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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473319

RESUMO

Malignancy relapse is the most common cause of treatment failure among recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Conditioning dose intensity can reduce disease relapse, but it is offset by toxicities. Improvements in radiotherapy techniques and supportive care may translate to better outcomes with higher irradiation doses in the modern era. This study compares outcomes of recipients of increasing doses of high dose total body irradiation (TBI) divided into intermediate high dose (IH 13-13.75 Gy) and high dose (HD 14 Gy) to standard dose (SD 12Gy) with cyclophosphamide (Cy). A total of 2,721 patients ages of 18 to 60 with hematologic malignancies receiving HCT from 2001 to 2013 were included. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 5 years was 28% (95% Cumulative Incidence [CI] 25-30%), 32% (95%CI 29-36%) and 34% (95%CI 28-39%) for SD, IH and HD, respectively (p=0.02). Patients receiving IH-TBI had a 25% higher risk of NRM compared to SD-TBI (12 Gy) (p=0.007). Corresponding cumulative incidence of relapse was 36% (95%CI 34-38%), 32% (95%CI 29-36%) and 26% (95%CI 21-31%) (p=0.001). Hazard ratio for mortality compared to SD were 1.06 (95% 0.94-1.19, p=0.36) for IH and 0.89 (95% CI 0.76-1.05, p=0.17) for HD. The study demonstrates that despite improvements in supportive care, myeloablative conditioning using higher doses of TBI (with Cy) leads to worse non-relapse mortality and offers no survival benefit over SD, despite reducing disease relapse.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288095

RESUMO

Although high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant combined with novel agents continues to be the hallmark of first-line treatment in newly diagnosed transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients, the impact of tandem autologous or autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic transplant for patients with extramedullary disease (EMD) and high-risk cytogenetics is not yet defined. Here, we analyzed clinical and cytogenetic data from 488 adult myeloma patients with EMD undergoing single autologous (n = 373), tandem autologous (n = 84), or autologous-allogeneic transplant (n = 31) between 2003 and 2015. At least 1 high-risk abnormality was present in 41% (n = 202), with del(17p) (40%) and t(4;14) (45%) the most frequent. More than 1 high-risk abnormality was found in 54%. High-risk cytogenetics showed worse 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 54% and 29%, respectively, versus 78% and 49% for standard-risk cytogenetics (P < .001). Co-segregation of high-risk abnormalities did not seem to affect outcome. Regarding transplant regimen, OS and PFS were 70% and 43% for single autologous versus 83% and 52% for tandem autologous and 88% and 58% for autologous-allogeneic (P = .06 and P = .30). In multivariate analysis high-risk cytogenetics were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = .003), whereas tandem autologous significantly improved outcome versus single autologous transplant (HRs, .46 and .64; P = .02 and P = .03). Autologous-allogeneic transplant did not significantly differ in outcome but appeared to improve survival, but results were limited because of small population (HR, .31). In conclusion, high-risk cytogenetics is frequently observed in newly diagnosed myeloma with EMD and significantly worsens outcome after single autologous, whereas a tandem autologous transplant strategy may overcome onset poor prognosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158502

RESUMO

Combination therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), such as cyclosporine (CSA) or tacrolimus (Tac), and methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a widely used approach to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention. Data on the comparative effectiveness of MMF compared with MTX are limited and conflicting, however. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for adult patients undergoing first myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an HLA-identical matched related donor (MRD; n = 3979) or matched unrelated donor (URD; n = 4163) using CSA+MMF, CSA+MTX, Tac+MMF, or Tac+MTX for GVHD prevention between 2000 and 2013. Within the MRD cohort, 2252 patients received CSA+MTX, 1391 received Tac+MTX, 114 received CSA+MMF, and 222 received Tac+MMF. Recipients of CSA+MMF had a higher incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 2.20; P < .001) and grade III-IV (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.83; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. The use of CSA+MMF was also associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.73 to 3.09; P < .001) due to higher transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (HR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.61 to 6.23; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. Within the URD cohort, 974 patients received CSA+MTX, 2697 received Tac+MTX, 68 received CSA+MMF, and 424 received Tac+MMF. CSA+MMF was again significantly associated with a higher incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.57 to 3.42; P <0001), worse OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.35; P < .001), and higher TRM (HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.00 to 4.77; P < .001), compared with Tac+MTX and other regimens. Thus, this large retrospective comparison of MMF versus MTX in combination with CSA or Tac demonstrates significantly worse GVHD and survival outcomes with CSA+MMF compared with Tac+MTX.

4.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1826-1836, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201170

RESUMO

HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (Haplo-HCT) using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has improved donor availability. However, a matched sibling donor (MSD) is still considered the optimal donor. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we compared outcomes after Haplo-HCT vs MSD in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Data from 1205 adult CR1 AML patients (2008-2015) were analyzed. A total of 336 patients underwent PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT and 869 underwent MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The Haplo-HCT group included more reduced-intensity conditioning (65% vs 30%) and bone marrow grafts (62% vs 7%), consistent with current practice. In multivariable analysis, Haplo-HCT and MSD groups were not different with regard to overall survival (P = .15), leukemia-free survival (P = .50), nonrelapse mortality (P = .16), relapse (P = .90), or grade II-IV acute GVHD (P = .98). However, the Haplo-HCT group had a significantly lower rate of chronic GVHD (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.48; P < .001). Results of subgroup analyses by conditioning intensity and graft source suggested that the reduced incidence of chronic GVHD in Haplo-HCT is not limited to a specific graft source or conditioning intensity. Center effect and minimal residual disease-donor type interaction were not predictors of outcome. Our results indicate a lower rate of chronic GVHD after PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT vs MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis, but similar other outcomes, in patients with AML in CR1. Haplo-HCT is a viable alternative to MSD in these patients.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1868-1880, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221660

RESUMO

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myeloid hematological malignancy with overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The knowledge of the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME), particularly mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), in MDS pathogenesis is increasing. Generally, cancer is associated with a procoagulant state participating in tumor development. Monocytes release procoagulant, tissue factor (TF)-bearing microparticles. We hypothesized that MSCs and clonal monocytes release procoagulant extracellular vesicles (EVs) within the CMML TME, inducing a procoagulant state that could modify hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. We isolated and cultured MSCs and monocytes from CMML patients and MSCs from healthy donors (HDs). Their medium EVs and small EVs (sEVs) were collected after iterative ultracentrifugations and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Their impact on hemostasis was studied with a thrombin generation assay and fibrinography. CMML or HD HSCs were exposed to sEVs from either CMML or HD MSCs. CMML MSC sEVs increased HD HSC procoagulant activity, suggesting a transfer of TF from the CMML TME to HD HSCs. The presence of TF on sEVs was shown by electron microscopy and western blot. Moreover, CMML monocyte EVs conferred a procoagulant activity to HD MSCs, which was reversed by an anti-TF antibody, suggesting the presence of TF on the EVs. Our findings revealed a procoagulant "climate" within the CMML environment related to TF-bearing sEVs secreted by CMML MSCs and monocytes.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 5143-5155, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. RESULTS: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, P < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or ≥5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high (P < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085303

RESUMO

Data on whether the T cell dose of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products influences transplantation outcomes are conflicting. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we identified 2736 adult patients who underwent first allogeneic PBSC transplantation for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between 2008 and 2014 using an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) or an 8/8-matched unrelated donor (MUD). We excluded ex vivo and in vivo T cell-depleted transplantations. Correlative analysis was performed between CD3+ T cell dose and the risk of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Using maximum likelihood estimation, we identified CD3+ T cell dose cutoff that separated the risk of acute GVHD (aGVHD) grade II-IV in both the MSD and MUD groups. A CD3+ T cell dose cutoff of 14 × 107 cells/kg identified MSD/low CD3+ (n = 223) and MSD/high CD3+ (n = 1214), and a dose of 15 × 107 cells/kg identified MUD/low CD3+ (n = 197) and MUD/high CD3+ (n = 1102). On univariate analysis, the MSD/high CD3+ group had a higher cumulative incidence of day +100 aGVHD grade II-IV compared with the MSD/low CD3+ group (33% versus 25%; P = .009). There were no differences between the 2 groups in engraftment rate, risk of aGVHD grade III-IV or chronic GVHD (cGVHD), NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS. The MUD/high CD3+ group had a higher cumulative incidence of day +100 aGVHD grade II-IV compared with the MUD/low CD3+ group (49% versus 41%; P = .04). There were no differences between the 2 groups in engraftment rate, risk of severe aGVHD or cGVHD, NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS. Multivariate analysis of the MSD and MUD groups failed to show an association between CD3+ T cell dose and the risk of either aGVHD grade II-IV (P = .10 and .07, respectively) or cGVHD (P = .80 and .30, respectively). Subanalysis of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio failed to identify cutoff values predictive of transplantation outcomes; however, using the log-rank test, the sample size was suboptimal for identifying a difference at this cutoff cell dose. In this registry study, the CD3+ T cell dose of PBSC products did not influence the risk of aGVHD or cGVHD or other transplantation outcomes when using an MSD or an 8/8-matched MUD. Subset analyses of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell doses were not possible given our small sample size.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1755-1763, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993417

RESUMO

It has been shown recently that donor and/or recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with a significant overall survival (OS) decline in acute leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We now analyzed the prognostic impact of the donor/recipient CMV serostatus in 6968 patients with chronic hematological malignancies who underwent allo-HSCT. Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity was associated with a significantly reduced 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, 50% vs. 52%, p = 0.03) and OS (62% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed an independent negative prognostic impact of donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity on PFS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.03), OS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.003), and non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3; p = 0.02). OS decline was strongest for CMV-seropositive recipients with a CMV-seronegative donor (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), followed by CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2). Conversely, OS did not differ significantly between CMV-seronegative recipients allografted from a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) and patients with donor/recipient CMV seronegativity (p = 0.001 for the four groups together). Non-relapse mortality was also significantly (p = 0.01) higher for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seronegative graft (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) than for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) or CMV-seronegative recipients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2). Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity still results in an OS decline in patients with chronic hematological malignancies who have undergone allo-HSCT. However, this OS decline seems to be lower than that described for acute leukemia patients previously.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Seleção do Doador , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1424-1431, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871976

RESUMO

High-dose busulfan (BU) followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has long been used as treatment for hematologic malignancies. Administration of phenytoin or newer alternative antiepileptic medications (AEMs) prevents seizures caused by BU. Phenytoin induces enzymes that increase exposure to active CY metabolites in vivo, whereas alternative AEMs do not have this effect. Lower exposure to active CY metabolites with the use of alternative AEMs could decrease the risk of toxicity but might increase the risk of recurrent malignancy after HCT. Previous studies have not determined whether outcomes with alternative AEMs differ from those with phenytoin in patients treated with BU/CY before allogeneic HCT. We studied a cohort of 2155 patients, including 1460 treated with phenytoin and 695 treated with alternative AEMs, who received BU/CY before allogeneic HCT between 2004 and 2014. We found no differences suggesting decreased overall survival or relapse-free survival or increased risks of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, or regimen-related toxicity associated with the use of alternative AEMs compared with phenytoin. The risk of dialysis was lower in the alternative AEM group than in the phenytoin group. Alternative AEMs are safe for prevention of seizures after BU administration and can avoid the undesirable toxicities and drug interactions caused by phenytoin.

11.
Blood Adv ; 3(4): 670-680, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808685

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant is a potential curative therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Delineating the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect as a function of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) offers the potential to improve survival. We examined 5215 transplant recipients with ALL reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research registry. Overall survival (OS) was compared according to the presence and severity of GVHD and evaluated in 3 cohorts: 2593 adults in first or second complete remission (CR1/CR2), 1619 pediatric patients in CR1/CR2, and 1003 patients with advanced (CR ≥3 or active disease) ALL. For patients in CR1/CR2, development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was associated with lower risk of relapse than no GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49-0.69). Patients with advanced ALL developing grades III and IV aGVHD or cGVHD were also at lower risk of relapse (HRs varied from 0.52 to 0.67). Importantly, adult and children in CR1/CR2 with grades I and II aGVHD without cGVHD experienced the best OS compared with no GVHD (reduction of mortality with HR, 0.83-0.76). Increased nonrelapse mortality accompanied grades III and IV aGVHD (HRs varied from 2.69 to 3.91) in all 3 cohorts and abrogated any protection from relapse, resulting in inferior OS. Patients with advanced ALL had better OS (reduction in mortality; HR, 0.69-0.73) when they developed cGVHD with or without grades I and II aGVHD. In conclusion, GVHD was associated with an increased GVL effect in ALL. GVL exerted a net beneficial effect on OS only if associated with low-grade aGVHD in CR1/CR2 or with cGVHD in advanced ALL.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306637

RESUMO

Voriconazole (VRC) overdoses are frequent and expose patients at high risk of adverse effects. This case-control study performed in hematological patients who benefited from VRC therapeutic drug monitoring from January 2012 to December 2015 aimed to identify risk factors of VRC overdose. Pharmacogenetic, biological, and demographic parameters at the time of VRC trough concentration (Cmin ) were retrospectively collected from medical records. Cases (VRC overdose: defined by a VRC Cmin ≥ 4 mg/L; n = 31) were compared to controls (no VRC overdose: defined by VRC Cmin < 4 mg/L; n = 31) using nonparametric or chi-square tests followed by multivariable analysis. VRC overdoses were significantly associated with high CRP and bilirubin levels, intravenous administration, and age in univariable analysis. In contrast, the proportion of CYP genotypes (CYP2C19, CYP3A4, or CYP3A5, considered alone or combined in a combined genetic score) were not significantly different between patients who experienced a VRC overdose and those who did not. In multivariable analysis, the class of CRP level (defined by median CRP levels of 96 mg/L) was the sole independent risk factor of VRC overdose (P < 0.01). Patients with CRP levels > 96 mg/L) had a 27-fold (IC 95%: [6-106]) higher risk of VRC overdose than patients with CRP levels ≤ 96 mg/L. This study demonstrates that inflammatory status, assessed by CRP levels, is the main risk factor of VRC overdose in French hematological patients, whereas pharmacogenetic determinants do not appear to be involved.

13.
Haematologica ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287621

RESUMO

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are generally the first line of treatment of anemia in lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of somatic mutations, and biomarkers of ineffective erythropoiesis including flow cytometry RED score, serum GDF-15, and hepcidin levels. Inclusion criteria were: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents naive, IPSS low or intermediate-1 MDS with Hemoglobin level< 10g/dl, red blood cell transfusion-dependent or not. Patients received epoetin zeta 40 000 IU/week and erythroid response (IWG 2006 criteria) was assessed at week 12. Serum EPO level, iron parameters and hepcidin, flow cytometry Ogata and RED score, GDF-15, and molecular analysis by next-generation sequencing were determined at baseline. 70 patients were included. Median age was 78 years. There were 22 RCMD, 19 RCUD, 14 RARS, 4 RAEB-1, 6 CMML, 2 del 5q-, 3 unclassifiable, IPSS-R was 13 very low, 47 low, 9 intermediate and high. Twenty patients were transfusion dependent. Erythroid response was 48% and median response duration was 26 months. At baseline, non-responders had significantly higher RED score, lower hepcidin/ferritin ratio. In multivariate analysis, only RED score>4 (p=0.05) and hepcidin/ferritin<9 (p=0.02) were significantly associated with worse erythroid response. Median response duration was shorter in patients with GDF-15>2000 pg/ml and hepcidin/ferritin<9 (P=0.0008, and p=0.01, respectively). In multivariate analysis, both variables were associated with shorter response duration. Erythroid response to epoetin zeta was similar to that obtained with other erythropoiesis stimulating agents. It was correlated with higher baseline hepcidin/ferritin ratio and lower RED score.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292009

RESUMO

Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from unrelated donors can serve as a graft source for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Currently, PB is most commonly used in roughly 80% of adult recipients. Determining the long-term impact of graft source on outcomes would inform this decision. Data collected by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 5200 adult recipients of a first HCT from an 8/8 or 7/8 HLA antigen-matched unrelated donor for treatment of acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome between 2001 and 2011 were analyzed to determine the impact of graft source on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) relapse-free survival (GRFS), defined as freedom from grade III/IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD requiring immunosuppressive therapy, relapse, and death, and overall survival. GRFS at 2 years was superior in BM recipients compared with PB recipients (16%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14% to 18% versus 10%; 95% CI, 8% to 11%; P <.0001) in the 8/8 HLA-matched cohort and 7/8 HLA-matched cohort (11%; 95% CI, 8% to 14% versus 5%; 95% CI, 4% to 7%; P = .001). With 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donors, overall survival at 5 years was superior in recipients of BM (43%; 95% CI, 40% to 46% versus 38%; 95% CI, 36% to 40%; P = .014). The inferior 5-year survival in the PB cohort was attributable to a higher frequency of deaths while in remission compared with the BM cohort. For recipients of 7/8 HLA-matched grafts, survival at 5 years was similar in BM recipients and PB recipients (32% versus 29%; P = .329). BM grafts are associated with improved long-term GRFS and overall survival in recipients of matched unrelated donor HCT and should be considered the unrelated allograft of choice, when available, for adults with acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018787366, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in elderly patients has a poor prognosis. In an attempt to improve outcome for these patients, the prospective open-label phase III LAM-SA 2007 (Adding Lomustine to Chemotherapy in Older Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), and Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients From 60 to 65 Years Old) trial randomly assigned patients to a standard induction regimen with lomustine added or to a consolidation regimen with cytarabine and idarubicin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults age 60 years or older with previously untreated AML who were fit to receive intensive chemotherapy and who were without unfavorable cytogenetics received standard chemotherapy with lomustine (idarubicin, cytarabine, and lomustine [ICL]) or without (idarubicin and cytarabine [IC]). The primary objective of the study was overall survival (OS); secondary objectives were response rate, cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), event-free survival (EFS), and safety. RESULTS: From February 2008 to December 2011, 459 patients were enrolled. Comparing patients in the IC and ICL arms, complete response or complete response with incomplete recovery was achieved in 74.9% versus 84.7% ( P = .01). The proportional hazards assumption was rejected for OS ( P = .02), which led us to consider two separate time intervals: during and after induction. There was no significant difference between the two arms during induction, although induction deaths were 3.7% versus 7.7%, respectively ( P = .11). However, significantly better results were observed after induction with an improved 2-year OS of 56% in the ICL arm versus 48% in the IC arm ( P = .02). At 2 years, EFS was improved at 41% in the ICL arm versus 26% in the IC arm ( P = .01). The CIR at 2 years was 41.2% in the ICL arm versus 60.9% in the IC arm ( P = .003). Grade 3 and 4 toxicities, mostly hematologic, were significantly higher in the ICL arm ( P = .04), and fewer patients required a second treatment after ICL. CONCLUSION: Adding lomustine to standard chemotherapy significantly improved the outcome of elderly patients with AML.

16.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262561

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease that may affect older patients. Data regarding the treatment of aplastic anemia in this ageing population remains scarce. We conducted a retrospective nationwide multicenter study in France to examine current treatments for aplastic anemia patients over 60 years old. Our aims were to evaluate efficacy and tolerance, and to analyze predictive factors for response and survival. Over the course of a decade, 88 patients (median age 68.5) were identified in 19 centers, with a median follow-up of 2.7 years; 21% had very severe and 36% severe aplastic anemia. We analyzed 184 treatment lines, mostly involving the standard combination of anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A (33%), which was also the most frequent first-line treatment (50%). After first-line therapy, 32% of patients achieved a complete response, and 15% a partial response. Responses were significantly better in first line and in patients with good performance status, as well as in those that had followed an anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A regimen (overall response rate of 70% after first-line treatment). All treatments were well tolerated by patients, including over the age of 70. Three-year survival was 74.7% (median 7.36 years). Age, Charlson comorbidity index and very severe aplastic anemia were independently associated with mortality. Age per se is not a limiting factor to aplastic anemia treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A; this regimen should be used as a first-line treatment in elderly patients if they have a good performance status and low comorbidity index score.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153491

RESUMO

The combination of a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) such as tacrolimus (TAC) or cyclosporine (CYSP) with methotrexate (MTX) or with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been commonly used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), but there are limited data comparing efficacy of the 2 regimens. We evaluated 1564 adult patients who underwent RIC alloHCT for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from 2000 to 2013 using HLA-identical sibling (matched related donor [MRD]) or unrelated donor (URD) peripheral blood graft and received CYSP or TAC with MTX or MMF for GVHD prophylaxis. Primary outcomes of the study were acute and chronic GVHD and overall survival (OS). The study divided the patient population into 4 cohorts based on regimen: MMF-TAC, MMF-CYSP, MTX-TAC, and MTX-CYSP. In the URD group, MMF-CYSP was associated with increased risk of grade II to IV acute GVHD (relative risk [RR], 1.78; P < .001) and grade III to IV acute GVHD (RR, 1.93; P = .006) compared with MTX-TAC. In the URD group, use of MMF-TAC (versus MTX-TAC) lead to higher nonrelapse mortality. (hazard ratio, 1.48; P = .008). In either group, no there was no difference in chronic GVHD, disease-free survival, and OS among the GVHD prophylaxis regimens. For RIC alloHCT using MRD, there are no differences in outcomes based on GVHD prophylaxis. However, with URD RIC alloHCT, MMF-CYSP was inferior to MTX-based regimens for acute GVHD prevention, but all the regimens were equivalent in terms of chronic GVHD and OS. Prospective studies, targeting URD recipients are needed to confirm these results.

18.
Leuk Res ; 74: 130-136, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposures to DNA-damaging drugs and ionizing radiations increase risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: 9028 recipients of hematopoietic cell autotransplants (1995-2010) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL; n = 916), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 3546) and plasma cell myeloma (PCM; n = 4566), reported to the CIBMTR, were analyzed for risk of subsequent AML or MDS. RESULTS: 335 MDS/AML cases were diagnosed posttransplant (3.7%). Variables associated with an increased risk for AML or MDS in multivariate analyses were: (1) conditioning with total body radiation versus chemotherapy alone for HL (HR = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [1.4, 11.6]) and NHL (HR = 2.5 [1.1, 2.5]); (2) ≥3 versus 1 line of chemotherapy for NHL (HR = 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]); and (3) subjects with NHL transplanted in 2005-2010 versus 1995-1999 (HR = 2.1 [1.5, 3.1]). Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data, we found risks for AML/MDS in HL, NHL and PCM to be 5-10 times the background rate. In contrast, relative risks were 10-50 for AML and approximately 100 for MDS in the autotransplant cohort. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial risks of AML and MDS after autotransplants for HL, NHL and PCM.

19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(11): 2265-2270, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031070

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is an alternative for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but only limited data on unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are available. We analyzed 131 adults with HL who underwent UCBT in European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers from 2003 to 2015. Disease status at UCBT was complete remission (CR) in 59 patients (47%), and almost all patients had received a previous autologous stem cell transplantation. The 4-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19% to 34%) and 46% (95% CI, 37% to 55%), respectively. Relapse incidence was 44% (95% CI, 36% to 54%), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 31% (95% CI, 23% to 40%) at 4 years. In multivariate analysis refractory/relapsed disease status at UCBT was associated with increased relapse incidence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.14 [95% CI, 1.41 to 7.00], P = .005) and NRM (HR, 3.61 [95% CI, 1.58 to 8.27], P = .002) and lower PFS (HR, 3.45 [95% CI, 1.95 to 6.10], P < .001) and OS (HR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.60 to 5.99], P = .001). Conditioning regimen with cyclophosphamide + fludarabine + 2 Gy total body irradiation (Cy+Flu+2GyTBI) was associated with decreased risk of NRM (HR, .26 [95% CI, .10 to .64], P = .004). Moreover, Cy+Flu+2GyTBI conditioning regimen was associated with a better OS (HR, .25 [95% CI, .12 to .50], P < .001) and PFS (HR, .51 [95% CI, .27 to .96], P = .04). UCBT is feasible in heavily pretreated patients with HL. The reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with Cy+Flu+2GyTBI is associated with a better OS and NRM. However, outcomes are poor in patients not in CR at UCBT.

20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(11): 2224-2232, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009981

RESUMO

Busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu) is a widely used conditioning regimen for patients with myeloid malignancies. The sequential FLAMSA (fludarabine + Ara-C + amsacrine chemotherapy) protocol followed by either cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (FLAMSA-TBI) or cyclophosphamide and busulfan (FLAMSA-Bu) has shown remarkable activity in high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. Here we compare the outcomes of AML patients transplanted in first complete remission (CR1) or second complete remission (CR2) after conditioning with BuFlu or FLAMSA. Eligible patients had their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for AML in CR1 or CR2 between January 2005 and June 2016. Donors were matched related or unrelated with up to 1 mismatch. Conditioning consisted of either BuFlu or FLAMSA. Propensity score matching was applied and comparisons were performed using weighted Cox regression. BuFlu conditioning was used in 1197 patients, whereas FLAMSA-TBI and FLAMSA-Bu were used in 258 and 141 patients, respectively. Median follow-up of survivors was 24.72 months. In univariate analysis, relapse incidence (RI) was 30.3%, 21.9%, and 23.1% in the BuFlu, FLAMSA-TBI, and FLAMSA-Bu groups, respectively (P < .01), and nonrelapse mortality at 2 years was 16.1%, 16.4%, and 26.7%, respectively (P < .01). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 2 years was 53.6%, 61.6%, and 50.1%, respectively (P = .03). Weighted Cox regression revealed that FLAMSA-TBI compared with BuFlu was associated with lower RI (hazard ratio [HR], .64; 95% confidence interval [CI], .42 to .98; P = .04) and a trend for better LFS (HR, .72; 95% CI, .49 to 1.06; P = .09). These results suggest that compared with BuFlu, conditioning with FLAMSA-TBI leads to reduced RI at 2 years in AML patients transplanted in CR1 or CR2.

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