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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Iodine insufficiency may result in poorer cognitive or child educational outcomes but current evidence is sparse and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the association between maternal iodine status and child educational outcomes. METHODS: Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and iodine/creatinine ratios (I:Cr) were measured in 6971 mothers at 26-28 weeks' gestation participating in the Born in Bradford cohort. Maternal iodine status was examined in relation to child school achievement (early years foundation stage (EYFS), phonics, and Key Stage 1 (KS1)), other learning outcomes, social and behavioural difficulties, and sensorimotor control in 5745 children aged 4-7 years. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) UIC was 76 µg/L (46, 120), and I:Cr was 83 µg/g (59, 121). Overall, there was no strong or consistent evidence to support associations between UIC or I:Cr and neurodevelopmental outcomes. For instance, predicted EYFS and phonics scores (primary outcomes) at the 25th vs 75th I:Cr percentiles (99% confidence intervals) were similar, with no evidence of associations: EYFS scores were 32 (99% CI 31, 33) and 33 (99% CI 32, 34), and phonics scores were 34 (99% CI 33, 35) and 35 (99% CI 34, 36), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest single study of its kind, there was little evidence of detrimental neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born to pregnant women with iodine insufficiency as defined by World Health Organization-outlined thresholds. Alternative functional biomarkers for iodine status in pregnancy and focused assessment of other health outcomes may provide additional insight.

2.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13020, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862552

RESUMO

The aim was to determine whether commercial baby foods marketed within Europe (up to 36 months of age) have inappropriate formulation and high sugar content and to provide suggestions to update European regulations and recommendations as part of a nutrient profile model developed for this age group. The latter was produced following recommended World Health Organization (WHO) steps, including undertaking a rapid literature review. Packaging information from countries across the WHO European region was used to determine mean energy from total sugar by food category. The percentage of products containing added sugar and the percentage of savoury meal-type products containing pureed fruit were also calculated. A total of 2,634 baby foods from 10 countries were summarised: 768 sold in the United Kingdom, over 200 each from Denmark (319), Spain (241), Italy (430) and Malta (243) and between 99-200 from Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Estonia and Slovenia. On average, approximately a third of energy in baby foods in these European countries came from total sugar, and for most food categories, energy from sugar was higher than 10%. Use of added sugars was widespread across product categories, with concentrated fruit juice most commonly used. Savoury meal-type purees did not contain added sugars except in United Kingdom and Malta; however, fruit as an ingredient was found in 7% of savoury meals, most frequently seen in UK products. Clear proposals for reducing the high sugar content seen in commercial baby foods were produced. These suggestions, relating to both content and labelling, should be used to update regulations and promote product reformulation.

3.
Andrology ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few potentially modifiable risk factors of male infertility have been identified, and while different diets and food groups have been associated with male infertility, evidence linking dietary factors including phytoestrogens and semen quality is limited and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between phytoestrogen intake and other dietary factors and semen quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-referent study was undertaken of the male partners, of couples attempting conception with unprotected intercourse for 12 months or more without success, recruited from 14 UK assisted reproduction clinics. A total of 1907 participants completed occupational, lifestyle and dietary questionnaires before semen quality (concentration, motility and morphology) were assessed. Food intake was estimated by a 65-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering the 12 months prior to recruitment. Analyses of dietary risk factors for low motile sperm concentration (MSC: <4.8 × 106 /mL) and poor sperm morphology (PM: <4% normal morphology) used unconditional logistic regression, accounting for clustering of subjects within the clinics, first without, and then with, adjustment for confounders associated with that outcome. RESULTS: High consumption of daidzein (≥13.74 µg/d), a phytoestrogen found in soy products, was a protective factor for MSC with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 0.58 (0.42-0.82) after adjustment for clustering and potential confounding. Dietary risk factors for PM after similar adjustment showed that drinking whole milk (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.47-0.96) and eating red meat were protective with an OR 0.67 (0.46-0.99) for eating red meat >3 times/wk. DISCUSSION: In this case-referent study of men attending an infertility clinic for fertility diagnosis, we have identified that low MSC is inversely associated with daidzein intake. In contrast, daidzein intake was not associated with PM but eating red milk and drinking whole milk were protective. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary factors associated with semen quality were identified, suggesting that male fertility might be improved by dietary changes.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635385

RESUMO

Studies of adults report that perceived taste affects food choices and intake, which in turn may have an impact on health. However, corresponding evidence on adolescents is limited.  Our aim was to summarize current evidence of the impact of taste perception on food choice preferences or dietary intakes among adolescents (mean age 10-19.9 years). Systematic searches identified 13 papers, 12 cross-sectional and one cohort study published between 1 January 2000 to 20 February 2020 assessing the impact of taste (using phenotypic and/or genotypic markers) on food choices in adolescents without any disease conditions. Qualitative assessment in the current review indicated that individuals sensitive to bitter tastes often have a lower preference of bitter-tasting food and higher preference for sweet-tasting food. A meta-analysis of three studies on bitter-taste sensitivity revealed no difference in preference for bitter-tasting vegetables between bitter tasters and non-tasters (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.18, 0.26; p = 0.72). Overall, a limited number of studies were available for review. As a result, we report no clear relationship between taste perception and food choices or intake in adolescents. More studies are needed to evaluate the link between adolescents' taste perceptions and dietary intake.

5.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1933-1943, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563191

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: How does the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary with type and age of menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: Earlier surgical menopause (e.g. <45 years) poses additional increased risk of incident CVD events, compared to women with natural menopause at the same age, and HRT use reduced the risk of CVD in women with early surgical menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Earlier age at menopause has been linked to an increased risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, but the extent that this risk of CVD varies by type of menopause and the role of postmenopausal HRT use in reducing this risk is unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Pooled individual-level data of 203 767 postmenopausal women from 10 observational studies that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE) consortium were included in the analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Postmenopausal women who had reported menopause (type and age of menopause) and information on non-fatal CVD events were included. Type of menopause (natural menopause and surgical menopause) and age at menopause (categorised as <35, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54 and ≥55 years) were exposures of interest. Natural menopause was defined as absence of menstruation over a period of 12 months (no hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy) and surgical menopause as removal of both ovaries. The study outcome was the first non-fatal CVD (defined as either incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke) event ascertained from hospital medical records or self-reported. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for non-fatal CVD events associated with natural menopause and surgical menopause. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Compared with natural menopause, surgical menopause was associated with over 20% higher risk of CVD (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.28). After the stratified analysis by age at menopause, a graded relationship for incident CVD was observed with lower age at menopause in both types of natural and surgical menopause. There was also a significant interaction between type of menopause and age at menopause (P < 0.001). Compared with natural menopause at 50-54 years, women with surgical menopause before 35 (2.55, 2.22-2.94) and 35-39 years (1.91, 1.71-2.14) had higher risk of CVD than those with natural menopause (1.59, 1.23-2.05 and 1.51, 1.33-1.72, respectively). Women who experienced surgical menopause at earlier age (<50 years) and took HRT had lower risk of incident CHD than those who were not users of HRT. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported data on type and age of menopause, no information on indication for the surgery (e.g. endometriosis and fibroids) and the exclusion of fatal CVD events may bias our results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In clinical practice, women who experienced natural menopause or had surgical menopause at an earlier age need close monitoring and engagement for preventive health measures and early diagnosis of CVD. Our findings also suggested that timing of menopause should be considered as an important factor in risk assessment of CVD for women. The findings on CVD lend some support to the position that elective bilateral oophorectomy (surgical menopause) at hysterectomy for benign diseases should be discouraged based on an increased risk of CVD. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): InterLACE project is funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council project grant (APP1027196). GDM is supported by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Principal Research Fellowship (APP1121844). There are no competing interests.

6.
Proc Nutr Soc ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969200

RESUMO

The WHO encourages countries to conduct national dietary surveys (NDS) to inform preventative policies targeting malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases. Previous reviews have found inadequate nutrient intakes and survey provision across Europe. This research is the first to provide an updated review of NDS provision within the whole WHO European Region, across the lifecourse, with reference to disadvantaged groups, obesity and nutrients of concern. Over a third of WHO European countries, mainly Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Where countries reported nutrient intakes, poor WHO recommended nutrient intake attainment was Europe-wide across the lifecourse, particularly in CEEC. Lower educated individuals had poorer diet quality. However, heterogeneity in age group sampled, dietary assessment method, nutrient composition database and under-reporting hindered inter-country comparisons. Average population trans fatty acid intakes below WHO recommended limits may hide inequalities in disadvantaged groups; legislative bans may help alleviate this. There were few associations between NDS-derived consumed food portion size (FPS) and BMI. However, consumed FPS was greater than on-pack serving-size in the majority of foods studied. This review illustrates how NDS can generate information on diet, nutrient intakes and the food environment. However, to enable valid inter-country comparisons, countries should be encouraged to conduct and report harmonised NDS, particularly in the age groups sampled, dietary assessment methodology, nutrient range, underpinning food composition database and treatment of under-reporters. This will aid effective, coordinated policy development that can have a real impact on dietary improvement, on a population and subgroup level, throughout Europe.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935885

RESUMO

Our aim was to develop and evaluate a German adaptation of myfood24, a fully automated, web-based 24-h dietary recall (24HDR). To complete a self-administered 24HDR with myfood24, users have to search and enter consumed foods within the underlying database by a free text search. The adaptation process thus mainly consisted of the development of an appropriate food database. myfood24-Germany was evaluated in 92 adults aged 17-78 years (study 1). Participants completed four non-consecutive 24HDRs and answered an evaluation questionnaire after the final recall. The System Usability Scale Score (SUS Score, 0-100) was calculated. Users' search behavior was examined with screen recordings in 15 adults aged 20-60 years (study 2). Participants had to enter three sample meals presented as food packaging or pictures. The final database included 11,501 food items (7203 generic and 4298 branded items) with up to 131 nutrients. In study 1, the median completion time for a 24HDR was 15 min. The median SUS score of 78 indicated good usability. The majority of participants considered the overall user-friendliness as good (46%) or very good (21%), and 75% were willing to use myfood24-Germany regularly. Both studies showed that finding and choosing an appropriate item within the database was a major challenge. A German version of myfood24 was successfully developed. The user evaluation indicated a short completion time, good usability and acceptability of the tool, and confirmed its feasibility for repeated short-term application.

8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(8): 1265-1289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882230

RESUMO

Background: Health researchers may struggle to choose suitable validated dietary assessment tools (DATs) for their target population. The aim of this review was to identify and collate information on validated UK DATs and validation studies for inclusion on a website to support researchers to choose appropriate DATs.Design: A systematic review of reviews of DATs was undertaken. DATs validated in UK populations were extracted from the studies identified. A searchable website was designed to display these data. Additionally, mean differences and limits of agreement between test and comparison methods were summarized by a method, weighting by sample size.Results: Over 900 validation results covering 5 life stages, 18 nutrients, 6 dietary assessment methods, and 9 validation method types were extracted from 63 validated DATs which were identified from 68 reviews. These were incorporated into www.nutritools.org. Limits of agreement were determined for about half of validations. Thirty four DATs were FFQs. Only 17 DATs were validated against biomarkers, and only 19 DATs were validated in infant/children/adolescents.Conclusions: The interactive www.nutritools.org website holds extensive validation data identified from this review and can be used to guide researchers to critically compare and choose a suitable DAT for their research question, leading to improvement of nutritional epidemiology research.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Internet , Avaliação Nutricional , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Reino Unido
9.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861337

RESUMO

This study examines nutritional intakes in Gestational diabetes mellitus piloting the myfood24 tool, to explore frequency of meals/snacks, and daily distribution of calories and carbohydrates in relation to glycaemic control. A total of 200 women aged 20-43 years were recruited into this prospective observational study between February 2015 and February 2016. Diet was assessed using myfood24, a novel online 24-h dietary recall tool. Out of 200 women 102 completed both ≥1 dietary recalls and all blood glucose measurements. Blood glucose was self-measured as part of usual care. Differences between groups meeting and exceeding glucose targets in relation to frequency of meal/snack consumption and nutrients were assessed using chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests. Women achieving a fasting glucose target <5.3 mmol/L, compared to those exceeding it, consumed three meals (92% vs. 78%: p = 0.04) and three snacks (10% vs. 4%: p = 0.06) per day, compared with two or less; and in relation to evening snacks, consumed a higher percentage of daily energy (6% vs. 5%: p = 0.03) and carbohydrates (8% vs. 6%: p = 0.01). Achieving glycaemic control throughout the day was positively associated with snacking (p = 0.008). Achieving glucose targets was associated with having more snacks across the day, and may be associated with frequency and distribution of meals and nutrients. A larger study is required to confirm this.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Refeições , Lanches , Adulto , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(11): e553-e564, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early menopause is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality; however, the association between early menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease is unclear. We aimed to assess the associations between age at natural menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We harmonised and pooled individual-level data from 15 observational studies done across five countries and regions (Australia, Scandinavia, the USA, Japan, and the UK) between 1946 and 2013. Women who had reported their menopause status, age at natural menopause (if postmenopausal), and cardiovascular disease status (including coronary heart disease and stroke) were included. We excluded women who had hysterectomy or oophorectomy and women who did not report their age at menopause. The primary endpoint of this study was the occurrence of first non-fatal cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of incident coronary heart disease (including heart attack and angina) or stroke (including ischaemic stroke or haemorrhagic stroke). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between age at menopause and incident cardiovascular disease event. We also adjusted the model to account for smoking status, menopausal hormone therapy status, body-mass index, and education levels. Age at natural menopause was categorised as premenopausal or perimenopausal, younger than 40 years (premature menopause), 40-44 years (early menopause), 45-49 years (relatively early), 50-51 years (reference category), 52-54 years (relatively late), and 55 years or older (late menopause). FINDINGS: Overall, 301 438 women were included in our analysis. Of these 301 438 women, 12 962 (4·3%) had a first non-fatal cardiovascular disease event after menopause, of whom 9369 (3·1%) had coronary heart disease and 4338 (1·4%) had strokes. Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, the risk of cardiovascular disease was higher in women who had premature menopause (age <40 years; HR 1·55, 95% CI 1·38-1·73; p<0·0001), early menopause (age 40-44 years; 1·30, 1·22-1·39; p<0·0001), and relatively early menopause (age 45-49 years; 1·12, 1·07-1·18; p<0·0001), with a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease following menopause after age 51 years (p<0·0001 for trend). The associations persisted in never smokers, and were strongest before age 60 years for women with premature menopause (HR 1·88, 1·62-2·20; p<0·0001) and early menopause (1·40, 1·27-1·54; p<0·0001), but were attenuated at age 60-69 years, with no significant association observed at age 70 years and older. INTERPRETATION: Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, women with premature and early menopause had a substantially increased risk of a non-fatal cardiovascular disease event before the age of 60 years, but not after age 70 years. Women with earlier menopause need close monitoring in clinical practice, and age at menopause might also be considered as an important factor in risk stratification of cardiovascular disease for women. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(10): 1858-1867, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318012

RESUMO

The Oxford WebQ is an online 24-hour dietary questionnaire that is appropriate for repeated administration in large-scale prospective studies, including the UK Biobank study and the Million Women Study. We compared the performance of the Oxford WebQ and a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall against biomarkers for protein, potassium, and total sugar intake and total energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. We recruited 160 participants in London, United Kingdom, between 2014 and 2016 and measured their biomarker levels at 3 nonconsecutive time points. The measurement error model simultaneously compared all 3 methods. Attenuation factors for protein, potassium, total sugar, and total energy intakes estimated as the mean of 2 applications of the Oxford WebQ were 0.37, 0.42, 0.45, and 0.31, respectively, with performance improving incrementally for the mean of more measures. Correlation between the mean value from 2 Oxford WebQs and estimated true intakes, reflecting attenuation when intake is categorized or ranked, was 0.47, 0.39, 0.40, and 0.38, respectively, also improving with repeated administration. These correlations were similar to those of the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based recall. Using objective biomarkers as the standard, the Oxford WebQ performs well across key nutrients in comparison with more administratively burdensome interviewer-based 24-hour recalls. Attenuation improves when the average value is taken over repeated administrations, reducing measurement error bias in assessment of diet-disease associations.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Acelerometria , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Londres , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Sistemas On-Line , Consumo de Oxigênio , Potássio/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884831

RESUMO

Fish is an important source of the essential fatty acids contributing to foetal growth and development, but the evidence linking maternal fatty fish consumption with birth outcomes is inconsistent. In the UK, pregnant women are recommended to consume no more than two 140 g portions of fatty fish per week. This study aimed to investigate the association between fatty fish consumption before and during pregnancy with preterm birth and size at birth in a prospective birth cohort. Dietary intake data were acquired from a cohort of 1208 pregnant women in Leeds, UK (CARE Study) to assess preconception and trimester-specific fatty fish consumption using questionnaires. Multiple 24-h recalls during pregnancy were used to estimate an average fatty fish portion size. Intake was classified as ≤2, >2 portions/week and no fish categories. Following the exclusion of women taking cod liver oil and/or omega-3 supplements, the associations between fatty fish intake with size at birth and preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation) were examined in multivariable regression models adjusting for confounders including salivary cotinine as a biomarker of smoking status.. The proportion of women reporting any fatty fish intake decreased throughout pregnancy, with the lowest proportion observed in trimester 3 (43%). Mean intakes amongst consumers were considerably lower than that recommended, with the lowest intake amongst consumers observed in the 1st trimester (106 g/week, 95% CI: 99, 113). This was partly due to small portion sizes when consumed, with the mean portion size of fatty fish being 101 g. After adjusting for confounders, no association was observed between fatty fish intake before or during pregnancy with size at birth and preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
13.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791590

RESUMO

Severe iodine deficiency in mothers is known to impair foetal development. Pregnant women in the UK may be iodine insufficient, but recent assessments of iodine status are limited. This study assessed maternal urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and birth outcomes in three UK cities. Spot urines were collected from 541 women in London, Manchester and Leeds from 2004⁻2008 as part of the Screening for Pregnancy End points (SCOPE) study. UIC at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation was estimated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Associations were estimated between iodine status (UIC and iodine-to-creatinine ratio) and birth weight, birth weight centile (primary outcome), small for gestational age (SGA) and spontaneous preterm birth. Median UIC was highest in Manchester (139 µg/L, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 126, 158) and London (130 µg/L, 95% CI: 114, 177) and lowest in Leeds (116 µg/L, 95% CI: 99, 135), but the proportion with UIC <50 µg/L was <20% in all three cities. No evidence of an association was observed between UIC and birth weight centile (-0.2% per 50 µg/L increase in UIC, 95% CI: -1.3, 0.8), nor with odds of spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.20). Given the finding of iodine concentrations being insufficient according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines amongst pregnant women across all three cities, further studies may be needed to explore implications for maternal thyroid function and longer-term child health outcomes.


Assuntos
Iodo/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cidades , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Iodo/urina , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(11): 1501-1511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogen rich-foods such as soy may be associated with less frequent/severe vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS), although evidence is limited. We thus investigated the associations between the consumption of soy products and soy milk and the frequency/severity of VMS. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We pooled data from 19,351 middle-aged women from five observational studies in Australia, UK, USA, and Japan that contribute to the International Collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Information on soy consumption, VMS and covariates were collected by self-report. We included 11,006 women who had complete data on soy consumption, VMS and covariates at baseline for the cross-sectional analysis. For the prospective analysis, 4522 women who were free of VMS at baseline and had complete data on VMS at follow-up were considered. Multinomial logistic regression and binary logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: No statistically significant evidence of an association was found between soy products (relative risk ratio (RRR): 0.92, 95% CI: 0.76-1.11) or soy milk (RRR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.93-1.65) and the likelihood of reporting frequent or severe VMS cross-sectionally. Prospective results indicated that frequent consumption of soy products (odds ratio (OR): 0.63, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89) but not soy milk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85-1.45) was associated with lower likelihood of reporting subsequent VMS, after adjustment for socio-demographic and reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first ever findings from pooled observational data of association between consumption of soy products and VMS.

15.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 78(3): 438-448, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706844

RESUMO

Menopause, the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle, marks the end of a woman's reproductive lifespan. In addition to changes in sex hormone levels associated with menopause, its timing is another predictor of future health outcomes such as duration of the presence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the risk of hormone-related cancers. With ageing of the population, it is estimated that worldwide 1·2 billion women will be menopausal by the year 2030. Previously the effects of reproductive factors (e.g. parity, age at menarche, pregnancy) and socio-demographic factors on intermediate and long-term health outcomes of menopause have been widely documented. However, little is known about whether diet could have an impact on these. Therefore, we review current evidence on the associations of diet with menopause, presence of VMS and the risk of hormone-related cancers such as ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer. Dietary factors could influence the lifespan of the ovaries and sex-hormones levels, hence the timing of natural menopause. Few studies reported an association between diet, in particular soya consumption, and a reduced risk of VMS. Sustained oestrogen exposure has been associated with a higher risk of hormone-related cancers and thus high-fat and meat diets have been linked with an increased risk of these cancers. However, to better understand the mechanistic pathways involved and to make stronger conclusions for these relationships, further studies investigating the associations of dietary intakes and dietary patterns with menopause, presence of VMS and the risk of hormone-related cancers are required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dieta , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Menopausa , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(5): 2111-2121, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is variability in sensitivity to bitter tastes. Taste 2 Receptor (TAS2R)38 binds to bitter tastants including phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Many foods with putative cancer preventive activity have bitter tastes. We examined the relationship between PTC sensitivity or TAS2R38 diplotype, food intake, and cancer risk in the UK Women's Cohort Study. METHODS: PTC taste phenotype (n = 5500) and TAS238 diplotype (n = 750) were determined in a subset of the cohort. Food intake was determined using a 217-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cancer incidence was obtained from the National Health Service Central Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: PTC tasters [HR 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.62], but not supertasters (HR 0.98, CI 0.76, 1.44), had increased cancer risk compared to nontasters. An interaction was found between phenotype and age for supertasters (p = 0.019) but not tasters (p = 0.54). Among women > 60 years, tasters (HR 1.40, CI 1.03, 1.90) and supertasters (HR 1.58, CI 1.06, 2.36) had increased cancer risk compared to nontasters, but no such association was observed among women ≤ 60 years (tasters HR 1.16, CI 0.84, 1.62; supertasters HR 0.54, CI 0.31, 0.94). We found no association between TAS2R38 diplotype and cancer risk. We observed no major differences in bitter fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the relationship between PTC taster phenotype and cancer risk may be mediated by factors other than fruit and vegetable intake.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Nutr Res Rev ; 32(1): 38-69, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388967

RESUMO

The WHO encourages national diet survey (NDS) implementation to obtain relevant data to inform policies addressing all forms of malnutrition, which remains a pressing issue throughout Europe. This paper provides an up-to-date review on energy, macro- and selected micronutrient intakes in children across WHO Europe using the latest available NDS intakes. It assesses these against WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) to highlight vulnerable groups and areas of concern. Dietary survey information was gathered by Internet searches, contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics, energy and nutrient intakes were extracted and weighted means calculated and presented by region. Child energy and nutrient intakes were extracted from twenty-one NDS across a third (n 18) of the fifty-three WHO Europe countries. Of these, 38 % (n 6) reported intakes by socio-economic group, but by various indicators. Energy and macronutrients, where boys and older children had higher intakes, were more widely reported than micronutrients. Most countries met under half of the WHO RNI for nutrients reported in their NDS. Micronutrient attainment was higher than macronutrients, but worst in girls and older children. Only a third, mainly Western, WHO European member states provided published data on child nutrient intakes. Gaps in provision mean that dietary inadequacies may go unidentified, preventing evidence-based policy formation. WHO RNI attainment was poor, particularly in girls and older children. Inconsistent age groups, dietary methodologies, nutrient composition databases and under-reporting hinder inter-country comparisons. Future efforts should encourage countries to conduct NDS in a standardised format by age and sociodemographic variables.

18.
Appetite ; 134: 193-203, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579881

RESUMO

Studies indicate a 'portion size effect' association between increased portion size and energy intake, but direct links with obesity remain unproven. UK portion size guidance is outdated and evidence suggests that on-pack serving-sizes have increased in some energy-dense foods. Serving-sizes are compared with consumed portion sizes in popular energy, fat and sugar-dense foods, and patterns explored. Data was analysed for adults aged 19-64y (excluding under-reporters) from the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey 2008-2014 (n = 2377) for consumed portion sizes and a commercial product database of major UK retailers provided serving-sizes. Popular energy-dense food groups were split into 45 product-based subgroups. Means of consumed portion size and on-pack serving-size were calculated and compared and nutrition per 100 g and per serve was explored. Just 57% products had serving-size compared to 97% with pack-size information. Serving-size ranges were wide and varied across food groups. Consumed portion sizes were significantly higher than on-pack serving-size in all main food groups and most subgroups. The greatest difference between consumed portion size and on-pack serving-size was Crisps (44%), and within this, 'popcorn' (151%). In Chocolate and Crisps, food subgroups with the largest on-pack serving-sizes were also the most macronutrient dense. Serving-size was unavailable for many products. However, where available, consumed portion sizes were higher than on-pack serving-size in all main food groups and most subgroups. The results could inform updated portion size guidance of energy-dense foods. Further work is needed to clarify whether smaller serving and pack sizes lead to lower total consumption and energy/nutrient intake.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Tamanho da Porção , Tamanho da Porção de Referência , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Nutr ; 122(5): 564-574, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526696

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between diet and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. A total of 35 372 women aged 35-69 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1998 and completed a validated 217-item FFQ. The individual foods were collapsed into sixty-four main food groups and compared using Cox proportional models, adjusting for potential confounders. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates are presented per portion increase in food items. After approximately 18 years of follow-up, there were 1822, 294 and 285 cases of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, respectively. A high consumption of processed meat and total meat was associated with an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer. High intake of tomatoes (HR 0·87, 99 % CI 0·75, 1·00) and dried fruits (HR 0·60, 99 % CI 0·37, 0·97) was associated with a reduced risk of breast and endometrial cancer, respectively. Mushroom intake was associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer (HR 1·57, 99 % CI 1·09, 2·26). Subgroup analysis by pre- or postmenopausal cancer further demonstrated an association between processed meat intake and both postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Intake of dried fruits was associated with a reduced risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer (HR 0·55, 99 % CI 0·31, 0·98). Our findings suggest that while some foods may trigger the risk of these cancers, some foods may also be protective; supporting the call for further randomised controlled trials of dietary interventions to reduce the risk of cancer among pre- and postmenopausal women.

20.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(3): 404-418, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A wide variety of methods are available to assess dietary intake, each one with different strengths and weaknesses. Researchers face multiple challenges when diet and nutrition need to be accurately assessed, particularly in the selection of the most appropriate dietary assessment method for their study. The goal of the current collaborative work is to present a collection of available resources for dietary assessment implementation.Design/Setting/ParticipantsAs a follow-up to the 9th International Conference on Diet and Physical Activity Methods held in 2015, developers of dietary assessment toolkits agreed to collaborate in the preparation of the present paper, which provides an overview of each toolkit. The toolkits presented include: the Diet, Anthropometry and Physical Activity Measurement Toolkit (DAPA; UK); the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Dietary Assessment Primer (USA); the Nutritools website (UK); the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) method selector (Australia); and the Danone Dietary Assessment Toolkit (DanoneDAT; France). An at-a-glance summary of features and comparison of the toolkits is provided. RESULTS: The present review contains general background on dietary assessment, along with a summary of each of the included toolkits, a feature comparison table and direct links to each toolkit, all of which are freely available online. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of dietary assessment toolkits provides comprehensive information to aid users in the selection and implementation of the most appropriate dietary assessment method, or combination of methods, with the goal of collecting the highest-quality dietary data possible.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Internet , Avaliação Nutricional , Software , Antropometria , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos
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