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1.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 32, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073128

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a clinical diagnosis characterized by left ventricular or biventricular dilation and impaired contraction that is not explained by abnormal loading conditions (for example, hypertension and valvular heart disease) or coronary artery disease. Mutations in several genes can cause DCM, including genes encoding structural components of the sarcomere and desmosome. Nongenetic forms of DCM can result from different aetiologies, including inflammation of the myocardium due to an infection (mostly viral); exposure to drugs, toxins or allergens; and systemic endocrine or autoimmune diseases. The heterogeneous aetiology and clinical presentation of DCM make a correct and timely diagnosis challenging. Echocardiography and other imaging techniques are required to assess ventricular dysfunction and adverse myocardial remodelling, and immunological and histological analyses of an endomyocardial biopsy sample are indicated when inflammation or infection is suspected. As DCM eventually leads to impaired contractility, standard approaches to prevent or treat heart failure are the first-line treatment for patients with DCM. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators may be required to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias. In addition, identifying the probable cause of DCM helps tailor specific therapies to improve prognosis. An improved aetiology-driven personalized approach to clinical care will benefit patients with DCM, as will new diagnostic tools, such as serum biomarkers, that enable early diagnosis and treatment.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(6): 839-844, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022399

RESUMO

In developed countries, more than 80% of cases of acute pericarditis remain without an established diagnosis after a conventional and standard diagnostic approach. These cases are generally labelled as 'idiopathic', i.e. without a known cause. This lack of information is a matter of concern for both patients and clinicians. Some years ago, this term reflected the state of the art of scientific knowledge on the topic. Advances have changed this point of view, in light of available molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction able to identify viral cardiotropic agents in pericardial fluid and biopsies. Furthermore, the remarkable efficacy of interleukin-1 antagonists, a therapy targeting the innate immune response, suggests clinical and pathogenic similarity between a proportion of patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis and classical autoinflammatory diseases. So, it seems useful to discuss the pros and cons of using the term "idiopathic" in light of the new knowledge.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 39(20): 1784-1793, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378019

RESUMO

Aims: The Cardiomyopathy Registry of the EURObservational Research Programme is a prospective, observational, and multinational registry of consecutive patients with four cardiomyopathy subtypes: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We report the baseline characteristics and management of adults enrolled in the registry. Methods and results: A total of 3208 patients were enrolled by 69 centres in 18 countries [HCM (n = 1739); DCM (n = 1260); ARVC (n = 143); and RCM (n = 66)]. Differences between cardiomyopathy subtypes (P < 0.001) were observed for age at diagnosis, history of familial disease, history of sustained ventricular arrhythmia, use of magnetic resonance imaging or genetic testing, and implantation of defibrillators. When compared with probands, relatives had a lower age at diagnosis (P < 0.001), but a similar rate of symptoms and defibrillators. When compared with the Long-Term phase, patients of the Pilot phase (enrolled in more expert centres) had a more frequent rate of familial disease (P < 0.001), were more frequently diagnosed with a rare underlying disease (P < 0.001), and more frequently implanted with a defibrillator (P = 0.023). Comparing four geographical areas, patients from Southern Europe had a familial disease more frequently (P < 0.001), were more frequently diagnosed in the context of a family screening (P < 0.001), and more frequently diagnosed with a rare underlying disease (P < 0.001). Conclusion: By providing contemporary observational data on characteristics and management of patients with cardiomyopathies, the registry provides a platform for the evaluation of guideline implementation. Potential gaps with existing recommendations are discussed as well as some suggestions for improvement of health care provision in Europe.

9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(10): 1090-1121, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510718

RESUMO

Restrictive cardiomyopathies (RCMs) are a diverse group of myocardial diseases with a wide range of aetiologies, including familial, genetic and acquired diseases and ranging from very rare to relatively frequent cardiac disorders. In all these diseases, imaging techniques play a central role. Advanced imaging techniques provide important novel data on the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of RCMs. This EACVI consensus document provides comprehensive information for the appropriateness of all non-invasive imaging techniques for the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and management of patients with RCM.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cardiologia/normas , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pericardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Sociedades Médicas
12.
Eur Heart J ; 37(23): 1850-8, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26792875

RESUMO

In this paper the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease proposes a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an attempt to bridge the gap between our recent understanding of the disease spectrum and its clinical presentation in relatives, which is key for early diagnosis and the institution of potential preventative measures. We also provide practical hints to identify subsets of the DCM syndrome where aetiology directed management has great clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 179: 166-77, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25464438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human autoimmune myocarditis is characterized by an increased frequency of serum organ and disease-specific anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA) in affected patients. To assess whether AHA are directly pathogenic, we used the passive transfer technique of AHA from patients to normal Balb/c mice to induce an experimental myocarditis. METHODS: In keeping with a classical passive transfer experiment, sera from 5 AHA positive myocarditis patients (3 male, mean age 30 ± 11 years, 3 with giant cell and 2 with lymphocytic myocarditis) were affinity purified and injected into 25 Balb/c mice. As controls, affinity purified sera from 5 healthy donors were passively transferred to 25 Balb/c mice. Further 15 control mice were injected with phosphate-buffered saline and 9 mice did not receive any injection. In all patients cardiac-specific AHA of IgG class had been previously detected by an indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) technique on cryostat sections of O blood group human heart. The animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the hearts were blindly examined for histological evidence of myocarditis by an expert cardiac pathologist. RESULTS: Myocarditis was present in 13/25 (52%) of the mice which received affinity-purified IgG from patients. The findings of severe, moderate or mild myocarditis were more common in the mice which received affinity-purified IgG from patients (20%; 20% and 12%) than in control animals (2%, p=0.01; 0%, p=0.003; and 0%, p=0.04 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a new evidence for AHA-mediated pathogenicity in human myocarditis, according to Rose-Witebsky criteria.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Miocardite/sangue , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Especificidade da Espécie , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Heart J ; 34(33): 2636-48, 2648a-2648d, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23824828

RESUMO

In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its distinct biopsy-proven pathogenetic forms. The aims are to bridge the gap between clinical and tissue-based diagnosis, to improve management and provide a common reference point for future registries and multicentre randomised controlled trials of aetiology-driven treatment in inflammatory heart muscle disease.


Assuntos
Miocardite/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
19.
Am Heart J ; 166(1): 13-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23816016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of the postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS), postoperative effusions, and postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) remain uncertain. Although preliminary data from a single trial of colchicine given for 1 month postoperatively (COPPS trial) were promising, the results have not been confirmed in a large, multicenter trial. Moreover, in the COPPS trial, colchicine was given 3 days postoperatively. METHODS: The COPPS-2 study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Forty-eight to 72 hours before planned cardiac surgery, 360 patients, 180 in each treatment arm, will be randomized to receive placebo or colchicine without a loading dose (0.5 mg twice a day for 1 month in patients weighing ≥70 kg and 0.5 mg once for patients weighing <70 kg or intolerant to the highest dose). The primary efficacy end point is the incidence of PPS, postoperative effusions, and POAF at 3 months after surgery. Secondary end points are the incidence of cardiac tamponade or need for pericardiocentesis or thoracentesis, PPS recurrence, disease-related admissions, stroke, and overall mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The COPPS-2 trial will evaluate the use of colchicine for the primary prevention of PPS, postoperative effusions, and POAF, potentially providing stronger evidence to support the use of preoperative colchicine without a loading dose to prevent several postoperative complications. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01552187.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Derrame Pericárdico/prevenção & controle , Pericardiectomia/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Humanos , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Síndrome , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 32(4): 404-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23498161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of intravascular macrophages in the diagnosis of early and late antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) on endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). METHODS: We reviewed 1,420 consecutive EMBs from 131 patients and selected 75 C4d+ EMBs. The C4d+ group was compared with a control group (66 patients) matched for age, gender, date of transplantation, follow-up, immunosuppressive regimen and primary heart disease. A total of 141 EMBs were evaluated. Immunoperoxidase staining for C4d and CD68 were performed. Post-transplant IgG anti-HLA reactivity was investigated by Luminex technology. Clinical data were also collected. Fourteen EMBs were available from 11 symptomatic AMR patients. RESULTS: Of the 141 EMBs evaluated, 53 were positive for intravascular macrophages (CD68); among them, 32 were also positive for C4d (32 of 53, 60.4%). Of the 88 CD68- EMBs, 43 were also C4d+ (43 of 88, 48.9%). Of the 53 CD68+ EMBs, 30 EMBs were within the first year since transplantation (30 of 53, 57.8%), and among these 21 were also positive for C4d (21 of 30, 70.0%). In the late period, among the 23 CD68+ EMBs (23 of 53, 42.2%) 11 were also positive for C4d (11 of 23, 47.8%). In the early period, intravascular macrophages were more common in symptomatic (3 of 3, 100%) than asymptomatic (3 of 11, 27.3%) patients. Sensitivity and specificity of intravascular macrophages in predicting donor-specific antibodies (DSA) within the first year were 50.0% and 100.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intravascular macrophages predict C4d, DSA and symptoms early after transplantation; however, in the late period, they are unable to identify patients with circulating DSA, C4d and/or symptoms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Transplante de Coração/imunologia , Transplante de Coração/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Vasos Sanguíneos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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