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1.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803895

RESUMO

Although the brain signatures of adaptive human parenting are well documented, the cortical features associated with maladaptive caregiving are underexplored. We investigated whether cortical thickness and surface area vary in a small group of mothers who had neglected their children (24 in the neglect group, NG) compared to a control group of mothers with non-neglectful caregiving (21 in the control group, CG). We also tested whether the cortical differences were related to dyadic mother-child emotional availability (EA) in a play task with their children and whether alexithymia involving low emotional awareness that characterizes the NG could play a role in the cortical-EA associations. Whole-brain analysis of the cortical mantle identified reduced cortical thickness in the right rostral middle frontal gyrus and an increased surface area in the right lingual and lateral occipital cortices for the NG with respect to the CG. Follow-up path analysis showed direct effects of the right rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG) on the emotional availability (EA) and on the difficulty to identify feelings (alexithymia factor), with a marginal indirect RMFG-EA effect through this factor. These preliminary findings extend existing work by implicating differences in cortical features associated with neglectful parenting and relevant to mother-child interactive bonding.

2.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A classification system was recently developed by the international association AO Spine for assessing subaxial cervical spine fractures. Significant variability exists between users of the facet component, which consists of four morphological types (F1-F4). The primary aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of this new system's facet injury morphological classifications. METHODS: A survey consisting of 16 computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with cervical facet fractures was distributed to spine surgeon members of AO Spine Latin America. To provide a gold standard diagnosis for comparison, all 16 injuries had been classified previously by six co-authors and only were included after total consensus was achieved. Demographic and surgical practice characteristics of all respondents were analyzed, and diagnostic accuracy calculated. Inter- and intra-observer agreement rates were calculated across two survey rounds, conducted one month apart. RESULTS: A total of 135 surgeons completed both surveys, among whom the mean age was 41.6 years (range 26-71), 130 (96.3%) were men, and 83 (61.5%) were orthopedic surgeons. The mean time in practice as a spine surgeon was 9.7 years (1-30). The overall diagnostic accuracy of all responses was 65.4%. Inter-observer and intra-observer agreement rates for F1/F2/F3/F4 were 55.4%/47.6%/64.0%/94.7% and 60.0%/49.1%/58.0%/93.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study evaluates the AO Spine Classification System specifically for facet injuries involving the subaxial cervical spine in a large sample of spine surgeons. There was significant variability in diagnostic accuracy for F1 through F3-type fractures, whereas almost universal agreement was achieved for F4-type injuries.

3.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846868

RESUMO

The present study examined whether regulatory attitudes toward prostitution are related to agency attributed to prostitutes and moral outrage. A Spanish sample (N = 391, aged 18-53 years old) completed a questionnaire that included two separate parts. In the first part, participants answered a scale on regulatory attitudes toward prostitution; in the second part, after reading one of two scenarios, participants answered questions about agency and moral outrage. Results showed a different pattern in the link between regulatory attitudes and social perception when participants perceived prostitutes as victims of sexual slavery (Scenario 1) or as women who freely choose to sell sexual services (Scenario 2). This study provides empirical evidence of how some regulatory attitudes toward prostitution are linked to mind attributions and negative feelings toward sex workers, and how it depends on the type of prostitute who practices it. These findings contribute to our knowledge of attitudes toward prostitution, which could inform future policy-making.

4.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 50, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) is impacting carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland and other terrestrial biomes. Plant canopy stomatal conductance is a key player in these coupled cycles: it is a physiological control of vegetation water use efficiency (the ratio of C gain by photosynthesis to water loss by transpiration), and it responds to photosynthetic activity, which is influenced by vegetation N status. It is unknown if the ca-increase and climate change over the last century have already affected canopy stomatal conductance and its links with C and N processes in grassland. RESULTS: Here, we assessed two independent proxies of (growing season-integrating canopy-scale) stomatal conductance changes over the last century: trends of δ18O in cellulose (δ18Ocellulose) in archived herbage from a wide range of grassland communities on the Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted (U.K.) and changes of the ratio of yields to the CO2 concentration gradient between the atmosphere and the leaf internal gas space (ca - ci). The two proxies correlated closely (R2 = 0.70), in agreement with the hypothesis. In addition, the sensitivity of δ18Ocellulose changes to estimated stomatal conductance changes agreed broadly with published sensitivities across a range of contemporary field and controlled environment studies, further supporting the utility of δ18Ocellulose changes for historical reconstruction of stomatal conductance changes at Park Grass. Trends of δ18Ocellulose differed strongly between plots and indicated much greater reductions of stomatal conductance in grass-rich than dicot-rich communities. Reductions of stomatal conductance were connected with reductions of yield trends, nitrogen acquisition, and nitrogen nutrition index. Although all plots were nitrogen-limited or phosphorus- and nitrogen-co-limited to different degrees, long-term reductions of stomatal conductance were largely independent of fertilizer regimes and soil pH, except for nitrogen fertilizer supply which promoted the abundance of grasses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that some types of temperate grassland may have attained saturation of C sink activity more than one century ago. Increasing N fertilizer supply may not be an effective climate change mitigation strategy in many grasslands, as it promotes the expansion of grasses at the disadvantage of the more CO2 responsive forbs and N-fixing legumes.

5.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568221995491, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729870

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of subaxial cervical facet injuries using the AO Spine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System is based on CT scan findings. However, additional radiological evaluations are not directly considered. The aim of this study is to determine situations in which spine surgeons request additional radiological exams after a facet fracture. METHODS: A survey was sent to AO Spine members from Latin America. The evaluation considered demographic variables, routine use of the Classification, as well as the timepoint at which surgeons requested a cervical MRI, a vascular study, and/ or dynamic radiographs before treatment of facet fractures. RESULTS: There was 229 participants, mean age 42.9 ± 10.2 years; 93.4% were men. Orthopedic surgeons 57.6% with 10.7 ± 8.7 years of experience in spine surgery. A total of 86% used the Classification in daily practice. An additional study (MRI/vascular study/and dynamic radiographs) was requested in 53.3%/9.6%/43.7% in F1 facet injuries; 76.0%/20.1%/50.2% in F2; 89.1%/65.1%/28.4% in F3; and 94.8%/66.4%/16.6% in F4. An additional study was frequently required: F1 72.5%, F2 86.9%, F3 94.7%, and F4 96.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Spine surgeons generally requested additional radiological evaluations in facet injuries, and MRI was the most common. Dynamic radiographs had a higher prevalence for F1/F2 fractures; vascular studies were more common for F3/F4 especially among surgeons with fewer years of experience. Private hospitals had a lower spine trauma cases/year and requested more MRI and more dynamic radiographs in F1/F2. Neurosurgeons had more vascular studies and dynamic radiographs than orthopedic surgeons in all facet fractures.

6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728497

RESUMO

Here, a new gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-APPI-HRMS) method combined with selective pressurized liquid extraction (sPLE) has been developed for the selective determination of Dechlorane Plus (DP) and its related compounds in gull egg samples used as a bioindicator of contamination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been analyzed by GC-MS using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Negative ion dopant-assisted APPI using vapors of diethyl ether and a source temperature of 250 °C provided high ionization efficiencies and mass spectra characterized by intense in-source fragment ions as well as the presence of molecular ion and characteristic cluster ions containing oxygen atoms in their chemical structure. This made it possible to improve the selectivity in the determination of these compounds compared to that obtained with traditional GC-MS ion sources. Under optimized conditions, the sPLE GC-APPI-HRMS (Orbitrap) method provided high recoveries (> 91%), good precisions (RSD% < 12%), and low method limits of detection (0.1-3.5 pg g-1 wet weight). The developed methodology has been applied to the determination of DP and related compounds in eggs of two gull species (L. michahellis and L. audouinii) from several Spanish protected areas. The results obtained showed significant differences in the DP concentration profiles in eggs from different gull breeding locations and between gull species of the same protected area. These results demonstrated the good performance of the GC-APPI-HRMS system to achieve a selective and sensitive determination of DP and related compounds in complex environmental samples.

7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786931

RESUMO

Many neuro-imaging studies have shown that the hippocampus participates in a resting-state network called the default mode network. However, how the hippocampus connects to the default mode network, whether the hippocampus connects to any other resting-state network, and how the different hippocampal subfields take part in resting-state networks remains poorly understood. Here we examined these issues using the high spatial-resolution 7T resting-state fMRI dataset from the Human Connectome Project. We used data-driven techniques that relied on spatially-restricted Independent Component Analysis, Dual Regression, and linear mixed-effect group-analyses based on participant-specific brain morphology. The results revealed two main activity hotspots inside the hippocampus. The first hotspot was located in an anterior location and was correlated with the somatomotor network. This network was subserved by co-activity in the CA1, CA3, CA4 and Dentate Gyrus fields. In addition, there was an activity hotspot that extended from middle to posterior locations along the hippocampal long-axis and correlated with the default mode network. This network reflected activity in the Subiculum, CA4 and Dentate Gyrus fields. These results show how different sections of the hippocampus participate in two known resting-state networks, and how these two resting-state networks depend on different configurations of hippocampal subfield co-activity.

8.
J Electrocardiol ; 66: 38-42, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770645

RESUMO

AIMS: Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) has been reported in 5-11% of the acute myocardial infarctions (AMI), and it could be the only electrocardiographic abnormality in this group of patients. We investigated the mortality in patients with AMI and the presence of RBBB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2011 to December 2017 at a university hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Records were obtained from all patients who presented at the emergency department with AMI; patients with early transfer and incomplete follow-up were excluded. RESULTS: 1015 patients were included, the mean age was 66 years, 67% of the patients were men, and 38% had STEMI. RBBB was documented in 8% of patients and LBBB in 4% of patients. In-hospital mortality was higher in the group of patients with RBBB vs. patients without RBBB (8.64% vs. 3.74%, p = 0.034). The percentage of patients with Killip ≥II classification was higher in patients with new RBBB vs. patients with old or unknown duration RBBB (23% vs. 13%, p = 0.216). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AMI, the presence of RBBB was associated with a statistically significant increase of in-hospital mortality.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4356, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623075

RESUMO

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been proposed as a risk factor for future cognitive decline and dementia. Given the heterogeneity of SCD and the lack of consensus about how to classify this condition, different operationalization approaches still need to be compared. In this study, we used the same sample of individuals to compare  different SCD operationalization approaches. We included 399 cognitively healthy individuals from a community-based cohort. SCD was assessed through nine questions about memory and non-memory subjective complaints. We applied four approaches to operationalize SCD: two hypothesis-driven approaches and two data-driven approaches. We characterized the resulting groups from each operationalization approach using multivariate methods on comprehensive demographic, clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data. We identified two main phenotypes: an amnestic phenotype characterized by an Alzheimer's Disease (AD) signature pattern of brain atrophy; and an anomic phenotype, which was mainly related to cerebrovascular pathology. Furthermore, language complaints other than naming helped to identify a subgroup with subclinical cognitive impairment and difficulties in activities of daily living. This subgroup also showed an AD signature pattern of atrophy. The identification of SCD phenotypes, characterized by different syndromic and biomarker profiles, varies depending on the operationalization approach used. In this study we discuss how these findings may be used in clinical practice and research.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 227-235, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Core symptoms of depression are likely universal, however cultural groups differ in their experience of the condition. The purpose of this study was to examine differences and similarities of depression symptom groupings between broad cultural groups. METHOD: 6,982 adults took part in an online multilingual depression screening study, and completed an 18-item major depression screener. Participants were categorized into five broad cultural groups by language and country of residence: Spanish speakers from Latin America (n = 3,411); English speakers from Southeast Asia (n = 1,265); Russian speakers from the former Soviet bloc (n = 642); English speakers from English-speaking Western countries (n = 999); and Chinese speakers from China (n = 665). Principal components analysis with promax rotation was used. RESULTS: Both similarities and noteworthy differences in symptom clustering between groups were observed. For instance, though suicide-related items formed a separate cluster for most cultures, for the Latin-American group, worthlessness loaded with suicidality. Changes in appetite and changes in weight tended to load on different factors (except for Chinese and Russian groups). Hypersomnia tended to load with psychomotor agitation, and core depression symptoms tended to load with physical symptoms (except for the Russian group). LIMITATIONS: Depression was assessed by a self-report measure aligned to DSM-IV. CONCLUSION: The analysis contributes to a nuanced understanding of depression manifestations of various cultures, which may inform culturally sensitive clinical practice.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 148: e488-e494, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify delays for surgery to stabilize unstable thoracolumbar fractures and the main reasons for them across Latin America. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 547 patients with type B or C thoracolumbar fractures from 21 spine centers across 9 Latin American countries. Data were collected on demographics, mechanism of trauma, time between hospital arrival and surgery, type of hospital (public vs. private), fracture classification, spinal level of injury, neurologic status (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale), number of levels instrumented, and reason for delay between hospital arrival and surgical treatment. RESULTS: The sample included 403 men (73.6%) and 144 women (26.3%), with a mean age of 40.6 years. The main mechanism of trauma was falls (44.4%), followed by car accidents (24.5%). The most frequent pattern of injury was B2 injuries (46.6%), and the most affected level was T12-L1 (42.2%). Neurologic status at admission was 60.5% intact and 22.9% American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale A. The time from admission to surgery was >72 hours in over half the patients and over a week in >25% of them. The most commonly reported reasons for surgical delay were clinical instability (22.9%), lack of operating room availability (22.7%), and lack of hardware for spinal instrumentation (e.g., screws/rods) (18.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Timing for surgery in this sample of unstable fractures was over 72 hours in more than half of the sample and longer than a week in about a quarter. The main reasons for this delay were clinical instability and lack of economic resources. There is an apparent need for increased funding for the treatment of spinal trauma patients in Latin America.

12.
New Phytol ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251585

RESUMO

We explore our mechanistic understanding of the environmental and physiological processes that determine the oxygen isotope composition of leaf cellulose (δ18 Ocellulose ) in a drought-prone, temperate grassland ecosystem. A new allocation-and-growth model was designed and added to an 18 O-enabled soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model (MuSICA) to predict seasonal (April-October) and multiannual (2007-2012) variation of δ18 Ocellulose and 18 O-enrichment of leaf cellulose (Δ18 Ocellulose ) based on the Barbour-Farquhar model. Modelled δ18 Ocellulose agreed best with observations when integrated over ~400 growing-degree-days, similar to the average leaf-life-span observed at the site. Over the integration time, air temperature ranged from 7 to 22 °C and midday relative humidity from 47 to 73%. Model agreement with observations of δ18 Ocellulose (R2 =0.57) and Δ18 Ocellulose (R2 =0.74), and their negative relationship with canopy conductance, was improved significantly when both (1) the biochemical 18 O-fractionation between water and substrate for cellulose synthesis (εbio , range 26-30‰) was temperature-sensitive, as previously reported for aquatic plants and heterotrophically-grown wheat seedlings, and (2) the proportion of oxygen in cellulose reflecting leaf water 18 O-enrichment (1 - pex px , range 0.23-0.63) was dependent on air relative humidity, as observed in independent controlled experiments with grasses. Understanding physiological information in δ18 Ocellulose requires quantitative knowledge of climatic effects on pex px and εbio .

13.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672120970862, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As minimally invasive glaucoma surgery devices emerge, newer complications are reported. XEN gel stent is safer than classic glaucoma surgery but may also lead to severe adverse effects as hypotony. Compression conjunctival sutures are a useful treatment for overfiltration hypotony after XEN gel stent implantation, but might force bleb tearing by the implant as it gets tightly close to the sutured conjunctiva. This complication has not been previously reported. METHODS: We report a patient with overfiltration hypotony after XEN gel implantation. Conjunctival compression sutures and implant relocation ab interno were performed obtaining a good outcome. As conjunctiva got tightly close to the stent, the device eroded the bleb so leakage and implant extrusion were found. RESULTS: Bleb reconstruction by conjunctival autograft was performed in order to avoid hypotony due to continuous conjunctival leakage. CONCLUSION: Conjunctival compression sutures may be used for overfiltration control after XEN gel implantation but we must be aware of potential conjunctival damage due to implant erosion even if it is correctly positioned. Close follow-up and early suture release may be convenient in these patients.

14.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(4): 559-566, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study tested the factorial structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in Mexican adults. Although this instrument has been validated in different cultural contexts, there are no studies to date that analyze its psychometric properties in a Mexican sample. METHOD: 307 adults completed the SPQ, seven participants were removed for being at high risk of psychosis. The final sample was made up of 300 participants (M = 34.58, SD = 13.77), of whom 62.8% were female. Raine's three-factor model and Stefanis et al.'s four-factor model were tested. RESULTS: The results indicated that both factor structures had a good fit to the data. However, the best evidence was for the three-factor solution. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance according to gender and age for the three-factor model was displayed. Further analyses showed women scored slightly higher in excessive social anxiety but this result was not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher scores on ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, no close friends, and odd speech than the older group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for the use of the SPQ in the Mexican population


ANTECEDENTES: el presente estudio probó la estructura factorial del Cuestionario de personalidad esquizotípica (SPQ) en una muestra de adultos mexicanos. Aunque este instrumento ha sido validado en diferentes contextos culturales, no se han encontrado estudios que analicen las propiedades psicométricas en una muestra mexicana. MÉTODO: el SPQ fue cumplimentado por 307 adultos, aunque siete participantes fueron eliminados por estar en alto riesgo de psicosis. La muestra final incluyó 300 participantes (M = 34.58, SD = 13.77), de los cuales el 62,8% eran mujeres. Se probó la estructura factorial con tres factores, según la propuesta de Raine, y con cuatro factores según sugiere Stefanis et al. RESULTADOS: los resultados indicaron que ambas estructuras factoriales se ajustaban bien a los datos. Sin embargo, se encontró un mejor ajuste para la solución de tres factores. Este modelo demostró invariancia configuracional, métrica y escalar en función del sexo y la edad. Además, se encontró que las mujeres obtuvieron puntuaciones ligeramente más altas en ansiedad social, aunque no fue significativo. Los adultos jóvenes mostraron mayor puntuación en ideas de referencia, ansiedad social, sin amigos cercanos y discurso extraño comparados con el grupo de adultos mayores. CONCLUSIONES: estos hallazgos apoyan la utilidad del SPQ en población mexicana

15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate changes in firefighter recruits' select health and fitness measurements, from academy training through the early probationary firefighter period. METHODS: Firefighter recruits from two New England fire academies were followed prospectively from enrollment at the academy, to graduation after 15-16 week training programs, and then for an average of eight months as probationary firefighters. The participants' demographic, lifestyle, and mental health information were collected using a questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, blood pressure, and push-ups were also measured at each time point. Furthermore, the academies tested the recruits on selected fitness measures (push-ups, pull-ups, and 1.5-mile running time) at academy entry, mid-training, and at graduation. RESULTS: Ninety-two recruits consented and were included in the analyses. The recruits' percent body fat significantly decreased (median: 21.0% to 18.2%) from baseline to graduation and push-up capacity significantly improved (median: 34 to 53/minute) in the same period, along with pull-ups and 1.5-mile running time. However, the recruits' blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, increased significantly by an average of 3 mmHg during the training. Those completing probationary follow-up (45 out of 92 recruits) showed that most health/fitness improvements declined after graduation. From academy graduation through probationary follow-up, recruits' physical activity decreased and TV screen time increased significantly, leading to a lower healthy lifestyle score (median: 4 to 3). After multivariate adjustments, the recruits' diastolic blood pressure increased by 2 mmHg per measuring time throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: Fire academy training improved recruits' select health and fitness measurements, but the benefits dissipated as probationary firefighters, and blood pressures increased throughout the study period. Further interventions are warranted regarding blood pressure and to maintain training benefits after joining fire departments.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114148

RESUMO

Apart from its main function in the mitochondria as a key element in electron transport, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been described as having multiple functions, such as oxidant action in the generation of signals and the control of membrane structure and phospholipid and cellular redox status. Among these, the most relevant and most frequently studied function is the potent antioxidant capability of its coexistent redox forms. Different clinical trials have investigated the effect of CoQ10 supplementation and its ability to reduce oxidative stress. In this review, we focused on recent advances in CoQ10 supplementation, its role as an antioxidant, and the clinical implications that this entails in the treatment of chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. As an antioxidant, CoQ10 has proved to be of potential use as a treatment in diseases in which oxidative stress is a hallmark, and beneficial effects of CoQ10 have been reported in the treatment of chronic diseases. However, it is crucial to reach a consensus on the optimal dose and the use of different formulations, which vary from ubiquinol or ubiquinone Ubisol-Q10 or Qter®, to new analogues such as MitoQ, before we can draw a clear conclusion about its clinical use. In addition, a major effort must be made to demonstrate its beneficial effects in clinical trials, with a view to making the implementation of CoQ10 possible in clinical practice.

17.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 559-566, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study tested the factorial structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in Mexican adults. Although this instrument has been validated in different cultural contexts, there are no studies to date that analyze its psychometric properties in a Mexican sample. METHOD: 307 adults completed the SPQ, seven participants were removed for being at high risk of psychosis. The final sample was made up of 300 participants (M = 34.58, SD = 13.77), of whom 62.8% were female. Raine's three-factor model and Stefanis et al.'s four-factor model were tested. RESULTS: The results indicated that both factor structures had a good fit to the data. However, the best evidence was for the three-factor solution. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance according to gender and age for the three-factor model was displayed. Further analyses showed women scored slightly higher in excessive social anxiety but this result was not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher scores on ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, no close friends, and odd speech than the older group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for the use of the SPQ in the Mexican population.

18.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of unilateral CFD in patients without neurologic deficits remains controversial, especially in the choice of the best surgical approach. Our objective is to determine the way spine surgeons from Latin America manage this condition. METHODS: A survey regarding management and surgical strategies was conducted by the AO Spine Latin American Trauma Study Group considering the treatment of unilateral CFD. RESULTS: All AO Spine Latin American Trauma Study Group members were sent a link to the survey, among whom 285 replied, with 197 respondents answering all the questions. Nonsurgical management was considered by 25% of the surgeons. The majority stated that magnetic resonance imaging is necessary (65%) to treat this type of patient. A posterior approach was preferred by 44%, an anterior approach by 29%, and a combined approach by 25%, while 2.2% did not answer. Traction was not used by the majority of respondents (62%). In the setting of an anterior disk herniation, the majority of surgeons preferred to employ an anterior (45%) or combined (44%) approach versus an isolated posterior approach (only 0.5%). Comparing early versus late cervical trauma, fewer surgeons adopted an isolated anterior approach with the latter (29% vs. 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Wide variations exist in the management of unilateral CFD by Latin American surgeons, with early injuries generally treated using either an anterior or posterior approach and treated early but after an MRI, while a combined approach is used more commonly with late injuries. Either an anterior or combined approach is used when disk herniation is present.

19.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 869, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973432

RESUMO

Introduction: Striatal tonic dopamine increases rapidly during global cerebral hypoxia. This phenomenon has previously been studied using microdialysis techniques which have relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution. In this study, we measured changes in tonic dopamine during hypoxia (death) in real time with high spatio-temporal resolution using novel multiple cyclic square wave voltammetry (MCSWV) and conventional fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) techniques. Methods: MCSWV and FSCV were used to measure dopamine release at baseline and during hypoxia induced by euthanasia, with and without prior alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) treatment, in urethane anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: Baseline tonic dopamine levels were found to be 274.1 ± 49.4 nM (n = 5; mean ± SEM). Following intracardiac urethane injection, the tonic levels increased to a peak concentration of 1753.8 ± 95.7 nM within 3.6 ± 0.6 min (n = 5), followed by a decline to 50.7 ± 21.5 nM (n = 4) at 20 min. AMPT pre-treatment significantly reduced this dopamine peak to 677.9 ± 185.7 nM (n = 3). FSCV showed a significantly higher (p = 0.0079) peak dopamine release of 6430.4 ± 1805.7 nM (n = 5) during euthanasia-induced cerebral hypoxia. Conclusion: MCSWV is a novel tool to study rapid changes in tonic dopamine release in vivo during hypoxia. We found a 6-fold increase in peak dopamine levels during hypoxia which was attenuated with AMPT pre-treatment. These changes are much lower compared to those found with microdialysis. This could be due to improved estimation of baseline tonic dopamine with MCSWV. Higher dopamine response measured with FSCV could be due to an increased oxidation current from electroactive interferents.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7837-7850, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954468

RESUMO

A gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-APPI-HRMS) method was developed for the determination of eight phenylalkylamine stimulants in urine samples. Spiked urine samples were hydrolyzed, processed by solid-phase extraction, and derivatized before analysis. Two derivatization reactions were studied: the formation of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and trimethylsilyl/trifluoroacetyl (TMS/TFA) derivatives with MSTFA and N-methyl-bis (trifluoroacetamide) (MBTFA) as derivatization reagents. Gas chromatography of both derivatives was performed with a 100% dimethylsiloxane column and a good separation of all isomeric compounds was achieved. To maximize the signal of the protonated molecule [M+H]+, the APPI most critical parameters were optimized. Three solvents were tested as dopant agents, with acetone yielding the lower in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation. The acquisition was performed in full scan and product ion scan (parallel reaction monitoring, PRM) using a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer (35,000 FWHM at m/z 200) in positive ion detection mode. At the optimal working conditions, the full scan method was evaluated for the fulfillment of identification requirements in doping analysis. Selectivity, limits of detection, matrix effect, and precision were estimated to validate the method for confirmation purposes and its applicability was tested by the analysis of spiked samples as well as by the analysis of samples obtained after the administration of some of the compounds to healthy volunteers. Results were compared with those obtained by GC-electron ionization-MS, demonstrating that the GC-APPI-HRMS method improved selectivity and sensibility, achieving lower limits of detection and satisfactory reproducibility.

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