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1.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111486, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157463

RESUMO

Increased flooding, droughts, and sediment transport are watershed-scale problems negatively impacting agriculture and ecosystems in drylands worldwide. Vegetation loss in upland watersheds is leading to scouring floods, which in turn decreases infiltration, soil moisture levels, and downstream groundwater recharge. Management to confront these intractable problems has been hindered by a lack of accessible decision support tools for both land and water managers that synthesize the watershed processes that buffer against dryland disturbances. Flood flow connectivities across the landscape create buffer zones through replenishing soil moisture and reducing flood energy, which in turn support multiple functions. This study developed a decision support tool, the Flood Flow Connectivity to the Landscape (FlowCon) framework that quantifies the most efficient management efforts to increase the key watershed buffering functions of increasing infiltration and reducing flow energy. FlowCon links three spatially explicit, process-based, and predictive models to answer two critical management questions: what key processes acting in what optimal areas are drivers of infiltration dynamics and what roles do peak flows of differing scales of energy play. The spatial models delineated the buffer zone to characterize the heterogeneous and optimal infiltration dynamics across the landscape. The hydrologic process model, using a curve number technique, identified the key ecohydrologic processes that affect infiltration and characterized peak flows and flow regime variability. The predictive flood routing model quantified the potential management benefits. We calibrated the models with measured runoff and the corresponding rainfall events for a six-year period, which included thirty-six flow events. The synthesized ecohydrologic indicators provided critical calibrations, improving the relationship between the hydrologic modeling results and observed data by 12% for the linear regression R2 and 69% for the root mean square error (RMSE). Implementation of prioritized management is estimated to reduce peak flow by half, with interventions focused on 24% of floodplains that infiltrate three times the flow volume per area than the floodplain average. FlowCon provides an efficient assessment framework that integrates watershed process understanding in an accessible decision support tool to achieve tangible improvements in dryland watershed management.


Assuntos
Inundações , Água Subterrânea , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Solo
2.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 6(2): 62-67, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775400

RESUMO

The recent increase in cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the Navajo population residing close to the Grants Mining District (GMD) in New Mexico is suggested to be due to exposure to environmental contaminants, in particular uranium in respirable dusts. However, the chemistry of uranium-containing-dust dissolution in lung fluids and the role of mineralogy are poorly understood, as is their impact on toxic effects. The current study is focused on the dissolution of xcontaining-dust, collected from several sites near Jackpile and St. Anthony mines in the GMD, in two simulated lung fluids (SLFs): Gamble's solution (GS) and Artificial Lysosomal Fluid (ALF). We observe that the respirable dust includes uranium minerals that yield the uranyl cation, UO2 2+, as the primary dissolved species in these fluids. Dust rich in uraninite and carnotite is more soluble in GS, which mimics interstitial conditions of the lungs. In contrast, dust with low uraninite and high kaolinite is more soluble in ALF, which simulates the alveolar macrophage environment during phagocytosis. Moreover, geochemical modeling, performed using PHREEQC, is in good agreement with our experimental results. Thus, the current study highlights the importance of site-specific toxicological assessments across mining districts with the focus on their mineralogical differences.

3.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164875, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27788209

RESUMO

Tidal habitats host a diversity of species and provide hydrological services such as shoreline protection and nutrient attenuation. Accretion of sediment and biomass enables tidal marshes and swamps to grow vertically, providing a degree of resilience to rising sea levels. Even if accelerating sea level rise overcomes this vertical resilience, tidal habitats have the potential to migrate inland as they continue to occupy land that falls within the new tide range elevations. The existence of developed land inland of tidal habitats, however, may prevent this migration as efforts are often made to dyke and protect developments. To test the importance of inland migration to maintaining tidal habitat abundance under a range of potential rates of sea level rise, we developed a spatially explicit elevation tracking and habitat switching model, dubbed the Marsh Accretion and Inundation Model (MAIM), which incorporates elevation-dependent net land surface elevation gain functions. We applied the model to the metropolitan Washington, DC region, finding that the abundance of small National Park Service units and other public open space along the tidal Potomac River system provides a refuge to which tidal habitats may retreat to maintain total habitat area even under moderate sea level rise scenarios (0.7 m and 1.1 m rise by 2100). Under a severe sea level rise scenario associated with ice sheet collapse (1.7 m by 2100) habitat area is maintained only if no development is protected from rising water. If all existing development is protected, then 5%, 10%, and 40% of the total tidal habitat area is lost by 2100 for the three sea level rise scenarios tested.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Biomassa , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Oceanos e Mares , Ondas de Maré
4.
Ecol Appl ; 26(3): 846-60, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27411255

RESUMO

The maintenance of marsh platform elevation under conditions of sea level rise is dependent on mineral sediment supply to marsh surfaces and conversion of above- and belowground plant biomass to soil organic material. These physical and biological processes interact within the tidal zone, resulting in elevation-dependent processes contributing to marsh accretion. Here, we explore spatial pattern in a variable related to aboveground biomass, plant litter, to reveal its role in the maintenance of marsh surfaces. Plant litter persisting through the dormant season represents the more recalcitrant portion of plant biomass, and as such has an extended period of influence on ecosystem processes. We conducted a field and remote sensing analysis of plant litter height, aboveground biomass, vertical cover, and stem density (collectively termed plant litter structure) at a tidal freshwater marsh located within the Potomac River estuary, USA. LiDAR and field observations show that plant litter structure becomes more prominent with increasing elevation. Spatial patterns in litter structure exhibit stability from year to year and correlate with patterns in soil organic matter content, revealed by measuring the loss on ignition of surface sediments. The amount of mineral material embedded within plant litter decreases with increasing elevation, representing an important tradeoff with litter structure. Therefore, at low elevations where litter structure is short and sparse, the role of plant litter is to capture sediment; at high elevations where litter structure is tall and dense, aboveground litter contributes organic matter to soil development. This organic matter contribution has the potential to eclipse that of belowground biomass as the root:shoot ratio of dominant species at high elevations is low compared to that of dominant species at low elevations. Because of these tradeoffs in mineral and organic matter incorporation into soil across elevation gradients, the rate of marsh surface elevation change is remarkably consistent across elevation. Because of the role of plant litter in marsh ecosystem processes, monitoring and assessment of these dynamic geomorphic marsh landscapes might be streamlined through the measurement of plant litter structure, either via LiDAR technologies or field observation.


Assuntos
Água Doce , Plantas/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estuários , Fatores de Tempo , Virginia
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