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based retrospective cohort study of 2839 patients with stage I to III CRC diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 at an integrated health care system in North America. Exposures: The primary exposures were BMI and computed tomography-derived body composition measurements (eg, adipose tissue compartments and muscle characteristics) obtained at the diagnosis of CRC. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to the first occurrence of MACE after diagnosis of CRC, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Results: In this population-based cohort study of 2839 participants with CRC (1384 men and 1455 women), the average age (SD) was 61.9 (11.5) years (range, 19-80 years). A substantial number of patients were former (1127; 40%) or current smokers (340; 12%), with hypertension (1150; 55%), hyperlipidemia (1389; 49%), and type 2 diabetes (573; 20%). The cumulative incidence of MACE 10 years after diagnosis of CRC was 19.1%. Body mass index was positively correlated with some computed tomography-derived measures of body composition. However, BMI was not associated with MACE; contrasting BMI categories of greater than or equal to 35 vs 18.5 to 24.9, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.85-1.77; P = .50 for trend). Visceral adipose tissue area was associated with MACE; contrasting the highest vs lowest quintile, the HR was 1.54 (95% CI, 1.02-2.31; P = .04 for trend). Subcutaneous adipose tissue area was not associated with MACE; contrasting the highest vs lowest quintile, the HR was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.78-1.69; P = .65 for trend). Muscle mass was not associated with MACE; contrasting the highest vs lowest quintile, the HR was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.57-1.61; P = .92 for trend). Muscle radiodensity was associated with MACE; contrasting the highest (ie, less lipid stored in the muscle) vs lowest quintile, the HR was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.44-1.03; P = .02 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: Visceral adiposity and muscle radiodensity appear to be risk factors for MACE. Body mass index may have limited use for determining cardiovascular risk in this patient population.

14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(6): 997-1004, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of breast cancer survival have not considered specific depots of adipose tissue such as subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). METHODS: This study assessed these relationships among 3,235 women with stage II and III breast cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and between 2000 and 2012 at Dana Farber Cancer Institute. SAT and VAT areas (in centimeters squared) were calculated from routine computed tomography scans within 6 (median: 1.2) months of diagnosis, covariates were collected from electronic health records, and vital status was assessed by death records. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: SAT and VAT ranged from 19.0 to 891 cm2 and from 0.484 to 454 cm2 , respectively. SAT was related to increased risk of death (127-cm2 increase; HR [95% CI]: 1.13 [1.02-1.26]), but no relationship was found with VAT (78.18-cm2 increase; HR [95% CI]: 1.02 [0.91-1.14]). An association with VAT was noted among women with stage II cancer (stage II: HR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.99-1.39]; stage III: HR: 0.90 [95% CI: 0.76-1.07]; P interaction < 0.01). Joint increases in SAT and VAT were associated with mortality above either alone (simultaneous 1-SD increase: HR 1.19 [95% CI: 1.05-1.34]). CONCLUSIONS: SAT may be an underappreciated risk factor for breast cancer-related death.

15.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary factors may influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival through effects on inflammation. We examined the association between post-CRC diagnosis inflammatory potential of diet and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in the Women's Health Initiative. METHODS: The study included 463 postmenopausal women who developed CRC during follow-up and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), on average 1.7 years after diagnosis. Women were followed from CRC diagnosis until death, censoring, or the end of follow-up in October 2014. Energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII)® scores were calculated from the FFQ and dietary supplement inventory. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, total cancer, and CRC-specific mortality with the most pro-inflammatory E-DII scores (tertile 3) as referent. RESULTS: After a median 11.6 years of follow-up, 162 deaths occurred, including 77 from CRC. Lowest tertile (i.e., most anti-inflammatory) E-DII scores from diet plus supplements were associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality (HRT1vsT3 = 0.49; 95% CI 0.31-0.79) compared to the most pro-inflammatory E-DII tertile. Modest associations with total cancer mortality or CRC-specific mortality were observed, though 95% CIs included 1. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming a dietary pattern and supplements with more anti-inflammatory potential after CRC diagnosis may improve overall survival among postmenopausal women.

16.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998538

RESUMO

MINI: We examined risk of breast cancer among 17,998 women who had bariatric surgery and 53,889 women matched on body mass index with no surgery. We found bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of both premenopausal [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.94] and postmenopausal (HR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.42-0.72) breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study examined whether bariatric surgery is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer among pre- and postmenopausal women. BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the impact of weight loss on breast cancer risk has been difficult to quantify. METHODS: The cohort included obese (body mass index ≥35 kg/m) patients enrolled in an integrated health care delivery system between 2005 and 2012 (with follow-up through 2014). Female bariatric surgery patients (N = 17,998) were matched on body mass index, age, study site, and comorbidity index to 53,889 women with no bariatric surgery. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine incident breast cancer up to 10 years after bariatric surgery. Pre- and postmenopausal women were examined separately, and further classified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. RESULTS: The analysis included 301 premenopausal and 399 postmenopausal breast cancer cases. In multivariable adjusted models, bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of both premenopausal (HR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54-0.94) and postmenopausal (HR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.42-0.72) breast cancer. Among premenopausal women, the effect of bariatric surgery was more pronounced among ER-negative cases (HR = 0.36, 95% CI, 0.16-0.79). Among postmenopausal women, the effect was more pronounced in ER-positive cases (HR = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.39-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among severely obese women. These findings have significant public health relevance because the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, and few modifiable breast cancer risk factors have been identified, especially for premenopausal women.

17.
Menopause ; 26(8): 816-822, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of two common interventions for bothersome postmenopausal vaginal symptoms on improving sexual frequency and pain. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of data from a 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial that randomized postmenopausal women (ages 45-70 years) with moderate-severe genitourinary discomfort to vaginal 10 µg estradiol tablet plus placebo gel (n = 102), placebo tablet plus vaginal moisturizer (n = 100), or dual placebo (n = 100). Outcomes were proportion of sexually active women at 12 weeks, frequency of sexual activity, and pain severity with sexual activity (0-3 scale). Consistent with the original study design, comparisons were made between each active arm and the dual placebo arm. RESULTS: Most women enrolled in the trial, 294/302 (97%), had sufficient data to be included in this analysis. Mean age of participants was 61 years, most were white (88%), college educated (66%), and most reported sexual activity in the month before enrollment (81%). After 12 weeks of treatment, a similar proportion of women in the vaginal estrogen and dual placebo groups reported sexual activity in the past week (50% and 40%; P = 0.10) and the past month (78% and 84%, P = 0.52). Mean (standard deviation) pain with sexual activity scores at 12 weeks were similar between vaginal estrogen (1.0 [1.0]) and placebo (0.9 [0.9], P = 0.52] groups. The proportion sexually active at 12 weeks (35%) and mean (standard deviation) pain severity in the vaginal moisturizer group (1.1 [0.9]) did not differ from placebo (P = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, neither low-dose vaginal estradiol nor vaginal moisturizer treatment over 12 weeks resulted in significantly greater increases in the proportions of women reporting sexual activity or improvement in pain scores with sexual activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials.gov: NCT02516202.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 615-625, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, factors contributing to these 2 muscle abnormalities are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medical and demographic characteristics with muscle abnormalities among patients with nonmetastatic CRC. METHODS: Patients with stage I-III invasive CRC (2006-11) who had diagnostic computed tomography (CT) available from Kaiser Permanente Northern California electronic medical records were included. CT-assessed sarcopenia and low SMD were defined according to optimal stratification. Logistic regressions including age, stage, site, total adipose tissue (TAT), race/ethnicity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, smoking history, alcohol use, and Charlson Comorbidity Score were performed to identify characteristics associated with muscle abnormalities. RESULTS: The study included 3262 patients (49.9% females) with a mean ± SD age of 62.6 ± 11.4 y. Sarcopenia and low SMD were highly prevalent (42.4% and 29.6%, respectively). Age and sex interactions were noted for muscle mass, but not SMD. Age was associated with higher odds of muscle abnormalities in a dose-response manner. Compared with those aged ≤50 y, patients aged 70-80 y had considerably higher odds (OR: 6.19; 95% CI: 4.72, 8.11) of sarcopenia, and low SMD (OR: 17.81; 95% CI: 11.73, 27.03). High TAT was related to a higher odds of low SMD (OR: 9.62; 95% CI: 7.37, 12.56), but lower odds of sarcopenia (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.71). Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had lower odds of sarcopenia and low SMD. Patients with a higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio had higher odds of having both muscle abnormalities. Patients who were smokers or had any comorbidity had higher odds of low SMD, but not sarcopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle abnormalities were common in patients with nonmetastatic CRC, with great variability in muscle mass and SMD across age, TAT, and race/ethnicity. Factors associated with muscle abnormalities may be used to facilitate risk stratification and the guidance of targeted strategies to counteract these abnormalities.

19.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer ; 125(7): 1133-1142, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) exceeds the incidence of all other types of cancers combined. Cumulative sun exposure and intermittent sun exposure are known risk factors for the development of NMSC. Because obesity has been shown to decrease the risk of NMSC incidence, this study investigated whether the risk of NMSC with sun exposure was consistent across different levels of body size. METHODS: Body size was assessed with the body mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Sun exposure was assessed in watts and langleys and by the amount of time spent outdoors per day in the summer during a person's 30s. RESULTS: Among 71,645 postmenopausal women eligible for inclusion in this study, 13,351 participants (18.6%) developed NMSC. A BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or a WHR ≥ 0.80 was associated with lower NMSC hazard rates (hazard ratio for BMI, 0.78; hazard ratio for WHR, 0.89); however, the association between higher levels of sun exposure and a higher risk of NMSC was more apparent among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or a WHR ≥ 0.80 in comparison with those of a normal weight (P for interaction for BMI < .001; P for interaction for WHR = .022). CONCLUSIONS: Although most studies have considered sun exposure as a covariate, none have addressed the potential interaction of body size with sun exposure; therefore, the effect size of being overweight or obese may have been overestimated. In comparison to the normal-weight group, those in the overweight group had increasingly higher hazard rates with increasing sun exposure. Further studies are warranted to investigate how increased weight interacts with sun exposure to influence skin cancer pathogenesis.

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