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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150012, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525708

RESUMO

Thermal desorption coupled with different detectors is an important analysis method for ambient carbonaceous aerosols. However, it is unclear how the compounds coexisting in both the gas and particle phases affect carbonaceous aerosol concentrations and measurements during thermal desorption. We observed matrix effects leading to a redistribution of different OC fractions (OC1 to OC4) during the thermal desorption process. These factors led to the formation of OC with low volatility (OC4), mainly from high-volatility OC (OC1 and OC2). Laboratory studies further indicated that ammonium promotes such matrix effects by transforming OC in the particle phase. Therefore, in addition to providing insights into the chemical evolution of OC during haze events, we argue that thermal-desorption-based OC measurements should be used with caution, which is an important step towards a more accurate measurement of OC in the ambient atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos de Amônio , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126750, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339988

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms underlying the associations between atmospheric ozone exposure and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes are yet to be identified. Imbalanced autonomic nervous system (ANS) as well as activations of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are among possible early biological responses triggered by ozone, and may eventually lead to cardiometabolic abnormalities. To determine whether acute ozone exposure causes ANS imbalance and increases the secretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, under controlled 2-hour exposure to either ozone (200 ppb) or clean air with intermittent exercise among 22 healthy young adults. Here we found that, compared to clean air exposure, acute ozone exposure significantly decreased the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, even after adjusting for heart rate and pre-exposure to ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors. Ozone exposure also significantly increased the serum levels of stress hormones, including corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Metabolomics analysis showed that acute ozone exposure led to alterations in stress hormones, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Our results suggest that acute ozone exposure may trigger ANS imbalance and activate the HPA and SAM axes, offering potential biological explanations for the adverse cardiometabolic effects following acute ozone exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Hormônios , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(45): 954-958, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777901

RESUMO

What is already known on this topic?: It remains inconclusive whether short-term ozone exposure can cause an inflammatory response and oxidative damage in the circulatory system, particularly at low concentrations. What is added by this report?: This study made an accurate exposure assessment by conducting personal ozone monitoring, thus minimizing the exposure misclassification commonly found in previous environmental epidemiological studies. Our study found that even short-term exposure to low concentrations of ozone was associated with inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative damage. What are the implications for public health practice?: Short-term exposure to low concentrations of ozone can still lead to subclinical cardiovascular effects, suggesting the current air quality standards for ozone need to be further tightened in China.

4.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1011-1017, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In order to create a comprehensive scoring system based on maternal characteristics and ultrasonographic features for predicting placenta accreta spectrum (PAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of pregnant women who underwent routine ultrasound examination in the third trimester of pregnancy from January 2014 to November 2018 were used as a training set to establish the scoring system for PAS prediction while those who underwent examination from January 2019 to December 2019 served as a validation set.. Maternal characteristics including maternal age, parity, previous vaginal deliveries, previous curettage, previous cesarean section (CS), history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prenatal body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Ultrasonographic features including abnormal placental lacunae, subplacental hypervascularity, myometrial thinning, placental bulge, bladder wall interruption, location of placenta, placenta previa (yes or not) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was applied to analyze independent risk factors and assess the predictive power of selected parameters predicting PAS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnosis power. RESULTS: Parity, previous curettage and CS were independent risk factors. The best comprehensive scoring system was established as follow: the number of abnormal lacunae ≥3, 2 points; lacuna maximum dimension ≥2 cm, 5 points; subplacental hypervascularity (rich), 1 point; subplacental hypervascularity (extremely rich and disordered), 3 points; bladder wall interruption, 9 points; placental bulge, 9 points; placenta previa, 8 points; anterior placenta, 1 point; previous CS ≥ 1, 1 point; parity ≥ 4, 3 point; previous abortions ≥ 2, 1 point. The area under the ROC curve of the scoring system diagnosing PAS was 0.925. Sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 85.7%, respectively. Cross-validation for our model showed that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the model in diagnosis of PAS were 82.6%, 81.8%, 82.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Diagnosis of 37 cases were consistent with the "gold standard", and the coincidence rate was 82.2% (37/45). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive scoring system established in this study can effectively diagnose PAS.

5.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730815

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA. Although the role of m6A has been demonstrated in many biological processes, including embryonic development, flowering time control, microspore generation, fruit ripening, and stress responses, its contribution to other aspects of plant development still needs to be explored. Herein, we show the potential link between m6A deposition and the expansion of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits through parallel m6A-immunoprecipitation-sequencing (m6A-seq) and RNA-seq analyses. We found that global m6A levels increased during tomato fruit expansion from immature green to mature green stage. m6A-seq revealed that thousands of protein-coding genes are m6A-modified mainly in the 3' untranslated regions. m6A-seq and RNA-seq analyses showed a positive association between m6A methylation and mRNA abundance. In particular, a large number of fruit expansion-related genes involved in hormone responses and endoreduplication were m6A modified and expressed more actively than the non-m6A-modified genes, suggesting a potential role of m6A modification in tomato fruit expansion. Importantly, altering m6A levels by direct injection of 3-deazaneplanocin A (m6A writer inhibitor) or meclofenamic acid (m6A eraser inhibitor) into tomato fruits suppressed fruit expansion; however, injection of exogenous 3-deazaneplanocin A or meclofenamic acid accelerated or delayed fruit ripening, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest a dynamic role of m6A methylation in the expansion and ripening of tomato fruits.

6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(12): e11550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730682

RESUMO

Following radiotherapy, patients have decreased bone mass and increased risk of fragility fractures. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also reported to have detrimental effects on bone architecture and quality. However, no clinical or experimental study has systematically characterized the bone phenotype of the diabetic patients following radiotherapy. After one month of streptozotocin injection, three-month-old male rats were subjected to focal radiotherapy (8 Gy, twice, at days 1 and 3), and then bone mass, microarchitecture, and turnover as well as bone cell activities were evaluated at 2 months post-irradiation. Micro-computed tomography results demonstrated that DM rats exhibited greater deterioration in trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture following irradiation compared with the damage to bone structure induced by DM or radiotherapy. The serum biochemical, bone histomorphometric, and gene expression assays revealed that DM combined with radiotherapy showed lower bone formation rate, osteoblast number on bone surface, and expression of osteoblast-related markers (ALP, Runx2, Osx, and Col-1) compared with DM or irradiation alone. DM plus irradiation also caused higher bone resorption rate, osteoclast number on bone surface, and expression of osteoclast-specific markers (TRAP, cathepsin K, and calcitonin receptor) than DM or irradiation treatment alone. Moreover, lower osteocyte survival and higher expression of Sost and DKK1 genes (two negative modulators of Wnt signaling) were observed in rats with combined DM and radiotherapy. Together, these findings revealed a higher deterioration of the diabetic skeleton following radiotherapy, and emphasized the clinical importance of health maintenance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Humanos , Masculino , Osteogênese , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 125, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South-east Asia, Dipterocarpoideae is predominant in most mature forest communities, comprising around 20% of all trees. As large quantity and high quality wood are produced in many species, Dipterocarpoideae plants are the most important and valuable source in the timber market. The d-borneol is one of the essential oil components from Dipterocarpoideae (for example, Dryobalanops aromatica or Dipterocarpus turbinatus) and it is also an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation known as "Bingpian" in Chinese, with antibacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and can enhance anticancer efficiency. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed 20 chloroplast (cp) genomes characteristics of Dipterocarpoideae, including eleven newly reported genomes and nine cp genomes previously published elsewhere, then we explored the chloroplast genomic features, inverted repeats contraction and expansion, codon usage, amino acid frequency, the repeat sequences and selective pressure analyses. At last, we constructed phylogenetic relationships of Dipterocarpoideae and found the potential barcoding loci. RESULTS: The cp genome of this subfamily has a typical quadripartite structure and maintains a high degree of consistency among species. There were slightly more tandem repeats in cp genomes of Dipterocarpus and Vatica, and the psbH gene was subjected to positive selection in the common ancestor of all the 20 species of Dipterocarpoideae compared with three outgroups. Phylogenetic tree showed that genus Shorea was not a monophyletic group, some Shorea species and genus Parashorea are placed in one clade. In addition, the rpoC2 gene can be used as a potential marker to achieve accurate and rapid species identification in subfamily Dipterocarpoideae. CONCLUSIONS: Dipterocarpoideae had similar cp genomic features and psbM, rbcL, psbH may function in the growth of Dipterocarpoideae. Phylogenetic analysis suggested new taxon treatment is needed for this subfamily indentification. In addition, rpoC2 is potential to be a barcoding gene to TCM distinguish.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151633, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is currently known about long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to the lack of exposure assessment metrics suitable for use in large population-based studies. Land use regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in UFPs concentrations in European and American, but have never been applied in developing countries with heavy air pollution. OBJECTIVE: This study developed a land-use regression (LUR) model for UFP exposure assessment in Shanghai, a typic mega city of China, where dense population resides. METHOD: A 30-minute measurement of particle number concentrations of UFPs was collected at each visit at 144 fixed sites, and each was visited three times in each season of winter, spring, and summer. The annual adjusted average was calculated and regressed against pre-selected geographic information system-derived predictor variables using a stepwise variable selection method. RESULT: The final LUR model explained 69% of the spatial variability in UFP with a root mean square error of 6008 particles cm-3. The 10-fold cross validation R2 reached 0.68, revealing the robustness of the model. The final predictors included traffic-related NOx emissions, number of restaurants, building footprint area, and distance to the nearest national road. These predictors were within a relatively small buffer size, ranging from 50 m to 100 m, indicating great spatial variations of UFP particle number concentration and the need of high-resolution models for UFP exposure assessment in urban areas. CONCLUSION: We concluded that based on a purpose-designed short-term monitoring network, LUR model can be applied to predict UFPs spatial surface in a mega city of China. Majority of the spatial variability in the annual mean of ambient UFP was explained in the model comprised primarily of traffic-, building-, and restaurant-related predictors.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806377

RESUMO

The understanding at a molecular level of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is hampered by poorly constrained formation mechanisms and insufficient analytical methods. Especially in developing countries, SOA related haze is a great concern due to its significant effects on climate and human health. We present simultaneous measurements of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs), and particle-phase SOA in Beijing. We show that condensation of the measured OOMs explains 26-39% of the organic aerosol mass growth, with the contribution of OOMs to SOA enhanced during severe haze episodes. Our novel results provide a quantitative molecular connection from anthropogenic emissions to condensable organic oxidation product vapors, their concentration in particle-phase SOA, and ultimately to haze formation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate a novel deep-learning network that synthesizes virtual contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (vceT1w) magnetic resonance images (MRI) from multimodality contrast-free MR images for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This paper presents a retrospective analysis of multi-parametric MRI, with and without contrast enhancement by gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), obtained from 64 biopsy-proven NPC patients treated at XXXX. A multimodality-guided synergistic network (MMgSN-Net) was developed to leverage complementary information between contrast-free T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI for vceT1w MRI synthesis. 35 patients were randomly selected for model training, whereas 29 patients were employed for model testing. The synthetic images generated from MMgSN-Net were quantitatively evaluated against real GBCA-enhanced T1w MR images using a series of statistical evaluating metrics, which include mean absolute error (MAE), mean squared error (MSE), structural similarity index (SSIM) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Qualitative visual assessment between the real and synthetic MRI was also performed. Effectiveness of our MMgSN-Net was compared with three state-of-the-art deep-learning networks, including U-Net, CycleGAN, and Hi-Net, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Further, a Turing test was carried out by seven board-certified radiation oncologists from four hospitals for assessing authenticity of the synthesized vceT1w MR images against the real GBCA-enhanced T1w MRI. RESULTS: Results from the quantitative evaluations demonstrated that our MMgSN-Net outperformed U-Net, CycleGAN and Hi-Net, yielding the top-ranked scores in averaged MAE (44.50 ± 13.01), MSE (9193.22 ± 5405.00), SSIM (0.887 ± 0.042), and PSNR (33.17 ± 2.14). Further, the mean accuracy of the seven readers in the Turing tests was determined to be 49.43%, equivalent to random guessing (i.e., 50%) in distinguishing between real GBCA-enhanced T1-weighted and synthetic vceT1w MRI. Qualitative evaluation indicated that MMgSN-Net gave the best approximation to the ground-truth images, particularly in visualization of tumor-to-muscle interface and the intra-tumor texture information. CONCLUSIONS: Our MMgSN-Net was capable of synthesizing highly realistic vceT1w MRI that outperformed the three comparing state-of-the-art networks.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775752

RESUMO

Molecular analyses help to investigate the key precursors and chemical processes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We obtained the sources and molecular compositions of organic aerosol in PM2.5 in winter in Beijing by online and offline mass spectrometer measurements. Photochemical and aqueous processing were both involved in producing SOA during the haze events. Aromatics, isoprene, long-chain alkanes or alkenes, and carbonyls such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal were all important precursors. The enhanced SOA formation during the severe haze event was predominantly contributed by aqueous processing that was promoted by elevated amounts of aerosol water for which multifunctional organic nitrates contributed the most followed by organic compounds having four oxygen atoms in their formulae. The latter included dicarboxylic acids and various oxidation products from isoprene and aromatics as well as products or oligomers from methylglyoxal aqueous uptake. Nitrated phenols, organosulfates, and methanesulfonic acid were also important SOA products but their contributions to the elevated SOA mass during the severe haze event were minor. Our results highlight the importance of reducing nitrogen oxides and nitrate for future SOA control. Additionally, the formation of highly oxygenated long-chain molecules with a low degree of unsaturation in polluted urban environments requires further research.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22677, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811406

RESUMO

The limit of dynamic endurance during repetitive contractions has been referred to as the point of muscle fatigue, which can be measured by mechanical and electrophysiological parameters combined with subjective estimates of load tolerance for revealing the human real-world capacity required to work continuously. In this study, an isotonic muscular endurance (IME) testing protocol under a psychophysiological fatigue criterion was developed for measuring the retentive capacity of the power output of lower limb muscles. Additionally, to guide the development of electrophysiological evaluation methods, linear and non-linear techniques for creating surface electromyography (sEMG) models were compared in terms of their ability to estimate muscle fatigue. Forty healthy college-aged males performed three trials of an isometric peak torque test and one trial of an IME test for the plantar flexors and knee and hip extensors. Meanwhile, sEMG activity was recorded from the medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris of the right leg muscles. Linear techniques (amplitude-based parameters, spectral parameters, and instantaneous frequency parameters) and non-linear techniques (a multi-layer perception neural network) were used to predict the time-dependent power output during dynamic contractions. Two mechanical manifestations of muscle fatigue were observed in the IME tests, including power output reduction between the beginning and end of the test and time-dependent progressive power loss. Compared with linear mapping (linear regression) alone or a combination of sEMG variables, non-linear mapping of power loss during dynamic contractions showed significantly higher signal-to-noise ratios and correlation coefficients between the actual and estimated power output. Muscular endurance required in real-world activities can be measured by considering the amount of work produced or the activity duration via the recommended IME testing protocol under a psychophysiological termination criterion. Non-linear mapping techniques provide more powerful mapping of power loss compared with linear mapping in the IME testing protocol.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835222

RESUMO

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 95% of adults worldwide and is associated with various malignant tumors and immune diseases, imparting a huge disease burden on the human population. Available EBV vaccines are imminent. Prophylactic vaccines can effectively prevent the spread of infection, whereas therapeutic vaccines mainly stimulate cell-mediated immunity and kill infected cells, thus curbing the development of malignant tumors. Nevertheless, there are still no approved EBV vaccines after decades of effort. The complexity of the EBV life cycle, the lack of appropriate animal models, and the limited reports on adjuvant selection and immune responses are gravely impeding progress in EBV vaccines. The soluble gp350 vaccine could reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis (IM), which seemed to offer hope, but could not prevent EBV infection. Continuous research and vaccine trials provide deep insights into the structural biology of viruses, the designs for immunogenicity, and the evolving vaccine platforms. Moreover, the new vaccine candidates are expected to achieve further success via combined immunization to elicit both a dual protection of B cells and epithelial cells, and sustainable immunization against infected cells at several phases of infection.

15.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843754

RESUMO

An increase of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common observation in early diabetes and is considered a key risk factor for subsequent kidney injury. However, the mechanisms underlying diabetic hyperfiltration have not been fully clarified. Here, we tested the hypothesis that macula densa neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is upregulated via sodium glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) in diabetes, which then inhibits tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) promoting glomerular hyperfiltration. Therefore, we examined changes in cortical NOS1 expression and phosphorylation, nitric oxide production in the macula densa, TGF response, and GFR during the early stage of insulin-deficient (Akita) diabetes in wild-type and macula densa-specific NOS1 knockout mice. A set of sophisticated techniques including microperfusion of juxtaglomerular apparatus in vitro, micropuncture of kidney tubules in vivo, and clearance kinetics of plasma fluorescent-sinistrin were employed. Complementary studies tested the role of SGLT1 in SGLT1 knockout mice and explored NOS1 expression and phosphorylation in kidney biopsies of cadaveric donors. Diabetic mice had upregulated macula densa NOS1, inhibited TGF and elevated GFR. Macula densa-selective NOS1 knockout attenuated the diabetes-induced TGF inhibition and GFR elevation. Additionally, deletion of SGLT1 prevented the upregulation of macula densa NOS1 and attenuated inhibition of TGF in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the expression and phosphorylation levels of NOS1 were increased in cadaveric kidneys of diabetics and positively correlated with blood glucose as well as estimated GFR in the donors. Thus, our findings demonstrate that the macula densa SGLT1-NOS1-TGF pathway plays a crucial role in the control of GFR in diabetes.

16.
Med Phys ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a novel multi-contrast four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MC-4D-MRI) technique that expands single image contrast 4D-MRI to a spectrum of native and synthetic image contrasts and to evaluate its feasibility in liver tumor patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The MC-4D-MRI technique integrates multi-parametric MRI fusion, 4D-MRI, and deformable image registration (DIR) techniques. The fusion technique consists of native MRI as input, image pre-processing, fusion algorithm, adaptation, and fused multi-contrast MRI as output. Four-dimensional deformation vector fields (4D-DVF) were generated from an original T2/T1-w 4D-MRI by deforming end-of-inhalation (EOI) to nine other phase volumes via DIR. The 4D-DVF were applied to multi-contrast MRI to generate a spectrum of 4D-MRI in different image contrasts. The MC-4D-MRI technique was evaluated in five liver tumor patients on tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), internal target volume (ITV) contouring consistency, diaphragm motion range, and tumor motion trajectory; and in digital anthropomorphic phantoms on 4D-DIR introduced errors in tumor motion range, centroid location, extent, and volume. RESULTS: MC-4D-MRI consisting of 4D-MRIs in native image contrasts (T1-w, T2-w, and T2/T1-w) and synthetic image contrasts, such as tumor-enhanced contrast (TEC) were generated in five liver tumor patients. Patient tumor CNR increased from 2.6 ± 1.8 in the T2/T1-w MRI, to -4.4 ± 2.4, 6.6 ± 3.0, and 9.6 ± 3.9 in the T1-w, T2-w, and TEC MRI, respectively. Patient ITV inter-observer mean Dice similarity coefficient (mDSC) increased from 0.65 ± 0.10 in the original T2/T1-w 4D-MRI, to 0.76 ± 0.14, 0.77 ± 0.12, and 0.86 ± 0.05 in the T1-w, T2-w, and TEC 4D-MRI, respectively. Patient diaphragm motion range absolute differences between the three new 4D-MRIs and original T2/T1-w 4D-MRI were 1.2 ± 1.3, 0.3 ± 0.7, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Patient tumor displacement phase-averaged absolute differences between the three 4D-MRIs and the original 4D-MRI were 0.72 ± 0.33, 0.62 ± 0.54, and 0.74 ± 0.43 mm in the superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.59 ± 0.36, 0.51 ± 0.30, and 0.50 ± 0.24 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, respectively. In the digital phantoms, phase-averaged absolute tumor centroid shift caused by the 4D-DIR were at or below 0.5 mm in SI, AP, and left-right (LR) directions. CONCLUSION: We developed an MC-4D-MRI technique capable of expanding single image contrast 4D-MRI along a new dimension of image contrast. Initial evaluations in liver tumor patients showed enhancements in image contrast variety, tumor contrast, and ITV contouring consistencies using MC-4D-MRI. The technique might offer new perspectives on the image contrast of MRI and 4D-MRI in MR-guided radiotherapy.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127359, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601410

RESUMO

The biological mechanism of adverse health outcomes related to exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) needs elucidation. We conducted a randomized, crossover trial among healthy young students in Shanghai, China. Participants wore earplugs and were randomly assigned to a 4-hour walking treatment either along a traffic-polluted road or through a traffic-free park. We conducted untargeted analyses of plasma exosome transcriptomics, serum mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and serum metabolomics to evaluate changes in genome-wide transcription, protein, and metabolite profiles in 35 randomly selected participants. Mean personal exposure levels of ultrafine particles, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the road were 2-3 times higher than that in the park. We observed 3449 exosome mRNAs, 58 serum proteins, and 128 serum metabolites that were significantly associated with TRAP. The multi-omics analysis showed dozens of regulatory pathways altered in response to TRAP, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, endothelin-1 signaling, and renin-angiotensin signaling. We found that several novel pathways activated in response to TRAP exposure: growth hormone signaling, adrenomedullin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Our study served as a demonstration and proof of concept on the evidence that associated TRAP exposure with global molecular changes based on the multi-omics level.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, glucocorticoids (GCs) efficacy, and prognosis. METHODS: Our study was done in two stages. First, we performed the whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in 100 patients and 100 controls to initially screen potential mtDNA variants associated with disease and glucocorticoids efficacy. Then, we validated the results in an independent set of samples. In total, 605 SLE patients and 604 normal controls were included in our two-stage study. A two-stage efficacy study was conducted in 512 patients treated with GCs for 12 weeks. We also explored the association between mtDNA variants and SLE prognosis. RESULTS: In the combined sample, four mtDNA variants (A4833G, T5108C, G14569A, CA514-515-) were associated with SLE susceptibility (all P  BH<0.05). We confirmed that T16362C was related to GCs efficacy (P  BH=0.014). Significant associations were detected between T16362C and T16519C and the efficacy of GCs in females with SLE (P  BH<0.05). In the prognosis study, variants A4833G (P  BH=0.003) and G14569A (P  BH=9.744 × 1 0 -4) substantially increased SLE relapse risk. Female patients harbouring variants T5108C and T16362C were more prone to relapse (P  BH<0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that haplogroup G was linked with SLE susceptibility (P  BH=0.001) and prognosis (P  BH=0.013). Moreover, mtDNA variants-environment interactions were observed. CONCLUSION: We identified novel mtDNA genetic variants that were associated with SLE susceptibility, GCs efficacy, and prognosis. Interactions between mtDNA variants and environmental factors were related to SLE risk and GCs efficacy. Our findings provide important information for future understanding the occurrence and development of SLE.

19.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) vs. radiotherapy (RT, alone or combined with CT) on the prognosis of patients with high-risk, early-stage (stage I and stage II) endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: This single-center retrospective clinical study was conducted in Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology between 2010 and 2019. In the present study, endometrioid endometrial carcinoma patients, who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by postoperative adjuvant CT or RT (alone or combined with CT), and were diagnosed with stage IA grade 2/3 with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), and stage IB with two or more uterine risks, including old age, histological grade 2 or 3, LVSI and stage II, were included. According to the postoperative adjuvant therapy, all eligible patients were divided into two groups: CT group and RT (RT±CT) group. The primary objective was to investigate overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between the CT and RT groups. Grade 3 or worse adverse events were also presented in the present study. RESULTS: A total of 145 eligible patients were included. Among these patients, 97 patients underwent adjuvant CT and 48 patients underwent adjuvant RT (RT±CT). The median follow-up was 47.2 months, and the five-year OS rate was 92.7% in the CT group and 88.6 % in the RT group [hazard ratio (HR): 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-2.99). The 5-year DFS rate for the two groups was 85.7% and 80.2%, respectively (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.33-2.05). The cumulative incidence of local-regional disease recurrence at 60 months of follow-up was 6.2% in the CT group and 6.3% in the RT group (HR=1.11; 95%CI: 0.28-4.35). The cumulative incidence of distant recurrence at 60 months of follow-up was 5.2% in the CT group and 10.4% in the RT group (HR=0.65; 95%CI: 0.19-2.24). Both groups of patients were well-tolerant, and the only grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in efficacy for adjuvant CT or adjuvant RT (RT±CT) in high-risk, early-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. CT exhibited a trend of reducing the distant relapse, although there was no significant difference, when compared with adjuvant RT (RT±CT).

20.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(5): 762-770, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction on the substantia nigra in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA). To further determine whether the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the action. METHODS: A rat model of PD was established by intracranial injection of 6-OHDA. Subsequently, three concentrations of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction were prepared and administered to rats by gavage therapy for 14 d. Behavioral changes were measured in PD rats. In vivo tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the substantia nigra were examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, gene and protein expression levels of members of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway were examined by Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, a Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor was used to investigate the mechanism of action in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )- treated MES23.5 cells in vitro. RESULTS: Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction improved performance in the stride and gait adjustment tests in PD rats. It also increased TH in the substantia nigra and altered the expression of genes and proteins in the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor reduced the effect of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction in MPP +-treated MES23.5 cells. CONCLUSION: Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction may promote neuronal survival in PD in vivo and in vitro by increasing TH content in the substantia nigra and by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

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