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Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801518


Dogs are reservoirs of different Staphylococcus species, but at the same time, they could develop several clinical forms caused by these bacteria. The aim of the present investigation was to characterize 50 clinical Staphylococcus isolates cultured from sick dogs. Bacterial species determination, hemolysins, protease, lipase, gelatinase, slime, and biofilm production, presence of virulence genes (lukS/F-PV, eta, etb, tsst, icaA, and icaD), methicillin resistance, and antimicrobial resistance were investigated. Most isolates (52%) were Staphylococcus pseudointermedius, but 20% and 8% belonged to Staphylococcusxylosus and Staphylococcus chromogenes, respectively. Gelatinase, biofilm, and slime production were very common characters among the investigated strains with 80%, 86%, and 76% positive isolates, respectively. Virulence genes were detected in a very small number of the tested strains. A percentage of 14% of isolates were mecA-positive and phenotypically-resistant to methicillin. Multi-drug resistance was detected in 76% of tested staphylococci; in particular, high levels of resistance were detected for ampicillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. In conclusion, although staphylococci are considered to be opportunistic bacteria, the obtained data showed that dogs may be infected by Staphylococcus strains with important virulence characteristics and a high antimicrobial resistance.

Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(9): e1386, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627967


BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder caused by defects at the 11p15.5 imprinted region. Many cases of female monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for BWS have been reported, but no definitive conclusions have been drawn regarding the link between epigenetic defects, twinning process, and gender. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization and follow-up of female MZ twins discordant for BWS. METHODS: Methylation pattern at 11p15.5 and multilocus methylation disturbance (MLID) profiling were performed by pyrosequencing and MassARRAY in placental/umbilical cord samples and postnatal tissues. Whole-exome sequencing was carried out to identify MLID causative mutations. X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was determined by HUMARA test. RESULTS: Both twins share KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR loss of methylation (LOM) and MLID in blood and the epigenetic defect remained stable in the healthy twin over time. KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMRLOM was nonhomogeneously distributed in placental samples and the twins showed the same severely skewed XCI pattern. No MLID-causative mutations were identified. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on BWS-discordant twins with methylation analyses extended to extraembryonic tissues. The results suggest that caution is required when attempting prenatal diagnosis in similar cases. Although the causative mechanism underlying LOM remains undiscovered, the XCI pattern and mosaic LOM suggest that both twinning and LOM/MLID occurred after XCI commitment.

Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575496


Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) displays overlapping phenotypes with other neurocutaneous diseases such as Legius Syndrome. Here, we present results obtained using a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel including NF1, NF2, SPRED1, SMARCB1, and LZTR1 genes on Ion Torrent. Together with NGS, the Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Analysis (MLPA) method was performed to rule out large deletions/duplications in NF1 gene; we validated the MLPA/NGS approach using Sanger sequencing on DNA or RNA of both positive and negative samples. In our cohort, a pathogenic variant was found in 175 patients; the pathogenic variant was observed in NF1 gene in 168 cases. A SPRED1 pathogenic variant was also found in one child and in a one year old boy, both NF2 and LZTR1 pathogenic variants were observed; in addition, we identified five LZTR1 pathogenic variants in three children and two adults. Six NF1 pathogenic variants, that the NGS analysis failed to identify, were detected on RNA by Sanger. NGS allows the identification of novel mutations in five genes in the same sequencing run, permitting unambiguous recognition of disorders with overlapping phenotypes with NF1 and facilitating genetic counseling and a personalized follow-up.

Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967


The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(1): 22-31, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639441


Exposure to teratogenic drugs during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of embryo-fetal anomalies and sometimes results in recurrent and recognizable patterns of malformations; however, the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of drug-induced birth defects is difficult, since teratogenesis is a multifactorial process which is always the result of a complex interaction between several environmental factors and the genetic background of both the mother and the fetus. Animal models have been extensively used to assess the teratogenic potential of pharmacological agents and to study their teratogenic mechanisms; however, a still open issue concerns how the information gained through animal models can be translated to humans. Instead, significant information can be obtained by the identification and analysis of human genetic syndromes characterized by clinical features overlapping with those observed in drug-induced embryopathies. Until now, genetic phenocopies have been reported for the embryopathies/fetopathies associated with prenatal exposure to warfarin, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, fluconazole, thalidomide and ACE inhibitors. In most cases, genetic phenocopies are caused by mutations in genes encoding for the main targets of teratogens or for proteins belonging to the same molecular pathways. The aim of this paper is to review the proposed teratogenic mechanisms of these drugs, by the analysis of human monogenic disorders and their molecular pathogenesis.

Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/patologia , Doenças Fetais/patologia , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/patologia , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Leflunomida , Mutação , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 56(4): 187-189, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038333


Deletions on chromosome 6q are rarely reported in the literature, and genotype-phenotype correlations are poorly understood. We report a child with a deletion of the 6q21-q22 chromosomal region, providing some intriguing results about the correlation between this region and acro-cardio-facial syndrome, congenital heart disease, split hand and foot malformation, and epilepsy.