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J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 40, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861974


OBJECTIVES: Our ability to generate mental representation of magnitude from sensory information affects how we perceive and experience the world. Reduced resolution of the mental representations formed from sensory inputs may generate impairment in the proximal and distal information processes that utilize these representations. Impairment of spatial and temporal information processing likely underpins the non-verbal cognitive impairments observed in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The present study builds on prior research by seeking to quantify the resolution of spatial and temporal representation in children with 22q11DS, sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), and a typically developing (TD) control group. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Children (22q11DS = 70, SCA = 49, TD = 46) responded to visual or auditory stimuli with varying difference ratios. The participant's task was to identify which of two sequentially presented stimuli was of larger magnitude in terms of, size, duration, or auditory frequency. Detection threshold was calculated as the minimum difference ratio between the "standard" and the "target" stimuli required to achieve 75% accuracy in detecting that the two stimuli were different. RESULTS: Children with 22q11DS required larger magnitude difference between spatial stimuli for accurate identification compared with both the SCA and TD groups (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD: 7; F = 8.42, p < 0.001). Temporal detection threshold was also higher for the 22q11DS group to both visual (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD = 7; F = 8.33, p < 0.001) and auditory (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 23; SCA = 12; TD: 8; F = 8.99, p < 0.001) stimuli compared with both the SCA and TD groups, while the SCA and TD groups displayed equivalent performance on these measures (p's > 0.05). Pitch detection threshold did not differ among the groups (p's > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The observation of higher detection thresholds to spatial and temporal stimuli indicates further evidence for reduced resolution in both spatial and temporal magnitude representation in 22q11DS, that does not extend to frequency magnitude representation (pitch detection), and which is not explained by generalized cognitive impairment alone. These findings generate further support for the hypothesis that spatiotemporal hypergranularity of mental representations contributes to the non-verbal cognitive impairment seen in 22q11DS.

Psychiatry Res ; 232(1): 106-14, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748884


The fornix is the primary subcortical output fiber system of the hippocampal formation. In children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), hippocampal volume reduction has been commonly reported, but few studies as yet have evaluated the integrity of the fornix. Therefore, we investigated the fornix of 45 school-aged children with 22q11.2DS and 38 matched typically developing (TD) children. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct the body of the fornix in each child׳s brain native space. Compared with children, significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) was observed bilaterally in the body of the fornix in children with 22q11.2DS. Irregularities were especially prominent in the posterior aspect of the fornix where it emerges from the hippocampus. Smaller volumes of the hippocampal formations were also found in the 22q11.2DS group. The reduced hippocampal volumes were correlated with lower fornix FA and higher fornix RD in the right hemisphere. Our findings provide neuroanatomical evidence of disrupted hippocampal connectivity in children with 22q11.2DS, which may help to further understand the biological basis of spatial impairments, affective regulation, and other factors related to the ultra-high risk for schizophrenia in this population.

Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Fórnice/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Esquizofrenia/genética
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 119(2): 115-32, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24679349


Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with 22q11.2DS (n  =  47) and typically developing controls (n  =  49) ages 6-15 years saw images within a grid and after a delay, then indicated the positions of the images in the correct temporal order. Children with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than controls. Females with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than males. These results extend findings of impaired spatiotemporal processing into the memory domain in 22q11.2DS by documenting their influence on working memory performance.

Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética
J Neurodev Disord ; 4(1): 5, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22958432


BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a 1.5- to 3-megabase deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and occurs in approximately 1 in 4000 live births. Previous studies indicate that children with 22q11.2DS are impaired on tasks involving spatial attention. However, the degree to which these impairments are due to volitionally generated (endogenous) or reflexive (exogenous) orienting of attention is unclear. Additionally, the efficacy of these component attention processes throughout child development in 22q11.2DS has yet to be examined. METHODS: Here we compared the performance of a wide age range (7 to 14 years) of children with 22q11.2DS to typically developing (TD) children on a comprehensive visual cueing paradigm to dissociate the contributions of endogenous and exogenous attentional impairments. Paired and two-sample t-tests were used to compare outcome measures within a group or between groups. Additionally, repeated measures regression models were fit to the data in order to examine effects of age on performance. RESULTS: We found that children with 22q11.2DS were impaired on a cueing task with an endogenous cue, but not on the same task with an exogenous cue. Additionally, it was younger children exclusively who were impaired on endogenous cueing when compared to age-matched TD children. Older children with 22q11.2DS performed comparably to age-matched TD peers on the endogenous cueing task. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that endogenous but not exogenous orienting of attention is selectively impaired in children with 22q11.2DS. Additionally, the age effect on cueing in children with 22q11.2DS suggests a possible altered developmental trajectory of endogenous cueing.

J Neurodev Disord ; 4(1): 6, 2012 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22958454


BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) occurs in approximately 1:4,000 live births with a complex and variable presentation that includes medical, socioemotional and psychological symptoms with intellectual impairment. Cognitive impairments in spatiotemporal and visuospatial attention have also been reported. However, maintenance of selective attention to dynamic and interacting objects has not been systematically investigated in children with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: We used a multiple object tracking task to assay capacity and resolution performance of children with 22q11.2DS aged 7 to 14 years versus age-matched typically developing (TD) peers. RESULTS: Children with 22q11.2DS but not TD children demonstrated impaired performance when task demands increased due to an increase in the number of targets presented, but not from an increase in object speed. Task performance in children with 22q11.2DS was also unrelated to intelligence or measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that children with 22q11.2DS may be particularly susceptible to dynamic crowding of objects with increasing cognitive demands related to monitoring multiple targets reflecting a reduced acuity in spatiotemporal cognitive representation.