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2.
Eur J Cancer ; 158: 133-143, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666215

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigated how material deprivation in Italy influences the stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at diagnosis and the chance of cure. METHODS: 4114 patients from the Italian Liver Cancer database consecutively diagnosed with HCC between January 2008 and December 2018 were analysed about severe material deprivation (SMD) rate tertiles of the region of birth and region of managing hospitals, according to the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The main outcomes were HCC diagnosis modalities (during or outside surveillance), treatment adoption and overall survival. RESULTS: In more deprived regions, HCC was more frequently diagnosed during surveillance, while the incidental diagnosis was prevalent in the least deprived. Tumour characteristics did not differ among regions. The proportion of patients undergoing potentially curative treatments progressively decreased as the SMD worsened. Consequently, overall survival was better in less deprived regions. Patients who moved from most deprived to less deprived regions increased their probability of receiving potentially curative treatments by 1.11 times (95% CI 1.03 to 1.19), decreasing their mortality likelihood (hazard ratio 0.78 95% CI 0.67 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status measured through SMD does not seem to influence HCC features at diagnosis but brings a negative effect on the chance of receiving potentially curative treatments. Patient mobility from the most deprived to the less deprived regions increased the access to curative therapies, with the ultimate result of improving survival.

3.
Ann Hepatol ; : 100568, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699987

RESUMO

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized the treatment of chronic HCV-related disease achieving high rates of sustained virological response (SVR), even in advanced cirrhosis, with modest contraindications and a low rate of adverse events. However, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) persists due to the underlying chronic liver disease, both in patients with and without history of HCC. Although some initial studies reported a presumptive high risk of HCC development after DAA therapy, more recent observational studies denied this hypothesis. The residual risk for HCC occurrence after HCV eradication seems being progressively reduced with time after SVR. Data on recurrence of HCC after DAA exposure in patients with previously treated carcinoma initially reported conflicting results too, this being also due to methodological issues in analysis of retrospective multicenter studies. Anyway, current evidence support the use of DAAs in HCV-HCC treated patients, without any higher risk of tumor recurrence linked to antiviral therapy. Less effort has been made to evaluate the efficacy of DAA therapy in patients with untreated active HCC and it has been questioned whether a lower rate of SVR would be obtained among patients with active HCC. Studies conducted in this perspective concluded that HCC status does not influence the likelihood to obtain SVR with DAAs, making DAAs appropriate in HCC-active patients. As far as survival is concerned, recent studies conducted in cirrhotic HCV-related early-stage HCC found that DAAs improved overall survival, a benefit probably due to the reduction of hepatic decompensation.

4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An enhanced surveillance schedule has been proposed for cirrhotics with viral etiology, who are considered at extremely high-risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AIMS: We compared the 3- and 6-months surveillance interval, evaluating cancer stage at diagnosis and patient survival. METHODS: Data of 777 HBV and HCV cirrhotic patients with HCC diagnosed under a 3-months (n = 109, 3MS group) or a 6-months (n = 668, 6MS group) surveillance were retrieved from the Italian Liver Cancer database. Survival in the 3MS group was considered as observed and adjusted for lead-time bias, and survival analysis was repeated after a propensity score matching. RESULTS: The 3-months surveillance interval neither reduced the share of patients diagnosed outside the Milano criteria, nor increased their probability to receive curative treatments. The median survival of 6MS patients (55.0 months [45.9-64.0]) was not significantly different from the observed (47.0 months [35.0-58.9]; p = 0.43) and adjusted (44.9 months [33.4-56.4]; p = 0.30) survival of 3MS patients. A propensity score analysis confirmed the absence of a survival advantage for 3MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: A tightening of surveillance schedule does not increase the diagnosis of early-stage tumors, the feasibility of curative treatments and the survival. Therefore, we should maintain the 6-months interval in the surveillance of viral cirrhotics.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361985

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the new frontier for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the first trial with tremelimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitor, increasing evidence has confirmed that these drugs can significantly extend the survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a matter of fact, the overall survival and objective response rates reported in patients with advanced HCC treated with ICIs are the highest ever reported in the second-line setting and, most recently, the combination of the anti-programmed death ligand protein-1 atezolizumab with bevacizumab-an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody-demonstrated superiority to sorafenib in a Phase III randomized clinical trial. Therefore, this regimen has been approved in several countries as first-line treatment for advanced HCC and is soon expected to be widely used in clinical practice. However, despite the promising results of trials exploring ICIs alone or in combination with other agents, there are still some critical issues to deal with to optimize the prognosis of advanced HCC patients. For instance, the actual proportion of patients who are deemed eligible for ICIs in the real-life ranges from 10% to 20% in the first-line setting, and is even lower in the second-line scenario. Moreover, long-term data regarding the safety of ICIs in the population of patients with cirrhosis and impaired liver function are lacking. Lastly, no biomarkers have been identified to predict response, and thus to help clinicians to individually tailor treatment. This review aimed to summarize the state of the art immunotherapy in HCC and, by analyzing a large, multicenter cohort of Italian patients with HCC, to assess the potential applicability of the combination of atezolizumab/bevacizumab in the real-life setting.

6.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 370-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cabozantinib has been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Cabozantinib is also being tested in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the frontline setting. Real-life clinical data of cabozantinib for HCC are still lacking. Moreover, the prognostic factors for HCC treated with cabozantinib have not been investigated. Methods: We evaluated clinical data and outcome of HCC patients who received cabozantinib in the legal context of named patient use in Italy. Results: Ninety-six patients from 15 centres received cabozantinib. All patients had preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A), mostly with an advanced HCC (77.1%) in a third-line setting (75.0%). The prevalence of performance status (PS) > 0, macrovascular invasion (MVI), extrahepatic spread, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >400 ng/mL was 50.0, 30.2, 67.7, and 44.8%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 12.1 (95% confidence interval 9.4-14.8) and 5.1 (3.3-6.9) months, respectively. Most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (67.7%), diarrhoea (54.2%), anorexia (45.8%), HFSR (43.8%), weight loss (24.0%), and hypertension (24.0%). Most common treatment-related Grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue (6.3%), HFSR (6.3%), and increased aminotransferases (6.3%). MVI, ECOG-PS > 0, and AFP >400 ng/mL predicted a worse OS. Discontinuation for intolerance and no new extrahepatic lesions at the progression were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In a real-life Western scenario (mostly in a third-line setting), cabozantinib efficacy and safety data were comparable with those reported in its registration trial. Data regarding the prognostic factors might help in patient selection and design of clinical trials.

8.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072309

RESUMO

Among scores and staging systems used for HCC, none showed a good prognostic ability in patients with advanced HCC treated with Sorafenib. We aimed to evaluate predictive factors of overall survival (OS) and drug response in HCC patients undergoing Sorafenib included in the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA.) multicenter cohort. Patients in the ITA.LI.CA database treated with Sorafenib and updated on 30 June 2019 were included. Demographic and clinical data before starting Sorafenib treatment were considered. For the evaluation of predictive factors for OS, a time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used. A total of 1107 patients were included in our analysis. The mean age was 64.3 years and 81.7% were male. Most patients were staged as BCLC B (205, 18.9%) or C (706, 65.1%). The median time of Sorafenib administration was 4 months (interquartile range (IQR) 2-12), and the median OS was 10 months (IQR: 4-20). A total of 263 patients (33.8%) out of 780 with available evaluation experienced objective tumoral response to Sorafenib. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.284), maximum tumoral diameter (HR 1.100), plasma total bilirubin (HR 1.119), aspartate amino transferase assessed as multiple of the upper normal value (HR 1.032), alpha-fetoprotein ≥200 ng/mL (HR 1.342), hemoglobin (HR 0.903) and platelet count (HR 1.002) were associated with OS at multivariate Cox regression analysis. Drug response was predicted by maximum tumoral diameter and platelet count. A novel prognostic nomogram for patients undergoing Sorafenib is hereby proposed. The novelty introduced is the comprehensive patient's assessment using common markers of patient's general status, liver damage and function and HCC biology. Further studies are required to test its accuracy and provide external validation.

10.
Liver Cancer ; 10(2): 126-136, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977089

RESUMO

Introduction: The prognosis of patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is extremely variable, and a confounding factor is that TACE is often repeated several times. We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of different prognostic scores and staging systems in estimating overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: An analysis considering prognostic models as time-varying variables was performed, calculating OS from the time of TACE to the time of the subsequent treatment. Total follow-up time for each patient was therefore split into several observation times accounting for each TACE procedure. Values of the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare different systems. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify additional factors predictive of OS. We analyzed 1,610 TACE performed in 1,058 patients recorded in the Italian Liver Cancer database from 2008 through 2016. Results: The median OS of the enrolled patients was 41 months. According to LRT χ2 and AIC values based on the time-varying analysis, mHAP-III achieved the best values (41.72 and 4,625.49, respectively, p < 0.0001), indicating the highest predictive performance compared with all other scores (HAP, mHAP-II, ALBI, and pALBI) and staging systems (MELD, ITALICA, CLIP, MESH, MESIAH, JIS, HKLC, and BCLC). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, mHAP-III maintained an independent effect on OS (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.55, p < 0.0001). Time-varying age, alcoholic etiology, radiologic response to TACE, and performing ablation or surgery after TACE were additional significant variables resulting from the multivariable model. Conclusion: An innovative time-varying analysis revealed that mHAP-III was the most accurate model in predicting OS in patients with HCC undergoing TACE. Other clinical pre- and post-TACE variables were also found to be relevant for this prediction.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918125

RESUMO

Prognostic assessment in patients with HCC remains an extremely difficult clinical task due to the complexity of this cancer where tumour characteristics interact with degree of liver dysfunction, patient general health status, and a large span of available treatment options. Several prognostic systems have been proposed in the last three decades, both from the Asian and European/North American countries. Prognostic scores, such as the CLIP score and the recent MESH score, have been generated on a solid statistical basis from real life population data, while staging systems, such as the BCLC scheme and the recent CNLC classification, have been created by experts according to recent HCC prognostic evidences from the literature. A third category includes combined prognostic systems that can be used both as prognostic scores and staging systems. A recent example is the ITA.LI.CA prognostic system including either a prognostic score and a simplified staging system. This review focuses first on an overview of the main prognostic systems for HCC classified according to the above three categories, and, second, on a comprehensive description of the methodology required for a correct comparison between different systems in terms of prognostic performance. In this second section the main studies in the literature comparing different prognostic systems are described in detail. Lastly, a formal comparison between the last prognostic systems proposed for each of the above three categories is performed using a large Italian database including 6882 HCC patients in order to concretely apply the comparison rules previously described.

12.
Liver Int ; 41(9): 2179-2188, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of progression of indeterminate observations to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is still undetermined. To assess whether DAA therapy changes the risk of progression of observations with low (LR-2), intermediate (LR-3) and high (LR-4) probability for HCC in cirrhotic patients and to identify predictors of progression. METHODS: This retrospective study included cirrhotic patients treated with DAA who achieved sustained virological response between 2015 and 2019. A total of 68 patients had pre-DAA indeterminate observations and at least six months CT/MRI follow-up before and after DAA. Two radiologists reviewed CT/MRI studies to categorize observations according to the LI-RADSv2018 and assess the evolution on subsequent follow-ups. Predictors of evolutions were evaluated by using the Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 109 untreated observations were evaluated, including 31 (28.4%) LR-2, 67 (61.5%) LR-3 and 11 (10.1%) LR-4. During a median follow-up of 41 months, 17.4% and 13.3% of observations evolved to LR-5 or LR-M and LR-5, before and after DAA respectively (P = .428). There was no difference in rate of progression of neither LR-2 (P = 1.000), LR-3 (P = .833) or LR-4 (P = .505). At multivariate analysis, only initial LI-RADS category was an independent predictor of progression to LR-5 or LR-M for all observations (hazard ratio 6.75, P < .001), and of progression to LR-5 after DAA (hazard ratio 4.34, P = .047). CONCLUSIONS: DAA therapy does not increase progression of indeterminate observations to malignant categories. The initial LI-RADS category is an independent predictor of observations upgrade.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(8): 1190-1199, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896097

RESUMO

Real-world evidence on the course of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) chronic liver disease after Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) obtained with direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) are still limited, and the effects on mortality remain unclear. We evaluated the post-treatment survival of 4307 patients in the RESIST-HCV cohort (mean age 66.3 ± 11.6 years, 56.9% males, 24.7% chronic hepatitis, 66.9% Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and 8.4% Child-Pugh B cirrhosis) treated with DAAs between March 2015 and December 2016 and followed for a median of 73 weeks (range 16-152). Proportional cause-specific hazard regression for competing risks was used to evaluate the survival and to assess the predictors of liver and cardiovascular death. Overall, 94.7% of patients achieved SVR while 5.3% were HCV RNA-positive at last follow-up. Sixty-three patients (1.4%) died during the observation period. SVR was associated with a decreased risk of liver mortality (hazard ratio,HR0.09, beta -2.37, p < .001). Also, platelet count (HR 0.99, beta-0.01, p = .007) and albumin value (HR 0.26, beta -1.36 p = .001) were associated with liver mortality by competing risk analysis. SVR was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality regardless of presence of cirrhosis (HR 0.07, beta-2.67, p < .001). Presence of diabetes (HR 3.45, beta 1.24, p = .014) and chronic kidney disease class ≥3 (HR 3.60, beta 1.28, p = 0.016) were two factors independently associated with higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. Patients with SVR to a DAA therapy have a better liver and cardiovascular survival, and the effects of HCV eradication are most evident in patients with compensated liver disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Int J Biol Markers ; 36(1): 54-61, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis depends on both liver and tumor determinants, especially on maximum tumor diameter, multifocality, and presence of portal vein thrombosis, despite apparently complete tumor removal by resection or liver transplantation. AIMS: To examine parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma aggressiveness as tumor size increases. METHODS: A large hepatocellular carcinoma database was examined for trends in serum alpha-fetoprotein and the percentage of patients with macroscopic portal vein thrombosis or tumor multifocality. RESULTS: A total of 13,016 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were identified having full tumor and survival data. Of these, 76.56% were male and 23.44% were female, with a median age of 64.4 years. We found that as the maximum tumor diameter increased, there was a significant trend for increased alpha-fetoprotein levels (P<0.001) and an increased percentage of patients with either portal vein thrombosis or tumor multifocality, each P<0.0001. Furthermore, the increases of both alpha-fetoprotein and portal vein thrombosis were proportionately greater than the related maximum tumor diameter increases. These trends of increased alpha-fetoprotein, portal vein thrombosis, and multifocality with increasing maximum tumor diameter had non-linear patterns. Within alpha-fetoprotein and multifocality trends, there were identifiable sub-trends associated with specific maximum tumor diameter ranges. CONCLUSIONS: The greater fold-increases in alpha-fetoprotein and portal vein thrombosis compared with increases in maximum tumor diameter imply that hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics may change with increasing size to a more aggressive phenotype, suggesting that follow-up tumor sampling might be useful, in addition to baseline tumor sampling, for optimal therapeutic choices to be made.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
JHEP Rep ; 3(3): 100260, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644725

RESUMO

Background & Aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems and it may have heavily impacted patients with liver cancer (LC). Herein, we evaluated whether the schedule of LC screening or procedures has been interrupted or delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An international survey evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical practice and clinical trials from March 2020 to June 2020, as the first phase of a multicentre, international, and observational project. The focus was on patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, cared for around the world during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Results: Ninety-one centres expressed interest to participate and 76 were included in the analysis, from Europe, South America, North America, Asia, and Africa (73.7%, 17.1%, 5.3%, 2.6%, and 1.3% per continent, respectively). Eighty-seven percent of the centres modified their clinical practice: 40.8% the diagnostic procedures, 80.9% the screening programme, 50% cancelled curative and/or palliative treatments for LC, and 41.7% modified the liver transplantation programme. Forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) centres in which clinical trials were running modified their treatments in that setting, but 58.1% were able to recruit new patients. The phone call service was modified in 51.4% of centres which had this service before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 19/37). Conclusions: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had a tremendous impact on the routine care of patients with liver cancer. Modifications in screening, diagnostic, and treatment algorithms may have significantly impaired the outcome of patients. Ongoing data collection and future analyses will report the benefits and disadvantages of the strategies implemented, aiding future decision-making. Lay summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems globally. Herein, we assessed the impact of the first wave pandemic on patients with liver cancer and found that routine care for these patients has been majorly disrupted, which could have a significant impact on outcomes.

16.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The benefit of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV following successful treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. This meta-analysis of individual patient data assessed HCC recurrence risk following DAA administration. DESIGN: We pooled the data of 977 consecutive patients from 21 studies of HCV-related cirrhosis and HCC, who achieved complete radiological response after surgical/locoregional treatments and received DAAs (DAA group). Recurrence or death risk was expressed as HCC recurrence or death per 100 person-years (100PY). Propensity score-matched patients from the ITA.LI.CA. cohort (n=328) served as DAA-unexposed controls (no-DAA group). Risk factors for HCC recurrence were identified using random-effects Poisson. RESULTS: Recurrence rate and death risk per 100PY in DAA-treated patients were 20 (95% CI 13.9 to 29.8, I2=74.6%) and 5.7 (2.5 to 15.3, I2=54.3), respectively. Predictive factors for recurrence were alpha-fetoprotein logarithm (relative risk (RR)=1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19; p=0.01, per 1 log of ng/mL), HCC recurrence history pre-DAA initiation (RR=1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16; p<0.001), performance status (2 vs 0, RR=4.35, 95% CI 1.54 to 11.11; 2 vs 1, RR=3.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.11; p=0.01) and tumour burden pre-HCC treatment (multifocal vs solitary nodule, RR=1.75, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.43; p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in RR between the DAA-exposed and DAA-unexposed groups in propensity score-matched patients (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.1; p=0.1). CONCLUSION: Effects of DAA exposure on HCC recurrence risk remain inconclusive. Active clinical and radiological follow-up of patients with HCC after HCV eradication with DAA is justified.

17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13542, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), macrovascular invasion (MaVI) limits treatment options and decreases survival. Detailed data on the relationship between MaVI extension and patients' characteristics, and its impact on patients' outcome are limited. We evaluated the prevalence and extension of MaVI in a large cohort of consecutive HCC patients, analysing its association with liver disease and tumour characteristics, as well as with treatments performed and patients' survival. METHODS: We analysed data of 4774 patients diagnosed with HCC recorded in the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database (2008-2018). Recursive partition analysis (RPA) was performed to evaluate interactions between MaVI, clinical variables and treatment, exploring the inter-relationship determining overall survival. RESULTS: MaVI prevalence was 11.1%, and median survival of these patients was 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1-7.1). MaVI was associated with younger age at diagnosis, presence of symptoms, worse Performance Status (PS) and liver function, high alphafetoprotein levels and large HCCs. MaVI extension was associated with worse PS, ascites and greater impairment in liver function. RPA identified patients' categories with different treatment indications and survival, ranging from 2.4 months in those with PS > 1 and ascites, regardless of MaVI extension (receiving best supportive care in 90.3% of cases), to 14.1 months in patients with PS 0-1, no ascites and Vp1-Vp2 MaVI (treated with surgery in 19.1% of cases). CONCLUSIONS: MaVI presence and extension, together with PS and ascites, significantly affect patients' survival and treatment selection. The decision tree based on these parameters may help assess patients' prognosis and inform therapeutic decisions.

18.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(2): 110-116, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624623

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half of all cases at unresectable stage when no potentially curative treatments are feasible. Since 2008, sorafenib had represented the only effective first line systemic therapy over the last decade until the approval of lenvatinib, who showed to be non-inferior to sorafenib. Recently, for the first time, a combination of immunotherapy and antiangiogenic drug, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, was associated with a significantly longer overall survival and progression free survival compared to sorafenib, becoming the new best performing first-line approach for unresectable HCC. After several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have attempted to find an effective second-line therapy, regorafenib, cabozantinib, ramucirumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab represent approved treatments for patients who failed first-line treatment. However, inclusion criteria of second-line RCTs are quite heterogeneous and no direct comparisons exist among these agents. Exciting opportunities have been found either in the combination or in the sequencing of these agents, but the optimal therapeutic strategy for these patients remains elusive. Moreover, the coexistence of cirrhosis and the competing risk of liver decompensation increase the complexity of the assessment of the net health benefit of the available therapeutic approaches. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence on systemic treatments for unresectable HCC and to explore the future perspectives on this topic.

19.
Liver Int ; 41(5): 1105-1116, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND& AIMS: Time to progression (TTP) and progression-free survival (PFS) are commonly used as surrogate endpoints in oncology trials. We aimed to assess the surrogacy relationship of TTP and PFS with overall survival (OS) in studies of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) by innovative methods. METHODS: A search of databases for studies of TACE for u-HCC reporting both OS and TTP or PFS was performed. Individual patient data were extracted from TTP/PFS and OS Kaplan-Meier curves of TACE arms. Pooled median TTP and OS were obtained from random-effect model. The surrogate relationships of hazard ratios (HRs) and median TTP for OS were evaluated by the coefficient of determination R2 . RESULTS: We identified 13 studies comparing TACE vs systemic therapy or vs TACE plus systemic therapy and including 1932 TACE-treated patients. Pooled median OS was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 7.9-17.8), and pooled median TTP was 5.4 months (95%CI 3.8-8.0). Heterogeneity among studies was highly significant for both outcomes. The correlation between HR TTP and HR OS was moderate (R2  = 0.65. 95%CI 0.08-0.81). R2 value was 0.04 (95%CI 0.00-0.35) between median TTP and median OS. CONCLUSION: In studies of TACE for u-HCC, the surrogate relationship of radiology-based endpoints with OS is moderate. Multiple endpoints including hepatic decompensation, macrovascular invasion and extrahepatic spread are needed for future trials comparing systemic therapies or combination of TACE with systemic therapies vs TACE alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Hepatol ; 74(5): 1225-1233, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582128

RESUMO

The potential impact of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-B/C stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is understudied. Patients with HCC have been systematically excluded from randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of DAAs. Thus, the benefits of DAAs in patients with HCC are less well defined. The presence of active HCC before the initiation of DAA treatment is reported to be a predictor of DAA failure, and studies in patients without HCC have demonstrated that improvements in cirrhosis complications were lower or absent after DAA failure. Even if viral eradication is achieved using DAAs, reversal of liver function impairment may take longer than the development of end-stage cancer status. Additionally, the impact of DAAs on HCC recurrence is still a controversial topic. Thus, the decision of whether to use DAAs should be made on a patient-by-patient basis, and each patient should be informed of all the potential risks and benefits associated with their usage. This document summarises the current data on the usage of DAAs in BCLC-B/C patients, discusses the concept of "the point of no return" in the setting of DAAs, and proposes tools for deciding the best option for each patient profile. If liver function improvement overlaps with symptomatic HCC progression, the benefits of DAAs could be minimised, worsened, or fully counterbalanced. If the BCLC stage is defined using only liver dysfunction, the decision to prioritise DAA treatment should be based on the option (or lack thereof) of liver transplantation and/or the HCC stage. We propose applying a shared decision-making approach, informing each patient of all the potential risks and benefits of the proposed medical intervention.

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