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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179448

RESUMO

AIMS: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complex disease where genetics interplay with extrinsic factors. This study aims to compare the phenotype, management, and outcome of familial DCM (FDCM) and non-familial (sporadic) DCM (SDCM) across Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with DCM that were enrolled in the prospective ESC EORP Cardiomyopathy & Myocarditis Registry were included. Baseline characteristics, genetic testing, genetic yield, and outcome were analysed comparing FDCM and SDCM; 1260 adult patients were studied (238 FDCM, 707 SDCM, and 315 not disclosed). Patients with FDCM were younger (P < 0.01), had less severe disease phenotype at presentation (P < 0.02), more favourable baseline cardiovascular risk profiles (P ≤ 0.007), and less medication use (P ≤ 0.042). Outcome at 1 year was similar and predicted by NYHA class (HR 0.45; 95% CI [0.25-0.81]) and LVEF per % decrease (HR 1.05; 95% CI [1.02-1.08]. Throughout Europe, patients with FDCM received more genetic testing (47% vs. 8%, P < 0.01) and had higher genetic yield (55% vs. 22%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that FDCM and SDCM have significant differences at baseline but similar short-term prognosis. Whether modification of associated cardiovascular risk factors provide opportunities for treatment remains to be investigated. Our results also show a prevalent role of genetics in FDCM and a non-marginal yield in SDCM although genetic testing is largely neglected in SDCM. Limited genetic testing and heterogeneity in panels provides a scaffold for improvement of guideline adherence.

2.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166657

RESUMO

Cardiac complications, including clinically suspected myocarditis, have been described in novel coronavirus disease 2019. Here, we review current data on suspected myocarditis in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hypothetical mechanisms to explain the pathogenesis of troponin release in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 include direct virus-induced myocardial injury (ie, viral myocarditis), systemic hyperinflammatory response (ie, cytokine storm), hypoxemia, downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, systemic virus-induced endothelialitis, and type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction. To date, despite the fact that millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections have been diagnosed worldwide, there is no definitive proof that SARS-CoV-2 is a novel cardiotropic virus causing direct cardiomyocyte damage. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis should be based on the molecular assessment of endomyocardial biopsy or autopsy by polymerase chain reaction or in-situ hybridization. Blood, sputum, or nasal and throat swab virology testing are insufficient and do not correlate with the myocardial involvement of a given pathogen. Data from endomyocardial biopsies and autopsies in clinically suspected SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis are scarce. Overall, current clinical epidemiologic data do not support the hypothesis that viral myocarditis is caused by SARS-CoV-2, or that it is common. More endomyocardial biopsy and autopsy data are also needed for a better understanding of pathogenesis of clinically suspected myocarditis in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may include virus-negative immune-mediated or already established subclinical autoimmune forms, triggered or accelerated by the hyperinflammatory state of severe novel coronavirus disease 2019.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225579

RESUMO

We report a unique case of a young woman with recurrent immune-mediated (virus-negative) lymphocytic fulminant myocarditis during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. At the first endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven episode, she had concomitant pneumonia, and a temporary biventricular assist device implant was followed by complete and long-lasting cardiac recovery. Five years later, she was re-admitted for relapsing cardiogenic shock with a recent history of pneumonia. She was treated with extracorporeal life support with apical venting for left ventricular unloading, and full recovery was achieved. Despite negative seriate nasopharyngeal swabs and EMB during hospitalization, an antibody positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was discovered after 4 weeks from discharge. This is the first report of an EMB-proven, immune-mediated (virus-negative) recurrence of fulminant myocarditis. We hypothesize that in patients with a predisposing immunogenetic background, autoimmune disease may be triggered or reactivated by major infections, for example, pneumonia, that may act as adjuvants leading to an immune-mediated hyper-response.

4.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102710, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197576

RESUMO

AIMS: Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle, due to infectious, toxic or autoimmune causes. Literature reported controversial results in relation to the effect of immunosuppression (IS)/immunomodulation (IM). We aimed at assessing the effect of IS/IM by meta analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the P.R.I.S.M.A. approach, two researchers searched for relevant studies on PubMed, Embase, and the Central Registry of Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Library. Proposed MeSH terms were: "immunotherapy OR immune therapy OR immune modeling OR Immunosuppressive Agents" AND "combination OR combined with OR plus" AND "myocarditis OR cardiomyopathies OR inflammatory cardiomyopathy". The language was restricted to English. Reference lists of included articles and those relevant to the topic were hand searched for the identification of additional, potentially relevant articles. The cutoff date was from 1987 until 30th Nov 2019. Reported survival or mortality events or change of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after IS/IT were primary outcomes of the study; in addition, improvement of New York Heart Association class, follow-up biopsy (Bx) findings, viral genome clearance on Bx and recurrence of myocarditis were recorded if reported. Statistical analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3; 5452 studies were screened, of these 73 were assessed for eligibility, including 8 randomized control studies, 26 retrospective studies, 2 prospective studies and 1 case control study, 34 case reports and 2 case series. In prospective studies, the difference in mortality between the IS and control groups tended to be lower in the combined IS groups (12.5% vs. 18.2%) (95% CI of odds ratio 0.7(0.3, 1.64)) and the pooled difference of the increase of LVEF between the IS and control groups tended to be higher in the combined IS groups (95% CI 7.26 (-2.29, 16.81)). In retrospective studies, the difference of survival between the IS and control group was significantly in favor of IS (95%CI Hazard ratio 0.82(0.69, 0.96)). CONCLUSIONS: A tailored IS may be considered in myocarditis, depending on the phase of the disease, and the type of underlying autoimmune or immune-mediated form.

5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046850

RESUMO

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940421

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that increase the risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of AF, anticoagulation management, and risk of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in patients with cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred eight consecutive adult patients with cardiomyopathy (34.9% female; median age: 55.0 years) were prospectively enrolled as part of the EURObservational Research Programme Cardiomyopathy/Myocarditis Registry. At baseline, 903 (28.2%) patients had AF (29.4% dilated, 27.5% hypertrophic, 51.5% restrictive, and 14.7% arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, P < 0.001). AF was associated with more advanced New York Heart Association class (P < 0.001), increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and co-morbidities, and a history of stroke/TIA (P < 0.001). Oral anticoagulation was administered in 71.7% of patients with AF (vitamin K antagonist: 51.6%; direct oral anticoagulant: 20.1%). At 1 year follow-up, the incidence of cardiovascular endpoints was as follows: stroke/TIA 1.85% (AF vs. non-AF: 3.17% vs. 1.19%, P < 0.001), death from any cause 3.43% (AF vs. non-AF: 5.39% vs. 2.50%, P < 0.001), and death from heart failure 1.67% (AF vs. non-AF: 2.44% vs. 1.31%, P = 0.033). The independent predictors for stroke/TIA were as follows: AF [odds ratio (OR) 2.812, P = 0.005], history of stroke (OR 7.311, P = 0.010), and anaemia (OR 3.119, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals a high prevalence and diverse distribution of AF in patients with cardiomyopathies, inadequate anticoagulation regimen, and high risk of stroke/TIA in this population.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 3013-3021, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767651

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiomyopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases, often of genetic origin. We assessed the current practice of genetic counselling and testing in the prospective European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme Cardiomyopathy Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3208 adult patients from 69 centres in 18 countries were enrolled. Genetic counselling was performed in 60.8% of all patients [75.4% in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 39.2% in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 70.8% in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and 49.2% in restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), P < 0.001]. Comparing European geographical areas, genetic counselling was performed from 42.4% to 83.3% (P < 0.001). It was provided by a cardiologist (85.3%), geneticist (15.1%), genetic counsellor (11.3%), or a nurse (7.5%) (P < 0.001). Genetic testing was performed in 37.3% of all patients (48.8% in HCM, 18.6% in DCM, 55.6% in ARVC, and 43.6% in RCM, P < 0.001). Index patients with genetic testing were younger at diagnosis and had more familial disease, family history of sudden cardiac death, or implanted cardioverter defibrillators but less co-morbidities than those not tested (P < 0.001 for each comparison). At least one disease-causing variant was found in 41.7% of index patients with genetic testing (43.3% in HCM, 33.3% in DCM, 51.4% in ARVC, and 42.9% in RCM, P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed report on the real-life practice of genetic counselling and testing in cardiomyopathies in Europe. Genetic counselling and testing were performed in a substantial proportion of patients but less often than recommended by European guidelines and much less in DCM than in HCM and ARVC, despite evidence for genetic background.

9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13362, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of reliable outcome predictors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of paramount importance for improving patient's management. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was conducted until 24 April 2020. From 6843 articles, 49 studies were selected for a pooled assessment; cumulative statistics for age and sex were retrieved in 587 790 and 602 234 cases. Two endpoints were defined: (a) a composite outcome including death, severe presentation, hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation; and (b) in-hospital mortality. We extracted numeric data on patients' characteristics and cases with adverse outcomes and employed inverse variance random-effects models to derive pooled estimates. RESULTS: We identified 18 and 12 factors associated with the composite endpoint and death, respectively. Among those, a history of CVD (odds ratio (OR) = 3.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 2.26-4.41), acute cardiac (OR = 10.58, 5.00-22.40) or kidney (OR = 5.13, 1.78-14.83) injury, increased procalcitonin (OR = 4.8, 2.034-11.31) or D-dimer (OR = 3.7, 1.74-7.89), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 6.23, 1.031-37.67) conveyed the highest odds for the adverse composite endpoint. Advanced age, male sex, cardiovascular comorbidities, acute cardiac or kidney injury, lymphocytopenia and D-dimer conferred an increased risk of in-hospital death. With respect to the treatment of the acute phase, therapy with steroids was associated with the adverse composite endpoint (OR = 3.61, 95% CI 1.934-6.73), but not with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, comorbidities, abnormal inflammatory and organ injury circulating biomarkers captured patients with an adverse clinical outcome. Clinical history and laboratory profile may then help identify patients with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Cardiopatias , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Circulation ; 141(15): 1238-1248, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum anti-heart autoantibodies (AHAs) and anti-intercalated disk autoantibodies (AIDAs) are autoimmune markers in myocarditis. Myocarditis has been reported in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). To provide evidence for autoimmunity, we searched for AHAs and AIDAs in ARVC. METHODS: We studied: 42 ARVC probands, 23 male, aged 42, interquartile range 33-49, 20 from familial and 22 nonfamilial pedigrees; 37 clinically affected relatives (ARs), 24 male aged 35, interquartile range 18-46; and 96 healthy relatives, 49 male, aged 27, interquartile range 17-45. Serum AHAs and AIDAs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence on human myocardium and skeletal muscle in 171 of the 175 ARVC individuals and in controls with noninflammatory cardiac disease (n=160), ischemic heart failure (n=141), and healthy blood donors (n=270). Screening of 5 desmosomal genes was performed in probands; when a sequence variant was identified, cascade family screening followed, blind to immunologic results. RESULTS: AHA frequency was higher (36.8%) in probands, ARs (37.8%), and healthy relatives (25%) than in noninflammatory cardiac disease (1%), ischemic heart failure (1%), or healthy blood donors (2.5%; P=0.0001). AIDA frequency was higher in probands (8%, P=0.006), in ARs (21.6%, P=0.00001), and in healthy relatives (14.6%, P=0.00001) than in noninflammatory cardiac disease (3.75%), ischemic heart failure (2%), or healthy blood donors (0.3%). AHA-positive status was associated with higher frequency of palpitation (P=0.004), implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation (P=0.021), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.004), AIDA-positive status with both lower right ventricular and left ventricular ejection fractions (P=0.027 and P=0.027, respectively). AHA- and/or AIDA-positive status in the proband and at least one of the respective relatives was more common in familial (17/20, 85%) than in sporadic (10/22, 45%) pedigrees (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of AHAs and AIDAs provides evidence of autoimmunity in the majority of familial and in almost half of sporadic ARVC. In probands and in ARs, these antibodies were associated with features of disease severity. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether they may predict ARVC development in healthy relatives or if they be a result of manifest ARVC.

13.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 32, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073128

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a clinical diagnosis characterized by left ventricular or biventricular dilation and impaired contraction that is not explained by abnormal loading conditions (for example, hypertension and valvular heart disease) or coronary artery disease. Mutations in several genes can cause DCM, including genes encoding structural components of the sarcomere and desmosome. Nongenetic forms of DCM can result from different aetiologies, including inflammation of the myocardium due to an infection (mostly viral); exposure to drugs, toxins or allergens; and systemic endocrine or autoimmune diseases. The heterogeneous aetiology and clinical presentation of DCM make a correct and timely diagnosis challenging. Echocardiography and other imaging techniques are required to assess ventricular dysfunction and adverse myocardial remodelling, and immunological and histological analyses of an endomyocardial biopsy sample are indicated when inflammation or infection is suspected. As DCM eventually leads to impaired contractility, standard approaches to prevent or treat heart failure are the first-line treatment for patients with DCM. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators may be required to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias. In addition, identifying the probable cause of DCM helps tailor specific therapies to improve prognosis. An improved aetiology-driven personalized approach to clinical care will benefit patients with DCM, as will new diagnostic tools, such as serum biomarkers, that enable early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Autoimunidade/genética , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(6): 839-844, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022399

RESUMO

In developed countries, more than 80% of cases of acute pericarditis remain without an established diagnosis after a conventional and standard diagnostic approach. These cases are generally labelled as 'idiopathic', i.e. without a known cause. This lack of information is a matter of concern for both patients and clinicians. Some years ago, this term reflected the state of the art of scientific knowledge on the topic. Advances have changed this point of view, in light of available molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction able to identify viral cardiotropic agents in pericardial fluid and biopsies. Furthermore, the remarkable efficacy of interleukin-1 antagonists, a therapy targeting the innate immune response, suggests clinical and pathogenic similarity between a proportion of patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis and classical autoinflammatory diseases. So, it seems useful to discuss the pros and cons of using the term "idiopathic" in light of the new knowledge.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Pericardite/classificação , Recidiva , Humanos , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Pericardite/fisiopatologia
17.
Eur Heart J ; 39(20): 1784-1793, 2018 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378019

RESUMO

Aims: The Cardiomyopathy Registry of the EURObservational Research Programme is a prospective, observational, and multinational registry of consecutive patients with four cardiomyopathy subtypes: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We report the baseline characteristics and management of adults enrolled in the registry. Methods and results: A total of 3208 patients were enrolled by 69 centres in 18 countries [HCM (n = 1739); DCM (n = 1260); ARVC (n = 143); and RCM (n = 66)]. Differences between cardiomyopathy subtypes (P < 0.001) were observed for age at diagnosis, history of familial disease, history of sustained ventricular arrhythmia, use of magnetic resonance imaging or genetic testing, and implantation of defibrillators. When compared with probands, relatives had a lower age at diagnosis (P < 0.001), but a similar rate of symptoms and defibrillators. When compared with the Long-Term phase, patients of the Pilot phase (enrolled in more expert centres) had a more frequent rate of familial disease (P < 0.001), were more frequently diagnosed with a rare underlying disease (P < 0.001), and more frequently implanted with a defibrillator (P = 0.023). Comparing four geographical areas, patients from Southern Europe had a familial disease more frequently (P < 0.001), were more frequently diagnosed in the context of a family screening (P < 0.001), and more frequently diagnosed with a rare underlying disease (P < 0.001). Conclusion: By providing contemporary observational data on characteristics and management of patients with cardiomyopathies, the registry provides a platform for the evaluation of guideline implementation. Potential gaps with existing recommendations are discussed as well as some suggestions for improvement of health care provision in Europe.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/terapia , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/genética , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/terapia , Desfibriladores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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