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1.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our institution implemented a novel intervention bundle to reduce incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the bundle in reducing incisional SSIs post-cystectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A before-after cohort study was performed on all patients who underwent radical cystectomy by urologic oncologists at The Ottawa Hospital from January 2016 to March 2019. Thirty-day postoperative incisional SSIs were identified from the medical record and were compared to institutionally collected National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. The SSI reduction strategy was implemented as of March 1st, 2018. Adjusted associations between the SSI intervention with the risk of incisional SSI were determined. Cystectomy incisional SSI rates were compared to all other National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-collected surgeries at The Ottawa Hospital during the same time period. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two patients were included; 41 following implementation of the SSI reduction bundle. Mean age was 69 years, 104 (79%) were male, and 59 (45%) received neobladders. The risk of incisional SSI decreased from 16.5% preintervention to 2.4% post intervention (risk ratio 0.17; P = 0.004). Intraoperative transfusion and diabetes were independently associated with an increased risk of incisional SSI (P < 0.05). The SSI rate for all other surgical procedures at our institution remained stable during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SSI after radical cystectomy is high. Use of an SSI reduction bundle was associated with a large reduction in incisional SSIs. Further evaluation of this intervention in other centers is warranted.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 37(11): 811.e1-811.e7, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient decision aids are structured clinical tools that facilitate shared decision-making. In urology, the decision between partial and radical nephrectomy for a renal mass can be difficult. We sought to develop and evaluate a decision aid for patients with a localized renal mass considering surgery. This paper describes the development process and acceptability testing of our patient decision aid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision aid was systematically created using the International Patient Decision Aids Standards. Review of the literature identified evidence regarding patient-important outcomes of partial and radical nephrectomy. A mixed methods survey was designed to assess acceptability of the decision aid. Kidney cancer survivors, patient advocates, methodological experts, and urologists were recruited to evaluate the decision aid. The primary outcome was the acceptability of the decision aid reported by survey responders. RESULTS: An evidence-based decision aid was created. Included benefits were overall survival, cancer-free survival, and length of hospital stay. Included harms were postoperative bleeding, urine leak, stage 3 renal failure, renal replacement therapy, and flank bulge. The decision aid met the International Patient Decision Aids Standards defining (6 of 6), certification (6 of 6), and quality criteria (21 of 23). Results of acceptability testing were highly favorable. Responders (n = 22) reported the decision aid had acceptable language (91%), an appropriate length (82%), and presented balanced options (91%). Nine of 11 urologists (82%) reported intended use with future patients. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, evidence-based decision aid was created for patients with renal masses considering surgery. The decision aid is available at https://decisionaid.ohri.ca/AZsumm.php?ID=1913. A separate decision aid addressing the management of small renal masses is currently under development.

3.
Surgery ; 166(6): 1084-1091, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis aims to reduce venous thromboembolism but has the potential to increase bleeding. We sought to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and transfusion after major abdominopelvic procedures and to quantify the association of the procedure with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for patients who received an abdominopelvic surgery between 2005 and 2016. Patient factors, operative factors, and outcomes were collected. Multivariable analyses were used to determine the association between individual procedures and venous thromboembolism. Area under the curve analyses were performed to assess whether addition of the procedure to Caprini score improved the association of the model with venous thromboembolism. The primary outcome was risk of venous thromboembolism within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes were the risk of transfusion within 30 days and the association between operative time with venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: There were 896,441 patients who received an abdominopelvic procedure. The overall risk of venous thromboembolism was 1.9% (n = 16,665). Procedures with the highest risk of venous thromboembolism were esophagectomy (5.5%) and partial esophagectomy (5.3%). The overall risk of transfusion was 9.5% (n = 84,889). Procedures with the highest risk of transfusion were pelvic exenteration (53.6%) and radical cystectomy (37.7%). On multivariable analyses, individual procedures were independently associated with venous thromboembolism, despite adjusting for Caprini score. Area under the curve analyses indicated risk prediction of the baseline model (area under the curve 0.59) improved when procedures were added (area under the curve 0.68). CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery are at a high risk of venous thromboembolism and transfusion. Improved risk stratification may be possible by including more procedural information in scoring systems.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
5.
J Urol ; 202(5): 1001-1007, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The choice of urinary diversion at cystectomy is a life altering decision. Patient decision aids are clinical tools that promote shared decision making by providing information about management options and helping patients communicate their values. We sought to develop and evaluate a patient decision aid for individuals undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aids Standards) to guide a systematic development process. A literature review was performed to determine urinary diversion options and the incidence of outcomes. We created a prototype using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. A 10-question survey was used to assess patient decision aid acceptability among patients, allied health professionals and urologists. The primary outcome was acceptability of the patient decision aid. RESULTS: Ileal conduit and orthotopic neobladder were included as primary urinary diversion options because they had the most evidence and are most commonly performed. Continent cutaneous diversion was identified as an alternative option. Outcomes specific to ileal conduit were stomal stenosis and parastomal hernia. Outcomes specific to neobladder were daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Acceptability testing was completed by 8 urologists, 9 patients and 1 advanced practice nurse. Of the respondents 94% reported that the language was appropriate, 94% reported that the length was adequate and 83% reported that option presentation was balanced. The patient decision aid met all 6 IPDAS defining criteria, all 6 certification criteria and 21 of 23 quality criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We created a novel patient decision aid to improve the quality of decisions made by patients when deciding among urinary diversion options. Effectiveness testing will be performed prospectively.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e025662, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Partial nephrectomy is a standard of care for non-metastatic renal tumours when technically feasible. Despite the increased use of partial nephrectomy, intraoperative techniques that lead to optimal renal function after surgery have not been rigorously studied. Clamping of the renal hilum to prevent bleeding during resection causes temporary renal ischaemia. The internal temperature of the kidney may be lowered after the renal hilum is clamped (renal hypothermia) in an attempt to mitigate the effects of ischaemia. Our objective is to determine if renal hypothermia during open partial nephrectomy results in improved postoperative renal function at 12 months following surgery as compared with warm ischaemia (no renal hypothermia). METHODS AND ANALYSES: This is a multicentre, randomised, single-blinded controlled trial comparing renal hypothermia versus no hypothermia during open partial nephrectomy. Due to the nature of the intervention, complete blinding of the surgical team is not possible; however, surgeons will be blinded until the time of hilar clamping. Glomerular filtration will be based on plasma clearance of a radionucleotide, and differential renal function will be based on renal scintigraphy. The primary outcome is overall renal function at 12 months measured by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Secondary outcomes include change in GFR, GFR of the affected kidney, change in GFR of the affected kidney, serum creatinine, haemoglobin, spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio, quality of life and postoperative complications. Data will be collected at baseline, immediately postoperatively and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained for all participating study sites. Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01529658; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Isquemia Fria , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Rim/fisiologia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Constrição , Creatinina/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Análise Multivariada , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Isquemia Quente
7.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 13(6): 184-189, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data from a randomized trial suggest transfusion rates are similar for robotic and open prostatectomy. The objective of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes of robotic and open prostatectomy at a Canadian academic centre. METHODS: A retrospective review of all prostatectomies performed by all surgeons at The Ottawa Hospital between 2009 and 2016 was completed. Cases and outcomes were identified using an administrative data warehouse. Extracted data included patient factors (age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Elixhauser comorbidity score), operative factors (length of operation, surgical approach, anesthesia type), and perioperative outcomes (length of recovery room and hospital stay, transfusion rate, hospital cost). Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between robotic and open surgical approaches. The primary outcome was transfusion during the index admission. RESULTS: A total of 1606 prostatectomies were performed by 12 surgeons during the study period (840 robotic, 766 open). The rate of transfusion was lower in patients undergoing robotic compared to open surgery (0.6% vs. 11.2%; p<0.001). The robotic prostatectomy cohort had a shorter length of stay in the recovery room (155.7 vs. 231.1 minutes; p<0.001) and shorter length of hospital admission (1.4 vs. 2.8 days; p<0.001). Hospital costs per case were approximately $800 more for robotic prostatectomy ($11 475 vs. $10 656; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This hospital-wide analysis revealed that robotic prostatectomy is associated with a lower transfusion rate compared to the open approach. Further studies emphasizing patient-reported outcomes are needed.

9.
J Cancer Educ ; 34(1): 14-18, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779441

RESUMO

An in-person multidisciplinary continuing medical education (CME) program was designed to address previously identified knowledge gaps regarding quality indicators of care in kidney cancer. The objective of this study was to develop a CME program and determine if the program was effective for improving participant knowledge. CME programs for clinicians were delivered by local experts (uro-oncologist and medical oncologist) in four Canadian cities. Participants completed knowledge assessment tests pre-CME, immediately post-CME, and 3-month post-CME. Test questions were related to topics covered in the CME program including prognostic factors for advanced disease, surgery for advanced disease, indications for hereditary screening, systemic therapy, and management of small renal masses. Fifty-two participants attended the CME program and completed the pre- and immediate post-CME tests. Participants attended in Ottawa (14; 27%), Toronto (13; 25%), Québec City (18; 35%), and Montréal (7; 13%) and were staff urologists (21; 40%), staff medical oncologists (9; 17%), fellows (5; 10%), residents (16; 31%), and oncology nurses (1; 2%). The mean pre-CME test score was 61% and the mean post-CME test score was 70% (p = 0.003). Twenty-one participants (40%) completed the 3-month post-CME test. Of those that completed the post-test, scores remained 10% higher than the pre-test (p value 0.01). Variability in test scores was observed across sites and between French and English test versions. Urologists had the largest specialty-specific increase in knowledge at 13.8% (SD 24.2, p value 0.02). The kidney cancer CME program was moderately effective in improving provider knowledge regarding quality indicators of kidney cancer care. These findings support continued use of this CME program at other sites.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica Continuada/normas , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia
10.
Urol Oncol ; 36(9): 400.e1-400.e5, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSI) are common after radical cystectomy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate if female sex is associated with postoperative SSI and if experiencing an SSI was associated with subsequent adverse events. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study of radical cystectomy patients from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2006 and 2016. The primary outcome was development of a SSI (superficial, deep, or organ/abdominal space) within 30 days of surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between sex and other patient/procedural factors with SSI. Female patients with SSI were also compared to those without SSI to determine risk of subsequent adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 9,275 radical cystectomy patients met the inclusion criteria. SSI occurred in 1,277(13.7%) patients, 308 (16.4%) females and 969 (13.1%) males (odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.47; P = 0.009). Infections were superficial in 150 (8.0%) females versus 410 (5.5%) males (P < 0.0001), deep in 40 (2.1%) females versus 114 (1.5%) males (P = 0.07), and organ/abdominal space in 118 (6.2%) females versus 445 (6.0%) males (P = 0.66). On multivariable analysis, female sex was independently associated with SSI (odds ratio = 1.21 confidence interval 1.01-1.43 P = 0.03). Females who experience SSI had higher probability of developing other complications including wound dehiscence, septic shock, and need for reoperation (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex is an independent risk factor for SSI following radical cystectomy. More detailed study of patient factors, pathogenic microbes, and treatment factors are needed to prescribe the best measures for infection prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/patologia
11.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 12(10): 351-360, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is associated with high recurrence and mortality rates. The role of radiotherapy as an adjunct to radical cystectomy is not well-defined. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy preoperatively or postoperatively for patients with MIBC receiving cystectomy compared to cystectomy alone. The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary outcome was adverse effects. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched on August 30, 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer. A control group receiving cystectomy alone and an intervention group with radiotherapy and cystectomy were required. The Jadad score was used to assess for bias. Fifteen studies representing 10 RCTs met eligibility criteria. RESULTS: A total of 996 patients were randomized in seven trials included in a meta-analysis of neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Insufficient data were available to complete a pooled analysis for adjuvant radiotherapy. There was a non-statistically significant improvement in overall survival for patients who received neo-adjuvant radiotherapy and cystectomy. At three years and five years, the odds ratios were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-2.09) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.76-2.09), respectively, in favour of neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Subgroup analyses including higher doses of radiotherapy showed greater effect on survival. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that radiotherapy prior to cystectomy may improve overall survival. This review was limited by old studies, heterogeneous patient populations, and radiotherapy treatment techniques that may not meet current standards. There is a need for current RCTs to further evaluate this effect.

12.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to report the clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate in men undergoing magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS)-cognitive fusion (CF) targeted biopsies stratified by the Prostate Imaging and Data Reporting System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2) scores. METHODS: With a quality assurance waiver from the IRB, we identified a cohort of men who underwent MRI-TRUS-CF and synchronous template biopsy from 2015-2017. MRI (PI-RADS v2 score, lesion size, lesion location [peripheral or transition zone (PZ/TZ)]), and CF-TRUS biopsy (operator experience, TRUS visibility, and number of biopsies) features were extracted. The primary outcome was diagnosis of clinically significant (Gleason score ≥3+4=7 or International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group ≥2) PCa. RESULTS: During the study period, 131 men (with 142 PIRADS v2 score ≥3 lesions) met inclusion criteria; 98 men had previously negative template biopsy and 33 were on active surveillance for previously detected low-grade PCa. In total, 41.9% (55/131) men had clinically significant PCa - 17.6% (23/131) detected on targeted biopsy only, 8.4% (11/131) on template biopsy only, and 16.0% (21/131) on both targeted and template biopsy. Clinically significant PCa detection stratified by PI-RADS v2 scores were: 11.1% (3/27) for score 3 (indeterminate), 42.9% (24/56) for score 4 (significant cancer likely), and 35.6% (21/59) for score 5 (significant cancer very likely). Clinically significant PCa detection rates in targeted biopsies were better among PZ (41.8% [33/79]) compared to TZ (23.8% [15/63]) lesions (p=0.025) in TRUS visible lesions (p=0.033) and in the most experienced radiologists (p=0.05), with no difference by lesion size or number of additional core biopsies performed (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive fusion MRI-TRUS-guided targeted biopsy yielded substantially lower rates of clinically significant cancer in PI-RADS v2 score 4 and 5 lesions when compared to published results using in-bore MR-guided or automated MRI-TRUS fusion guidance systems. Cancer detection was worst for TZ lesions.

13.
Trials ; 19(1): 261, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of needing red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during cardiac and orthopedic surgery, but no study has yet evaluated tranexamic acid use during cystectomy. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind (surgeon-, anesthesiologist-, patient-, data-monitor-blinded), placebo-controlled trial of tranexamic acid during cystectomy was initiated in June 2013. Prior to incision, the intervention arm participants receive a 10 mg/kg loading dose of intravenously administered tranexamic acid, followed by a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance infusion. In the control arm, the patient receives an identical volume of normal saline that is indistinguishable from the intervention. The primary outcome is any blood transfusion from the start of surgery up to 30 days post operative. There are no strict criteria to mandate the transfusion of blood products. The decision to transfuse is entirely at the discretion of the treating physicians who are blinded to patient allocation. Physicians are allowed to utilize all resources to make transfusion decisions, including serum hemoglobin concentration and vital signs. To date, 147 patients of a planned 354 have been randomized to the study. DISCUSSION: This protocol reviews pertinent data relating to blood transfusion during radical cystectomy, highlighting the need to identify methods for reducing blood loss and preventing transfusion in patients receiving radical cystectomy. It explains the clinical rationale for using tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during cystectomy, and outlines the study methods of our ongoing randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Protocol: MOP-342559; ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01869413. Registered on 5 June 2013.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Cistectomia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
CMAJ Open ; 6(2): E197-E201, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canadian guidelines recommend against population-based screening for prostate cancer because of the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We sought to assess whether a higher proportion of patients receiving surgery had clinically significant cancer over time. METHODS: All hospitals in Eastern Ontario that perform prostatectomy participate in a Prostate Cancer Community of Practice, which prospectively maintains a database for the region. Using these data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients who underwent prostatectomy from 2009 to 2015 in the region. We examined trends in biopsy findings, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen level and Gleason score. We then determined whether the proportion of patients with clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥ 7 or stage pT3) increased over time. RESULTS: During the study period, 1897 patients underwent prostatectomy in Eastern Ontario (mean 271 surgeries/yr). The proportion of patients who were determined to have National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate or high-risk disease increased from 46.7% in 2009 to 90.2% in 2015. The proportion of men with clinically significant cancer on prostatectomy increased from 59.7% in 2009 to 93.1% in 2015. Adjusted analyses suggested that the proportion of patients with clinically significant cancer increased by 5% per year during the study period. INTERPRETATION: There has been a change in the tumour characteristics of patients who undergo prostatectomy in Eastern Ontario. In recent years, almost all patients have had clinically significant cancer, which suggests that overtreatment of prostate cancer has decreased.

15.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 12(8): 256-259, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More elderly patients are presenting for surgical consultation. Understanding the risk of mortality by age group after urological surgery is important for patient selection and counselling. METHODS: A historical cohort study of The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006-2015 was performed. Current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for similar surgical procedures were grouped for analyses. Urological procedures commonly performed in elderly patients were identified and stratified by patient age and surgical approach (open vs. laparoscopic/robotic). The primary outcome was the absolute risk of death by 30 days stratified by age for each surgical procedure. The secondary outcome was risk of death by surgical approach (open vs. laparoscopic/robotic). RESULTS: Twelve urological procedures were reviewed including 124 262 patients. A total of 1011 (0.8%) deaths occurred by 30 days after surgery. The procedure with the highest incidence of mortality by 30 days was open nephroureterectomy (2.9 %). In patients 80 years and over, the procedure with the highest incidence of death was open radical nephrectomy (5.32%). There was an increased risk of mortality with increasing age group for all procedures. Unadjusted risk of mortality was consistently higher in patients who receive open compared to laparoscopic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing risk of mortality with age and with open surgical approach in urology. Knowledge regarding the absolute risk of mortality in patients receiving common urological surgeries may improve patient selection and counselling.

16.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 12(8): 243-251, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumours. Due to its rarity, evidence regarding postoperative surveillance is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a post-radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) surveillance protocol based on recurrence patterns in a large, multi-institutional cohort of patients. METHODS: Retrospective clinical and pathological data were collected from 1029 patients undergoing RNU over a 15-year period (1994-2009) at 10 Canadian academic institutions. A multivariable model was used to identify prognostic clinicopathological factors, which were then used to define risk categories. Risk-based surveillance guidelines were proposed based on actual recurrence patterns. RESULTS: Overall, 555 (49.9%) patients developed recurrence, including 289 (25.9%) in the urothelium and 266 (23.9%) with loco-regional and distant recurrences. Based on multivariable analysis, three risk groups were identified: 1) low-risk patients with pTa-T1, pN0 disease, and no adverse histological features (high tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion [LVI], tumour multifocality); 2) intermediate-risk patients with pTa-T1, pN0 disease with one or more of the adverse histological features; and 3) high-risk patients with a ≥pT2 tumour and/or nodal involvement. Low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were free of urothelial recurrence at three years in 72%, 66%, and 63%, respectively, and free of regional/distant recurrence in 93%, 87%, and 62%, respectively. The risks of loco-regional and distant recurrences (p<0.0001) and time to death (p<0.0001) were significantly different between the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on recurrence patterns in a large, multicentre patient cohort, we have proposed an evidence-based, risk-adapted post-RNU surveillance protocol.

17.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 12(6): 181-186, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion aims to minimize the physical and psychological effects of radical cystectomy through avoidance of a stoma and maintenance of urethral voiding. Neobladder function reported in the literature ranges widely due to differences in patient selection and method of assessment. The objective of the study was to characterize functional outcomes of consecutive patients treated at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A historical cohort of patients who underwent radical cystectomy with a neobladder diversion performed at The Ottawa Hospital between January 2006 and December 2014 were reviewed. Outcomes of interest were urinary continence, use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), post-void residual volume, and uroflowmetry at three, six, and 12 months following cystectomy. RESULTS: During the study period, 158 neobladder diversions were performed. The mean age of patients was 63.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.1), and 81.7% were male. Significant daytime incontinence (>1 pad) three months following surgery was common (65%), but decreased to 8.6% by 12 months. Nighttime incontinence was also common at three months (54%) and improved at 12 months (20%). While no appreciable differences between men and women were observed for continence, more women performed CIC at 12 months post-surgery (59% of women; 9% of men; relative risk [RR] 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.30). Among patients who did not catheterize, uroflowmetry and post-void residual volume parameters were stable between three and 12 months postoperative. CONCLUSIONS: Daytime and nighttime incontinence is common in neobladder patients following surgery, but improves considerably with time. Correspondingly, many female neobladder patients at our institution use CIC.

18.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 12(2): 38-43, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is concern that surgical quality initially declines during the learning phase of robotic surgery. At our institution, we used a multi-surgeon programmatic approach to the introduction of robotic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients treated during the first year of our program. METHODS: This is a historical cohort of all radical prostatectomy patients during a one-year period. Baseline, perioperative, and long-term followup data were prospectively and retrospectively collected. Treatment failure was a composite of any postoperative radiation, androgen-deprivation, or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.2. RESULTS: During the study period, 225 radical prostatectomy procedures were performed (104 robotic and 121 open). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (p>0.05). All patients were continent and 74% were potent prior to surgery. Mean estimated blood loss (280 cc vs. 760 cc; p<0.001) and blood transfusion (0% vs. 8.3%; p=0.002) was lower in the robotic cohort. Non-transfusion complications were similar between groups (13% vs. 12%; p=0.7). Mean hospital stay was shorter in the robotic cohort (1.4 vs. 2.5 days). There was no difference in overall positive margin rate (38% vs. 43%; p=0.4) or treatment failure at a median followup of 3.5 years (p=0.4). Robotically treated patients were more often continent (89% vs. 77%; p=0.02) and potent (48% vs. 32%; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Using an inclusive multi-surgeon approach, robotic pros-tatectomy was introduced safely at a Canadian academic institution.

19.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 11(8): 238-243, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Active surveillance is a strategy to delay or prevent treatment of indolent prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria were developed to select patients for prostate cancer active surveillance. The objective of this study was to compare pathological findings from PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible clinically low-risk prostate cancer patients. METHODS: A D'Amico low-risk cohort of 1512 radical prostatectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital or Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre between January 1995 and December 2007 was reviewed. Pathological outcomes (pT3 tumours, Gleason sum ≥7, lymph node metastases, or a composite) and clinical outcomes (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] recurrence, secondary cancer treatments, and death) were compared between PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible cohorts. RESULTS: The PRIAS-eligible cohort (n=945) was less likely to have Gleason score ≥7 (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.75), pT3 (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.31-0.55), nodal metastases (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10-1.31), or any adverse feature (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.69) compared to the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. The probability of any adverse pathology in the PRIAS-eligible cohort was 41% vs. 56% in the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. At median follow-up of 3.7 years, 72 (4.8%) patients had a PSA recurrence, 24 (1.6%) received pelvic radiation, and 13 (0.9%) received androgen deprivation. No difference was detected for recurrence-free and overall survival between groups (recurrence hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.46-1.09 and survival HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36-1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Low-risk prostate cancer patients who met PRIAS eligibility criteria are less likely to have higher-risk cancer compared to those who did not meet at least one of these criteria.

20.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 11(6): 199-203, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine how renal tumour scoring systems, such as RENAL, PADUA, and Centrality (C)-index, compare to clinical judgement at predicting time required for tumour removal and kidney reconstruction during partial nephrectomy. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of partial nephrectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital, a tertiary care uro-oncological centre, was retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative axial images were reviewed by four experienced urological oncologists who independently rated the complexity of a partial nephrectomy from 1-10 to generate a clinical judgement score. Two independent reviewers determined the RENAL, PADUA, and C-index scores. The time to complete tumour resection and renal reconstruction during partial nephrectomy was prospectively recorded. RESULTS: During the study period, 104 partial nephrectomies were performed. The mean partial nephrectomy complexity score based on clinical judgement was 3.4 (standard deviation [SD] 2.1) out of 10. There was good agreement between surgeons in assessing tumour complexity (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65, 0.78). The mean RENAL score was 6.7 (SD 1.6) out of a maximum of 12, the mean PADUA score was 8.5 (SD 1.5) out of a maximum of 14, and the mean C-index score was 3.8 (SD 2). Mean resection and reconstruction time was 24 minutes (SD 10 minutes). The correlation between clinical judgement score and time was 0.27 (p=0.005). The correlation between renal tumour scoring systems and time was 0.20 (p=0.04) for RENAL, 0.21 (p=0.03) for C-index, and 0.26 (p=0.007) for PADUA. RENAL and PADUA scores were significantly associated with surgical and total complications. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of variance in ischemia time is not explained by clinical judgement or renal tumour scoring systems. Renal tumour scoring systems were not better than the clinical judgement of urological oncologists at predicting ischemia time during partial nephrectomy.

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