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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): e427-e439, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261328


Objective: Atheromatous fibrous caps are produced by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that are recruited to the subendothelial space. We tested whether the recruitment mechanisms are the same as in embryonic artery development, which relies prominently on Notch signaling to form the subendothelial medial SMC layers. Approach and Results: Notch elements were expressed in regions of fibrous cap in human and mouse plaques. To assess the causal role of Notch signaling in cap formation, we studied atherosclerosis in mice where the Notch pathway was inactivated in SMCs by conditional knockout of the essential effector transcription factor RBPJ (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region). The recruitment of cap SMCs was significantly reduced without major effects on plaque size. Lineage tracing revealed the accumulation of SMC-derived plaque cells in the cap region was unaltered but that Notch-defective cells failed to re-acquire the SMC phenotype in the cap. Conversely, to analyze whether the loss of Notch signaling is required for SMC-derived cells to accumulate in atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis in mice with constitutive activation of Notch signaling in SMCs achieved by conditional expression of the Notch intracellular domain. Forced Notch signaling inhibited the ability of medial SMCs to contribute to plaque cells, including both cap SMCs and osteochondrogenic cells, and significantly reduced atherosclerosis development. Conclusions: Sequential loss and gain of Notch signaling is needed to build the cap SMC population. The shared mechanisms with embryonic arterial media assembly suggest that the cap forms as a neo-media that restores the connection between endothelium and subendothelial SMCs, transiently disrupted in early atherogenesis.

Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Túnica Média/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Túnica Média/patologia
Nature ; 568(7753): 557-560, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971822


The cell cycle is a tightly regulated process that is controlled by the conserved cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin protein complex1. However, control of the G0-to-G1 transition is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that p38 MAPK gamma (p38γ) acts as a CDK-like kinase and thus cooperates with CDKs, regulating entry into the cell cycle. p38γ shares high sequence homology, inhibition sensitivity and substrate specificity with CDK family members. In mouse hepatocytes, p38γ induces proliferation after partial hepatectomy by promoting the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein at known CDK target residues. Lack of p38γ or treatment with the p38γ inhibitor pirfenidone protects against the chemically induced formation of liver tumours. Furthermore, biopsies of human hepatocellular carcinoma show high expression of p38γ, suggesting that p38γ could be a therapeutic target in the treatment of this disease.

Carcinogênese/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Proteína Quinase 12 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Quinase 12 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação , Piridonas/farmacologia , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/química , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato
PLoS Biol ; 16(7): e2004455, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979672


Adipose tissue has emerged as an important regulator of whole-body metabolism, and its capacity to dissipate energy in the form of heat has acquired a special relevance in recent years as potential treatment for obesity. In this context, the p38MAPK pathway has arisen as a key player in the thermogenic program because it is required for the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and participates also in the transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into BAT-like depot called beige/brite tissue. Here, using mice that are deficient in p38α specifically in adipose tissue (p38αFab-KO), we unexpectedly found that lack of p38α protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We also showed that p38αFab-KO mice presented higher energy expenditure due to increased BAT thermogenesis. Mechanistically, we found that lack of p38α resulted in the activation of the related protein kinase family member p38δ. Our results showed that p38δ is activated in BAT by cold exposure, and lack of this kinase specifically in adipose tissue (p38δ Fab-KO) resulted in overweight together with reduced energy expenditure and lower body and skin surface temperature in the BAT region. These observations indicate that p38α probably blocks BAT thermogenesis through p38δ inhibition. Consistent with the results obtained in animals, p38α was reduced in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of subjects with obesity and was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI). Altogether, we have elucidated a mechanism implicated in physiological BAT activation that has potential clinical implications for the treatment of obesity and related diseases such as diabetes.

Tecido Adiposo Marrom/enzimologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 13 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipócitos Marrons/enzimologia , Adulto , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Quinase 13 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/enzimologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo