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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-27, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890550

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unlikely to abate until sufficient herd immunity is built up by either natural infection or vaccination. We previously identified ten linear immunodominant sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of which four are located within the RBD. Therefore, we designed two linkerimmunodominant site (LIS) vaccine candidates which are composed of four immunodominant sites within the RBD (RBD-ID) or all the 10 immunodominant sites within the whole spike (S-ID). They were administered by subcutaneous injection and were tested for immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy in a hamster model for COVID-19. We showed that the S-ID vaccine induced significantly better neutralizing antibody response than RBD-ID and alum control. As expected, hamsters vaccinated by S-ID had significantly less body weight loss, lung viral load, and histopathological changes of pneumonia. The S-ID has the potential to be an effective vaccine for protection against COVID-19.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(6): 1555-1564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907519

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel lineage B betacoroanvirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant mortality, morbidity, and socioeconomic disruptions worldwide. Effective antivirals are urgently needed for COVID-19. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive antiviral target because of its essential role in the cleavage of the viral polypeptide. In this study, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of a large chemical library to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. Among 8,820 compounds in the library, our screening identified trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor and an antifungal compound, as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity and replication. The half maximal effective concentration of trichostatin A against SARS-CoV-2 replication was 1.5 to 2.7µM, which was markedly below its 50% effective cytotoxic concentration (75.7µM) and peak serum concentration (132µM). Further drug compound optimization to develop more stable analogues with longer half-lives should be performed. This structure-based drug discovery platform should facilitate the identification of additional enzyme inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.

3.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rat hepatitis E virus (Orthohepevirus species C; HEV-C1) is an emerging cause of viral hepatitis in humans. HEV-C1 is divergent from other HEV variants infecting humans that belong to Orthohepevirus species A (HEV-A). This study assessed HEV-C1 antigenic divergence from HEV-A and investigated the impact of this divergence on infection susceptibility, serological test sensitivity, and vaccine efficacy. METHODS: Immunodominant E2s peptide sequences of HEV-A and HEV-C1 were aligned. Interactions of HEV-C1 E2s and anti-HEV-A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were modeled. Recombinant peptides incorporating E2s of HEV-A (HEV-A4 p239) and HEV-C1 (HEV-C1 p241) were expressed. HEV-A and HEV-C1 patient sera were tested using antibody enzymatic immunoassays (EIA), antigen EIAs, and HEV-A4 p239/HEV-C1 p241 immunoblots. Rats immunized with HEV-A1 p239 vaccine (Hecolin), HEV-A4 p239 or HEV-C1 p241 peptides were challenged with a HEV-C1 strain. RESULTS: E2s sequence identity between HEV-A and HEV-C1 was only 48%. There was low conservation at E2s residues (23/53; 43.4%) involved in mAb binding. Anti-HEV-A mAbs bound HEV-C1 poorly in homology modeling and antigen EIAs. Divergence resulted in low sensitivity of commercial antigen (0%) and antibody EIAs (10 - 70%) for HEV-C1 diagnosis. Species-specific HEV-A4 p239/HEV-C1 p241 immunoblots accurately differentiated HEV-A and HEV-C1 serological profiles in immunized rats (18/18; 100%) and infected-patient sera (32/36; 88.9%). Immunization with Hecolin and HEV-A4 p239 was partially protective while HEV-C1 p241 was fully protective against HEV-C1 infection in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Antigenic divergence significantly decreases sensitivity of hepatitis E serodiagnostic assays for HEV-C1 infection. Species-specific immunoblots are useful for diagnosing HEV-C1 and differentiating HEV-A & HEV-C1 serological profiles. Prior HEV-A exposure is not protective against HEV-C1. HEV-C1 p241 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate against HEV-C1.

4.
Cell ; 184(8): 2212-2228.e12, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713620

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute respiratory disease and multiorgan failure. Finding human host factors that are essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection could facilitate the formulation of treatment strategies. Using a human kidney cell line-HK-2-that is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen and identified virus dependency factors (VDFs), which play regulatory roles in biological pathways linked to clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found a role for a secretory form of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, soluble angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (sACE2), in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further investigation revealed that SARS-CoV-2 exploits receptor-mediated endocytosis through interaction between its spike with sACE2 or sACE2-vasopressin via AT1 or AVPR1B, respectively. Our identification of VDFs and the regulatory effect of sACE2 on SARS-CoV-2 infection shed insight into pathogenesis and cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 as well as potential treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vasopressinas/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , /imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ligação Proteica
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 291-304, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538646

RESUMO

Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Dexamethasone has been shown to confer survival benefits to certain groups of hospitalized patients, but whether glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and methylprednisolone should be used together with antivirals to prevent a boost of SARS-CoV-2 replication remains to be determined. Here, we show the beneficial effect of methylprednisolone alone and in combination with remdesivir in the hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Treatment with methylprednisolone boosted RNA replication of SARS-CoV-2 but suppressed viral induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Although methylprednisolone monotherapy alleviated body weight loss as well as nasal and pulmonary inflammation, viral loads increased and antibody response against the receptor-binding domain of spike protein attenuated. In contrast, a combination of methylprednisolone with remdesivir not only prevented body weight loss and inflammation, but also dampened viral protein expression and viral loads. In addition, the suppressive effect of methylprednisolone on antibody response was alleviated in the presence of remdesivir. Thus, combinational anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapy might be an effective, safer and more versatile treatment option for COVID-19. These data support testing of the efficacy of a combination of methylprednisolone and remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 in randomized controlled clinical trials.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/farmacologia , /virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Metilprednisolona/farmacologia , RNA Viral , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 493-504, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626333

RESUMO

Enteroviruses, such as EV-A71 and CVA16, mainly infect the human gastrointestinal tract. Human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, have been variably associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to optimize the human intestinal organoids and hypothesize that these optimized intestinal organoids can recapitulate enteric infections of enterovirus and coronavirus. We demonstrate that the optimized human intestinal organoids enable better simulation of the native human intestinal epithelium, and that they are significantly more susceptible to EV-A71 than CVA16. Higher replication of EV-A71 than CVA16 in the intestinal organoids triggers a more vigorous cellular response. However, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit distinct dynamics of virus-host interaction; more robust propagation of SARS-CoV triggers minimal cellular response, whereas, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits lower replication capacity but elicits a moderate cellular response. Taken together, the disparate profile of the virus-host interaction of enteroviruses and coronaviruses in human intestinal organoids may unravel the cellular basis of the distinct pathogenicity of these viral pathogens.


Assuntos
/virologia , Enterovirus Humano A/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Intestinos/virologia , Organoides/virologia , /patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing amidst widespread transmission during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Disease phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 exposure occurring around the time of vaccine administration have not been described. METHODS: Two-dose (14 days apart) vaccination regimen with a formalin-inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamster model was established. To investigate the disease phenotypes of a one-dose regimen given 3 days prior (D-3), 1 (D1) or 2 (D2) days after, or on the day (D0) of virus challenge, we monitored the serial clinical severity, tissue histopathology, virus burden, and antibody response of the vaccinated hamsters. RESULTS: The one-dose vaccinated hamsters had significantly lower clinical disease severity score, body weight loss, lung histology score, nucleocapsid protein expression in lung, infectious virus titres in the lung and nasal turbinate, inflammatory changes in intestines and a higher serum neutralizing antibody or IgG titre against the spike receptor-binding domain or nucleocapsid protein when compared to unvaccinated controls. These improvements were particularly noticeable in D-3, but also in D0, D1 and even D2 vaccinated hamsters to varying degrees. No increased eosinophilic infiltration was found in the nasal turbinate, lung, and intestine after virus challenge. Significantly higher serum titre of fluorescent foci microneutralization inhibition antibody was detected in D1 and D2 vaccinated hamsters at day 4 post-challenge compared to controls despite undetectable neutralizing antibody titre. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination just before or soon after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not worsen disease phenotypes and may even ameliorate infection.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 134, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420022

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that contribute to efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells may provide insights on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and pathogenesis, and reveal targets of intervention. Here, we analyze host and viral determinants essential for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. We identify heparan sulfate as an important attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we show that sialic acids present on ACE2 prevent efficient spike/ACE2-interaction. While SARS-CoV infection is substantially limited by the sialic acid-mediated restriction in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues, infection by SARS-CoV-2 is limited to a lesser extent. We further demonstrate that the furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike is required for efficient virus replication in human lung but not intestinal tissues. These findings provide insights on the efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lungs.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , /transmissão , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Furina/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
9.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(3): e111-e118, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230504

RESUMO

Background: The role of subclinical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in perpetuating the COVID-19 pandemic is unknown because population seroprevalence data are absent. We aimed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay, and the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong before and after the pandemic, as well as in Hong Kong residents evacuated from Hubei province, China. Methods: We did a multicohort study in a hospital and university in Hong Kong. We evaluated the sensitivity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay with RT-PCR data from patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the specificity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay with archived serum samples collected before 2019. We compared the seropositivity of the general population of Hong Kong before and after the pandemic had begun, and determined the seropositivity of Hong Kong residents evacuated from Hubei province, China, in March, 2020. Findings: Between Feb 26 and March 18, 2020, we assessed RT-PCR samples from 45 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 to establish the sensitivity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay. To establish the specificity of these assays, we retrieved archived serum. The sensitivity was 91·1% (41 of 45 [95% CI 78·8-97·5]) for the microneutralisation assay, 57·8% (26 of 45 [42·2-72·3]) for anti-nucleoprotein IgG, 66·7% (30 of 45 [51·1-80·0]) for anti-spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG, and 73·3% (33 of 45 [58·1-85·4]) for enzyme immunoassay (either positive for anti-nucleoprotein or anti-RBD IgG). The specificity was 100% (152 of 152 [95% CI 97·6-100·0]) for both the enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay. Among the Hong Kong general population, 53 (2·7%) of 1938 were enzyme immunoassay positive, but of those who were positive, all 53 were microneutralisation negative, and no significant increase was seen in the seroprevalence between April 12, 2018, and Feb 13, 2020. Among asymptomatic Hubei returnees, 17 (4%) of 452 were seropositive with the enzyme immunoassay or the microneutralisation assay, with 15 (88%) of 17 seropositive with the microneutralisation assay, and two familial clusters were identified. Interpretation: Our serological data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is a new emerging virus. The seropositivity rate in Hubei returnees indicates that RT-PCR-confirmed patients only represent a small proportion of the total number of cases. The low seroprevalence suggests that most of the Hong Kong and Hubei population remain susceptible to COVID-19. Future waves of the outbreak are inevitable without a vaccine or antiviral prophylaxis. The role of age-related cross reactive non-neutralising antibodies in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 warrants further investigation. Funding: Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, Shaw Foundation (Hong Kong), Michael Tong, Marina Lee, and the Government Consultancy Service (see acknowledgments for full list).

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Besides prominent respiratory involvement, gastrointestinal manifestations are commonly reported in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We compared infection of ex vivo human intestinal tissues by SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with respect to their replication kinetics and immune activation profile. METHODS: Human intestinal tissues were obtained from patients while undergoing surgical operations at the Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Upon surgical removal, the tissues were immediately processed and infected with SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV. Replication kinetics were determined with immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and plaque assays. Immune activation in the infected intestinal tissues was assessed by detecting the gene expression of interferons and representative pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 could infect and productively replicate in the ex vivo human intestinal tissues with the release of infectious virus particles, but not in ex vivo human liver and kidney tissues. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 replicated less efficiently than SARS-CoV, induced less cytopathology in the human intestinal epithelium, and induced a more robust innate immune response including the activation of both type I and type III interferons, than SARS-CoV in human intestinal tissues. CONCLUSION: Using the ex vivo human intestinal tissues as a physiologically relevant model, our data indicated that SARS-CoV-2 could productively replicate in the human guts, suggesting the gastrointestinal tract might serve as an alternative route of virus dissemination. SARS-CoV-2 replicated less efficiently and induced less cytopathology than SARS-CoV in keeping with the clinical observations reported for SARS-2003 and COVID-19, which might be a result of the more robust immune activation by SARS-CoV-2 than SARS-CoV in the human intestine.

11.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082264

RESUMO

An accurate diagnostic test for early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the key weapon to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We previously reported that the SARS-CoV-2 genome contains a unique orf8 accessory gene absent from other human-pathogenic coronaviruses. Here, we characterized the SARS-CoV-2 orf8 as a novel immunogenic secreted protein and utilized it for the accurate diagnosis of COVID-19. Extracellular orf8 protein was detected in cell culture supernatant and in sera of COVID-19 patients. In addition, orf8 was found highly immunogenic in COVID-19 patients, who showed early seropositivity for anti-orf8 IgM, IgG, and IgA. We hypothesize that orf8 secretion during SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitates early mounting of B cell response. The serological test detecting anti-orf8 IgG antibody can be used for the early and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.IMPORTANCE Current commercially available serological tests for COVID-19 patients are detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and spike glycoprotein. The antinucleoprotein and antispike antibodies can be accurately detected in patients during the mid or late stage of infection, and therefore, these assays have not been widely used for early diagnosis of COVID-19. In this study, we characterized the secretory property of a SARS-CoV-2 orf8 protein and proposed that orf8 secretion during infection facilitates early mounting of the B cell response. We demonstrated the presence of anti-orf8 antibodies in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients during the early stage of infection, while the anti-N antibody is not detected. Our serological test detecting anti-orf8 antibodies may facilitate the development of early and accurate diagnosis for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Proteínas Virais/sangue , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916926

RESUMO

Currently available COVID-19 antibody tests using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunochromatographic assay have variable sensitivity and specificity. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel microsphere-based antibody assay (MBA) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein (NP) and spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). The seropositive cutoff value was set using a cohort of 294 anonymous serum specimens collected in 2018. The specificity was assessed using serum specimens collected from organ donors or influenza patients before 2020. Seropositive rate was determined among COVID-19 patients. Time-to-seropositivity and signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio were compared between MBA and EIA. MBA had a specificity of 100% (93/93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 96-100%) for anti-NP IgG, 98.9% (92/93; 95% CI 94.2-100%) for anti-RBD IgG. The MBA seropositive rate for convalescent COVID-19 patients was 89.8% (35/39) for anti-NP IgG and 79.5% (31/39) for anti-RBD IgG. The time-to-seropositivity was shorter with MBA than EIA. MBA could better differentiate between COVID-19 patients and negative controls with higher S/CO ratio for COVID-19 patients, lower S/CO ratio with negative controls and fewer specimens in the equivocal range. MBA is robust, simple and is suitable for clinical microbiology laboratory for the accurate determination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for diagnosis, serosurveillance, and vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microesferas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fosfoproteínas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/normas
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(7): 100121, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984855

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted largely by respiratory droplets or airborne aerosols. Despite being frequently found in the immediate environment and feces of patients, evidence supporting the oral acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 is unavailable. Using the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate that the severity of pneumonia induced by the intranasal inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 increases with virus inoculum. SARS-CoV-2 retains its infectivity in vitro in simulated human-fed-gastric and fasted-intestinal fluid after 2 h. Oral inoculation with the highest intranasal inoculum (105 PFUs) causes mild pneumonia in 67% (4/6) of the animals, with no weight loss. The lung histopathology score and viral load are significantly lower than those infected by the lowest intranasal inoculum (100 PFUs). However, 83% of the oral infections (10/12 hamsters) have a level of detectable viral shedding from oral swabs and feces similar to that of intranasally infected hamsters. Our findings indicate that the oral acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 can establish subclinical respiratory infection with less efficiency.

14.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eaba7910, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923629

RESUMO

Targeting a universal host protein exploited by most viruses would be a game-changing strategy that offers broad-spectrum solution and rapid pandemic control including the current COVID-19. Here, we found a common YxxØ-motif of multiple viruses that exploits host AP2M1 for intracellular trafficking. A library chemical, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), was identified to interrupt AP2M1-virus interaction and exhibit potent antiviral efficacy against a number of viruses in vitro and in vivo, including the influenza A viruses (IAVs), Zika virus (ZIKV), human immunodeficiency virus, and coronaviruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. YxxØ mutation, AP2M1 depletion, or disruption by ACA causes incorrect localization of viral proteins, which is exemplified by the failure of nuclear import of IAV nucleoprotein and diminished endoplasmic reticulum localization of ZIKV-NS3 and enterovirus-A71-2C proteins, thereby suppressing viral replication. Our study reveals an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of protein-protein interaction between host and virus that can serve as a broad-spectrum antiviral target.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cães , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/patologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Ligação Proteica/genética , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
15.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(1): e14-e23, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835326

RESUMO

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported from China in January, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is efficiently transmitted from person to person and, in 2 months, has caused more than 82 000 laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 2800 deaths in 46 countries. The total number of cases and deaths has surpassed that of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Although both COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) manifest as pneumonia, COVID-19 is associated with apparently more efficient transmission, fewer cases of diarrhoea, increased mental confusion, and a lower crude fatality rate. However, the underlying virus-host interactive characteristics conferring these observations on transmissibility and clinical manifestations of COVID-19 remain unknown. Methods: We systematically investigated the cellular susceptibility, species tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2 and compared findings with those for SARS-CoV. We compared SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in different cell lines with one-way ANOVA. For the area under the curve comparison between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in Calu3 (pulmonary) and Caco2 (intestinal) cells, we used Student's t test. We analysed cell damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with one-way ANOVA. Findings: SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated to comparable levels in human Caco2 cells and Calu3 cells over a period of 120 h (p=0·52). By contrast, SARS-CoV infected and replicated more efficiently in Caco2 cells than in Calu3 cells under the same multiplicity of infection (p=0·0098). SARS-CoV-2, but not SARS-CoV, replicated modestly in U251 (neuronal) cells (p=0·036). For animal species cell tropism, both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 replicated in non-human primate, cat, rabbit, and pig cells. SARS-CoV, but not SARS-CoV-2, infected and replicated in Rhinolophus sinicus bat kidney cells. SARS-CoV-2 consistently induced significantly delayed and milder levels of cell damage than did SARS-CoV in non-human primate cells (VeroE6, p=0·016; FRhK4, p=0·0004). Interpretation: As far as we know, our study presents the first quantitative data for tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2. These data provide novel insights into the lower incidence of diarrhoea, decreased disease severity, and reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with respect to the pathogenesis and high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 compared with SARS-CoV. Funding: May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Richard Yu and Carol Yu, Michael Seak-Kan Tong, Respiratory Viral Research Foundation, Hui Ming, Hui Hoy and Chow Sin Lan Charity Fund, Chan Yin Chuen Memorial Charitable Foundation, Marina Man-Wai Lee, The Hong Kong Hainan Commercial Association South China Microbiology Research Fund, The Jessie & George Ho Charitable Foundation, Perfect Shape Medical, The Consultancy Service for Enhancing Laboratory Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Research Capability on Antimicrobial Resistance for the Department of Health of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, The Theme-Based Research Scheme of the Research Grants Council, Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen, and The High Level-Hospital Program, Health Commission of Guangdong Province, China.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily an acute respiratory tract infection. Distinctively, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients develop olfactory dysfunction of uncertain underlying mechanism which can be severe and prolonged. The roles of inflammatory obstruction of the olfactory clefts leading to conductive impairment, inflammatory cytokines affecting olfactory neuronal function, destruction of olfactory neurons or their supporting cells, and direct invasion of olfactory bulbs, in causing olfactory dysfunction are uncertain. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the location for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 from the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasopharynx to the olfactory bulb of golden Syrian hamsters. RESULTS: After intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses were detected in the nasal turbinate tissues which peaked between 2 to 4 days post-infection with the highest viral load detected at day 2 post-infection. Besides the nasopharyngeal pseudo-columnar ciliated respiratory epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens were also detected in the more superficial mature olfactory sensory neurons labeled by olfactory marker protein (OMP), the less mature olfactory neurons labelled by Tuj1 at more basal position, and the sustentacular cells which provide metabolic and physical support for the olfactory neurons, resulting in apoptosis and severe destruction of the OE. During the whole course of infection, SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens were not detected in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSIONS: Besides acute inflammation at OE, infection of mature and immature olfactory neurons, and the supporting sustentacular cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to the unique olfactory dysfunction of COVID-19 which is not reported with SARS-CoV.

18.
J Infect ; 81(4): e1-e10, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory and intestinal tract are two primary target organs of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, detailed characterization of the host-virus interplay in infected human lung and intestinal epithelial cells is lacking. METHODS: We utilized immunofluorescence assays, flow cytometry, and RT-qPCR to delineate the virological features and the innate immune response of the host cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection in two prototype human cell lines representing the human lung (Calu3) and intestinal (Caco2) epithelium when compared with SARS-CoV. RESULTS: Lung epithelial cells were significantly more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced an attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines induction and type I and type II IFN responses. A single dose of 10 U/mL interferon-ß (IFNß) pretreatment potently protected both Calu3 and Caco2 against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 was more sensitive to the pretreatment with IFNß and IFN inducer than SARS-CoV in Calu3. CONCLUSIONS: Despite robust infection in both human lung and intestinal epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 could attenuate the virus-induced pro-inflammatory response and IFN response. Pre-activation of the type I IFN signaling pathway primed a highly efficient antiviral response in the host against SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could serve as a potential therapeutic and prophylactic maneuver to COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Indutores de Interferon/farmacologia , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS/imunologia
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(9): 1051-1060, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cruise ship is a closed-off environment that simulates the basic functioning of a city in terms of living conditions and interpersonal interactions. Thus, the Diamond Princess cruise ship, which was quarantined because of an onboard outbreak of COVID-19 in February, 2020, provides an opportunity to define the shedding pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patient antibody responses before and after the onset of symptoms. METHODS: We recruited adult (≥18 years) passengers from Hong Kong who had been on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship docked in Yokohama, Japan in February, 2020. All participants had been found to be negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR 4 days before disembarking and were transferred to further quarantine in a public estate in Hong Kong, where they were recruited. Participants were prospectively screened by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) of nasopharyngeal and throat swabs, and serum IgG and IgM against internal nucleoprotein and the surface spike receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 at baseline (upon entering quarantine) and on days 4, 8, and 12 of quarantine. FINDINGS: On Feb 22, 2020, 215 adults were recruited, of whom nine (4%; 95% CI 2-8) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR or serology and were hospitalised. Of these nine patients, nasopharyngeal swab RT-qPCR was positive in eight patients (89%; 57-99) at baseline. All nine patients were positive for anti-RBD IgG by day 8. Eight (89%; 57-99) were simultaneously positive for nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR and anti-RBD IgG. One patient who was positive for anti-RBD IgG and had a negative viral load had multifocal peripheral ground-glass changes on high-resolution CT that were typical of COVID-19. Five patients (56%; 27-81) with ground-glass changes on high-resolution CT were found to have higher anti-nucleoprotein-IgG OD values on day 8 and 12 and anti-RBD IgG OD value on day 12 than patients without ground-glass changes. Six (67%; 35-88) patients remained asymptomatic throughout the 14-day quarantine period. INTERPRETATION: Patients with COVID-19 can develop asymptomatic lung infection with viral shedding and those with evidence of pneumonia on imaging tend to have an increased antibody response. Positive IgG or IgM confirmed infection of COVID-19 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. A combination of RT-PCR and serology should be implemented for case finding and contact tracing to facilitate early diagnosis, prompt isolation, and treatment. FUNDING: Shaw Foundation Hong Kong; Sanming-Project of Medicine (Shenzhen); High Level-Hospital Program (Guangdong Health Commission).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Soroconversão , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Navios , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(5): 734-745, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563187

RESUMO

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary from asymptomatic virus shedding, nonspecific pharyngitis, to pneumonia with silent hypoxia and respiratory failure. Dendritic cells and macrophages are sentinel cells for innate and adaptive immunity that affect the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and these cell types remains unknown. We investigated infection and host responses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and macrophages (MDMs) infected by SARS-CoV-2. MoDCs and MDMs were permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection and protein expression but did not support productive virus replication. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 launched an attenuated interferon response in both cell types and triggered significant proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression in MDMs but not moDCs. Investigations suggested that this attenuated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in moDCs was associated with viral antagonism of STAT1 phosphorylation. These findings may explain the mild and insidious course of COVID-19 until late deterioration.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Monócitos/virologia , Pandemias , Fosforilação , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
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