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1.
J Emerg Med ; 57(3): 322-328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common cause of presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been introduced as an alternative way to administer oxygen. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) exclusively in the ED setting. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on adults with ARF admitted to the ED, investigating HFNC vs. COT or other modes of ventilation. Trials that compared HFNC support outside the ED, were published as an abstract, or nonrandomized were excluded. RESULTS: Four RCTs comparing HFNC with COT and one HFNC to NIV met the criteria. Overall, 775 patients were included. The meta-analysis of the studies comparing HFNC and COT showed no differences in intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, or mortality. Intolerance was significantly higher with HFNC (risk ratio 6.81 95% confidence interval 1.18-39.19; p = 0.03). In the only available RCT comparing HFNC with NIV, no difference was found for intubation rate, treatment failure, tolerance, and dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any benefit of HFNC compared with COT and NIV in terms of intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, and mortality; COT was better tolerated.

2.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 221, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208469

RESUMO

Intubation is frequently required for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) but is associated with high morbidity and mortality mainly in emergency procedures and in the presence of severe organ failures. Improving the intubation procedure is a major goal for all ICU physicians worldwide, and videolaryngoscopy may play a relevant role.Videolaryngoscopes are a heterogeneous entity, including Macintosh blade-shaped optical laryngoscopes, anatomically shaped blade without a tube guide and anatomically shaped blade with a tube guide, which might have theoretical benefits and pitfalls. Videolaryngoscope/videolaryngoscopy improves glottis view and allows supervision by an expert during the intubation process; however, randomized controlled trials in the ICU suggest that the systematic use of videolaryngoscopes for every intubation cannot yet be recommended, especially in non-expert hands. Nevertheless, a videolaryngoscope should be available in all ICUs as a powerful tool to rescue difficult intubation or unsuccessful first-pass laryngoscopy, especially in expert hands.The use of associated devices such as bougie or stylet, glottis view needed (full vs incomplete) and patient position during intubation (ramped, sniffed position) should be further evaluated. Future trials will better define the role of videolaryngoscopy in ICU.

3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 128(5): 971-980, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896601

RESUMO

Awake fiberoptic intubation is one of the recommended strategies for surgical patients with anticipated difficult airway, especially when concurrent difficult ventilation is expected. We performed the first systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing different protocols for awake fiberoptic intubation in anticipated difficult airway, including studies investigating elective awake fiberoptic intubation for scheduled surgery; randomized controlled trials comparing different methods for performing awake fiberoptic intubation; and adult patients with anticipated difficult airway. We excluded studies in the nonoperating theater settings, randomized controlled trials comparing awake fiberoptic intubation with other techniques, and studies based on simulation. Primary outcomes were success rate and death; secondary outcomes were major adverse events. Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials evaluating 2045 patients and 4 areas were identified: premedication, local anesthesia, sedation, and ancillary techniques to facilitate awake fiberoptic intubation. Quality of evidence was moderate-low and based on small-sampled randomized controlled trials. Overall, 12 of 2045 intubation failures (0.59%) and 7 of 2045 severe adverse events (0.34%) occurred, with no permanent consequences or death. All evaluated methods to achieve local anesthesia performed similarly well. No differences were observed in success rate with different sedatives. Dexmedetomidine resulted in fewer desaturation episodes compared to propofol and opioids with or without midazolam (relative risk, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.95]; P = .03); occurrence of desaturation was similar with remifentanil versus propofol, while incidence of apnoea was lower with sevoflurane versus propofol (relative risk, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.81]; P = .01). A high degree of efficacy and safety was observed with minimal differences among different protocols; dexmedetomidine might offer a better safety profile compared to other sedatives.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 78: 126-132, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few randomized trials have evaluated the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for early acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive care unit (ICU) wards. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that early NIV for mild-moderate ARF in non-ICU wards can prevent development of severe ARF. DESIGN: Pragmatic, parallel group, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. SETTING: Non-intensive care wards of tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Non-ICU ward patients with mild to moderate ARF without an established indication for NIV. INTERVENTIONS: Patients will be randomized to receive or not receive NIV in addition to best available care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We will enroll 520 patients, 260 in each group. The primary endpoint of the study will be the development of severe ARF. Secondary endpoints will be 28-day mortality, length of hospital stay, safety of NIV in non-ICU environments, and a composite endpoint of all in-hospital respiratory complications. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will help determine whether the early use of NIV in non-ICU wards can prevent progression from mild-moderate ARF to severe ARF.

6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(8): 830-839, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are the most common causes of severe acute brain injury in younger Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Dysglycemia (abnormal peak glycemia, glycemic variability, mean glycemia, nadir glycemia) is common in these patients but its comparative outcome associations are unclear. METHODS: In a retrospective, cross-sectional, study of adults admitted to Australian and New Zealand ICUs with TBI and SAH from 2005 to 2015, we studied the relationship between multiple aspects of early (first 24 hours) dysglycemia and mortality and compared TBI and SAH patients with the general ICU population and with each other. RESULTS: Among 670,301 patients, 11,812 had TBI and 6,098 had SAH. After adjustment for illness severity, we found that the mortality rate increased with each quintile of glycemia for each aspect of early dysglycemia (peak glycemia, glycemic variability, mean glycemia, nadir glycemia; P<0.0001 for all). This increased risk of death was greater in TBI and SAH patients than in the general ICU population. Moreover, it was stronger for mean glycemia (increase in mortality from 9.2% in the lowest quintile to 15.1% in general ICU patients compared with an increase in mortality from 4.4% to 49.0% for TBI and SAH patients; P<0.0001). Finally, in TBI patients, this relationship was significantly stronger than in SAH patients (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In TBI and SAH patients, greater dysglycemia is associated with greater mortality. This association is significantly stronger than in the general population and it is significantly stronger in patients with TBI compared with SAH.

7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial effects of noninvasive ventilation in treating postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) open repair surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients who underwent elective TAAA open repair. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the "noninvasive ventilation" group, receiving 2-hour cycles of noninvasive ventilation every 8 hours for at least 3 days in addition to the best available postoperative treatment currently in use at the authors' institution versus the "standard" group, not receiving noninvasive ventilation treatment MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome of clinical worsening, described as a composite outcome of need for therapeutic noninvasive ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory causes, need for intensive care unit admission owing to respiratory causes, and in-hospital mortality, occurred in 2 (11%) patients in the noninvasive ventilation group versus 12 (57%) in the standard group (p = 0.002; relative risk 0.18; 95% confidence interval 0.047-0.72). CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation is a promising, affordable, and easy-to-use tool to prevent postoperative respiratory complications after TAAA open surgical repair.

9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324278

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to assess the prognostic performances, in terms of in-hospital mortality, of the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria applied to patients with suspected infection outside the ICU, and to critically reappraise the results and the clinical impact of the SEPSIS-3 study and of the subsequent trials. We performed bivariate meta-analysis, evaluation of the Bayesian post-test probabilities of death, and computation of the unidentified deaths for every 1000 screened cases (UDS1000). The use of qSOFA for screening instead of the SIRS implies a relevant increase in the UDS1000. However, this difference appears far smaller in the SEPSIS-3 study, largely due to an underestimation of SIRS sensitivity. The increment in the pre-test probability of death implied by a positive qSOFA is higher than that implied by a positivity of the SIRS. However, the included studies use highly variable definitions of "suspected sepsis" and carry very high levels of heterogeneity. SIRS overperforms qSOFA as a rule-out tool for mortality, while qSOFA shows a higher rule-in power. However, the evident lack of consistency across the published studies undermines the significance of both the meta-analytic approach and the reproducibility of the outcomes, and demands for a standardized definition of the target population.

10.
Case Rep Crit Care ; 2018: 1205613, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018829

RESUMO

Bacterial meningitis and septicemia are invasive bacterial diseases, representing a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both conditions are characterized by an impressive inflammatory response, resulting rapidly in cerebral edema, infarction, hydrocephalus, and septic shock with multiple organ failure. Despite advances in critical care, outcome and prognosis remain critical. Available adjunctive treatments to control the inflammatory response have shown encouraging results in the evolution of patients with sepsis and systemic inflammation, but meningococcal or pneumococcal infection has not been investigated. We herein report five patients with similar critical pathological conditions, characterized by pneumococcal or meningococcal sepsis and treated with hemoadsorption for cytokine removal. All patients showed a progressive stabilization in hemodynamics along with a rapid and marked reduction of catecholamine dosages, a stabilization in metabolic disorders, and less-than-expected loss of extremities. Therapy proved to be safe and well tolerated. From this first experience, extracorporeal cytokine removal seems to be a valid and safe therapy in the management of meningococcal and pneumococcal diseases and may contribute to the patient stabilization and prevention of severe sequelae. Further studies are required to confirm efficacy in a larger context.

12.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 6, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill. METHODS: We searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: We identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation, while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials. CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence supports a beneficial role of pre-oxygenation with NIV and HFNC before intubation of critically ill patients. Recruitment maneuvers may increase post-intubation oxygenation. Ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts; thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects and videolaryngoscopy might favor adverse events.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Adulto , Cânula/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Laringoscopia/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(2): 928-934, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317119

RESUMO

Endoscopic procedures, such as transesophageal echocardiography, gastroscopy, and airway fibroscopy, routinely are performed in a heterogenous population of patients for diagnostic/interventional purposes (eg, transfemoral aortic valve replacement, airway fibroscopies, and intubation). Sedation frequently is administered to achieve an appropriate degree of patient compliance and procedure success. Patients with reduced respiratory reserve or those who are overly sedated, however, may develop hypoxia and respiratory failure during endoscopies, necessitating premature termination of the examination itself. In recent years, periprocedural noninvasive ventilation has been used to improve oxygenation and avoid general anesthesia. New technology has been developed, and noninvasive ventilation masks that allow for the insertion of an endoscopic probe have become available in clinical practice. Positive preliminary results have been reported in several clinical contexts, including traditional and hybrid operating rooms and intensive care units. Ventilatory support has been delivered during prolonged transesophageal cardiac examinations and interventions, broncoscopic maneuvers, and in difficult airway scenarios. Furthermore, the availability of innovative dedicated devices has allowed for some interventional procedures that require endoscopy to be peformed with the patient under sedation and on ventilatory support with noninvasive ventilation instead of general anesthesia. These approaches might be further expanded in the future and possibly reduce costs, organizational requirements, and complications compared using standard management with general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Humanos
14.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(4): 504-508, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The world population is mostly male at birth, although there is a shift in predominance over 55 years of age with more females than males. Male gender was recently hypothesized to be a risk factor for sepsis and septic shock; the reasons and the consequences of this odd discrepancy are yet a matter of debate. We investigated the percentage of males and females in a large number of trials performed on septic adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We analyzed all the multicenter randomized controlled trials ever published in peer-reviewed Journals reporting a significant effect on mortality in intensive care unit septic adult patients; furthermore, we retrieved all the manuscripts dealing with sepsis or septic shock patients published in the last 3 years in the three medical Journals with the highest impact factor. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We analyzed data from 12 multicenter randomized controlled trials (for a total of 5080 patients, 61% males) and from further 22 trials published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the Lancet, and the Journal of the American Medical Association (for a total of 493,066 patients, 54% males). Data on gender ratio in survivors were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Data from 34 large studies on 498,146 septic adult patients clearly showed a prevalence of males despite the expected female predominance. Further studies are required to explain the reasons, to evaluate if a difference is present in survival rate, and to identify gender-tailored preventive measures and treatments.

15.
Aust Crit Care ; 31(6): 340-346, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Healthcare-associated respiratory tract infections are common and markedly affect the quality of life and mortality, as well as increasing costs for health systems due to prolonged hospitalisation. This study aimed to assess the change in both level and trend of respiratory tract infections after a specific hand hygiene program for intensive care unit (ICU) staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The infection data collection was carried out from January 2013 to August 2014. The hand hygiene program started in December 2013. To analyse the change in level and trend of infections after the intervention, the Interrupted Time Series method was used. Chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of respiratory tract infections before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 825 patients were hospitalised in three Italian ICUs. The infection level was significantly decreased by 36.3 infections per 1000 device-days after the intervention. The infection trend was also decreased of about 1 infection per month. CONCLUSIONS: After the hand hygiene program a decreased level of infection was found. Continuous performance feedback should be provided to promote a long-term adherence to the guidelines. Organisational and individual risk factors must be individuated and correctly managed to increase quality of practice.

17.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 83(8): 867-877, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe inflammatory conditions, as severe sepsis/septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are related to high morbidity and mortality. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials to assess if blood purification with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) reduces mortality in these settings. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Online databases were searched for pertinent studies up to March 2017. We included randomized-controlled trials on the use of CVVH as blood purification technique in comparison to conventional therapy in adult patients with severe sepsis/septic shock or ARDS but no acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Eleven studies and 679 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who received CVVH had significantly lower mortality compared to conventional therapy (96 of 351 [27.35%] patients in the CVVH group vs. 129 of 328 [39.33%] in the conventional therapy group, OR=0.58 [95% CI: 0.42, 0.81], P=0.002, I2=10%, number needed to treat: 8) at longest follow-up available. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, low-quality evidence indicates that blood purification with CVVH might be associated with a significant reduction in mortality when performed in patients with sepsis or ARDS. The evidence is still insufficient to support a definitive conclusion of benefit. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials, adequately powered for mortality, are needed to clarify the impact of CVVH on these conditions.

18.
J Crit Care ; 41: 107-111, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Confounders in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting significant effects on mortality in critically ill patients using non-surgical techniques have not been systematically explored. We aimed to identify factors unrelated to the reported intervention that might have affected the findings and robustness of such trials. METHODS: We searched Pubmed/MEDLINE for all RCTs on any non-surgical interventions reporting an effect on unadjusted mortality in critically ill patients between 1/1/2000 and 1/12/2015. We assessed: the number needed to treat/harm (NNT or NNH), sample size, trial design (blinded/unblinded, single or multinational, single or multicenter (sRCT or mRCT)), intention to treat (ITT) analysis, and countries of origin. RESULTS: Almost half of RCTs were sRCTs. Median sample size was small, and 1/3 were not analyzed according to ITT principle. Lack of ITT analysis was associated with greater effect size (p=0.0028). Harm was more likely in mRCTs (p=0.002) and/or in blinded RCTs (p=0.003). Blinded RCTs had double sample size (p=0.007) and an increased NNT/NNH (p=0.002). Finally, mRCTs had higher NNT (p=0.005) and NNH (p=0.02), and harm was only detected in studies from Western countries (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These observations imply that major systematic biases exist and affect trial findings irrespective of the intervention being studied.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Crit Care Med ; 45(4): e467-e468, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291119
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