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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142207, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207435

RESUMO

Secondary aerosol formation in the aging process of primary emission is the main reason for haze pollution in eastern China. Pollution evolution with photochemical age was studied for the first time at a comprehensive field observation station during winter in Beijing. The photochemical age was used as an estimate of the timescale attributed to the aging process and was estimated from the ratio of toluene to benzene in this study. A low photochemical age indicates a fresh emission. The photochemical age of air masses during new particle formation (NPF) days was lower than that on haze days. In general, the strongest NPF events, along with a peak of the formation rate of 1.5 nm (J1.5) and 3 nm particles (J3), were observed when the photochemical age was between 12 and 24 h while rarely took place with photochemical ages less than 12 h. When photochemical age was larger than 48 h, haze occurred and NPF was suppressed. The sources and sinks of nanoparticles had distinct relation with the photochemical age. Our results show that the condensation sink (CS) showed a valley with photochemical ages ranging from 12 to 24 h, while H2SO4 concentration showed no obvious trend with the photochemical age. The high concentrations of precursor vapours within an air mass lead to persistent nucleation with photochemical age ranging from 12 to 48 h in winter. Coincidently, the fast increase of PM2.5 mass was also observed during this range of photochemical age. Noteworthy, CS increased with the photochemical age on NPF days only, which is the likely reason for the observation that the PM2.5 mass increased faster with photochemical age on NPF days compared with other days. The evolution of particles with the photochemical age provides new insights into understanding how particles originating from NPF transform to haze pollution.

2.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of osimertinib combined with bevacizumab for LM from epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm) NSCLC. METHODS: We conducted a phase II single-arm prospective clinical trial of EGFRm NSCLC with LM treated with osimertinib combined with bevacizumab. LM response assessment was based on the modified RANO LM radiological criteria; CNS and extra-CNS response was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. The primary end points included LM progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR); the secondary end points included safety and LM overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 14 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 61 years, and they were predominantly female (64%). EGFR mutations were reported in exons 19 del (n = 7) and 21 L858R (n = 7). When LM was diagnosed, 12 (85.7%) patients had clinical symptoms, 71.4% (10/14) of patients were diagnosed with LM by cytology, and five (35.7%) patients had a performance status (PS) score > 2. The median LM PFS was 9.3 months (95% CI: 8.2-10.4), and the LM ORR was 50%. The safety findings in the present study were consistent with the known profile of osimertinib with bevacizumab; the median LM OS was 12.6 months, and the one-year survival rate was 35.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Osimertinib combined with bevacizumab is an appropriate treatment option for patients with LM from EGFRm NSCLC. KEY POINTS: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: To date, there is no prospective clinical study on the treatment of osimertinib combined with bevacizumab in EGFRm NSCLC with LM. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The median LM PFS was 9.3 months (95% CI: 8.2-10.4), and the LM ORR was 50%, the median LM OS was 12.6 months, and the one-year survival rate was 35.7%. Osimertinib combined with bevacizumab is an appropriate treatment option for patients with LM from EGFRm NSCLC.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14494-14501, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146526

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy has been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the existing evidence is inconsistent, and the roles of specific PM2.5 chemical constituents remain unclear. Based on the China Labor and Delivery Survey, we included birth data from 89 hospitals in 25 provinces in mainland China, and conducted a national multicenter cohort study to examine the associations of PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with PTB risk in China. We applied satellite-based models to predict prenatal PM2.5 mass and six main component exposure. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, seasonality, and spatial variation. We observe an increased PTB risk with an increase in PM2.5 mass and the most significant association is found during the third trimester when the adjusted odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range increases in PM2.5 total mass is 1.12 (95% confidence Interval, CI: 1.05-1.20). Infants conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) show greater PTB risk associated with PM2.5 exposure (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05-1.69) than those conceived naturally (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19). We also find black carbon, sulfate, ammonium and nitrate, often linked to fossil combustion, have comparable or larger estimates of the effect (OR = 1.07-1.14) than PM2.5. Our findings provide evidence that components mainly from fossil fuel combustion may have a perceptible influence on increased PTB risk associated with PM2.5 exposure in China. Additionally, compared to natural conception, conception through ART may be more susceptible to PM2.5 exposure.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188664

RESUMO

Three novel polyoxometalate (POM) clusters of K10Na10[Dy3(H2O)6Ni(H2O)(W3O11)(B-α-SbW9O33)3]·(H2O)45 (1), (NH4)5K4Na8[Dy3(H2O)6SbV(H2O)(W3O11)(B-α-SbW9O33)3]·(H2O)50 (2), and (NH4)9Na[Ni2(H2O)6(WO2)2(B-ß-SbW9O33)2]·(H2O)24 (3) were successfully obtained using the same precursor under different ionic strength conditions. Structural analysis showed that compounds 1-3 possess discrepant structural characteristics in 1 M KCl, 1 M NH4Cl, and saturated NH4Cl, respectively. Among them, 2 is the first reported lanthanide cluster including both Sb3+ and Sb5+ in POM derivatives. Furthermore, the analysis of ac magnetic data proved that 1 and 2 embodied dramatic field-induced slow magnetic relaxation, and the effective barrier of 2 was estimated as Ueff/KB = 21.10 K based on the Orbach process. It was found that the structure and magnetic properties of POM materials can be regulated using an effective and satisfactory ionic strength-controlled strategy.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141117

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.

6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 726-733, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155832

RESUMO

Current interdisciplinary medical training calls for reforms and innovations in the assessment of pathophysiology education. Formative assessment is used to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can improve both learning and teaching. Beginning in 2016, we implemented a formative assessment composed of case-based multiple-choice questions (MCQs) for all students in all majors. In 2017, case study questions began to be employed in the formative assessment, and student-set, case-based questions were further introduced. Aiming to gather the students' suggestions and feedback on the mixed-method assessment, we conducted a survey on aspects such as the effectiveness of the assessment, assessment content and completion, opinions on student-set questions, and the impact on pathophysiology learning for students from 2017 to 2019. In addition, we compared students' semesterly final scores with those of previous students and evaluated the relationship between formative and summative assessment scores. The results for 1,277 students clearly showed that the reformed formative assessment system was well received by the students. The students thought that the formative assessment not only allowed for the provision of real-time feedback on the effectiveness of teaching and learning but also nurtured self-motivation, the development of analytical and problem-solving skills, and collaborative efforts. Both the semesterly final scores and the proportions of students scoring in higher score ranges increased after the implementation of the formative assessment, and the summative assessment scores were positively related to the formative assessment scores. Consequently, the reformed formative assessment system significantly improved the quality of pathophysiology education.

7.
Med Phys ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159812

RESUMO

Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have transformed it from an indispensable tool in research and development into a mainstream technology that is fundamentally altering how we work and live. AI has already been incorporated into some common medical physics tools used to support key tasks such as diagnosis, treatment planning, and quality assurance. A paradigm shift in clinical practice in which AI is used more widely is likely to occur in the near future. Some therefore advocate incorporating AI into the medical physics graduate program curriculum to better adapt workers' skill sets to this new paradigm. However, others have reservations about such curricular adaptation. This is the premise debated in this month's Point/Counterpoint.

8.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155374

RESUMO

Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a left-to-right reversal of all the thoracic and abdominal organs. Only 11 cases of esophageal cancer with SIT have been reported worldwide, most of which underwent hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) but not total MIE. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with SIT successfully treated by total MIE, with a right lateral-prone position adopted during the thoracic procedure. The relevant literature is also discussed and reviewed.

9.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(5): 973-978, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123910

RESUMO

The utility of placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) as biomarkers for cervical cancer has not been clarified yet. To address this issue, we investigated the levels of soluble PlGF (sPlGF) and soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) in the serum from patients with early cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and controls in this study. sPlGF and sFlt-1 were detected in 44 preoperative patients with cervical cancer, 18 cases with CIN, and 20 controls by ELISA. It was found that both sPlGF and sFlt-1 were significantly increased in the cervical cancer group as compared with those in CIN and control groups. sPlGF presented a high diagnostic ability of cervical cancer, with a sensitivity of 61.36% and a specificity of 89.47%; and sFlt-1 with a sensitivity of 50.00% and a specificity of 92.11%. Importantly, the combined use of sPlGF and sFlt-1 could increase the diagnostic rate of cervical cancer, with a sensitivity of 70.45% and a specificity of 92.11%. These results indicated that both sPlGF and sFlt-1 in circulation can serve as possible valuable diagnostic biomarkers for cervical cancer, and the combined use of them can be more valuable to diagnose the patients with early cervical cancer.

10.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108939

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to extensive bone loss and high incidence of low-energy fractures. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) treatment, as a non-invasive biophysical technique, has proven to be efficient in promoting osteogenesis. However, the potential osteo-protective effect and mechanism of PEMF on SCI-related bone deterioration remain unknown. The spinal cord of rats was transected at vertebral level T12 to induce SCI. Thirty rats were assigned to the control, SCI and SCI+PEMF groups (n=10). One week after surgery, the SCI+PEMF rats were subjected to PEMF (2.0 mT, 15 Hz, 2 h/day) for 8 weeks. Micro-CT results showed that PEMF significantly ameliorated trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture deterioration induced by SCI. Three-point bending and nanoindentation assays revealed that PEMF significantly improved bone's mechanical properties in SCI rats. Serum biomarker and bone histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that PEMF enhanced bone formation, as evidenced by significant increase in serum osteocalcin and P1NP, mineral apposition rate, and osteoblast number on bone surface. However, PEMF had no impact upon serum bone-resorbing cytokines (TRACP 5b and CTX-1) or osteoclast number on bone surface. PEMF also attenuated SCI-induced negative changes in osteocyte morphology and osteocyte survival. Moreover, PEMF significantly increased skeletal expression of canonical Wnt ligands (Wnt1 and Wnt10b) and stimulated their downstream p-GSK3ß and ß-catenin expression in SCI rats. This study demonstrates that PEMF can mitigate the detrimental consequence of SCI on bone quantity/quality, which might be associated with canonical Wnt signaling-mediated bone formation, and reveals that PEMF may be a promising biophysical approach for resisting osteopenia/osteoporosis following SCI in clinics.

11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097834

RESUMO

Macrophage polarization to proinflammatory M1-like or anti-inflammatory M2-like cells is critical to mount a host defense or repair tissue. The exact molecular mechanisms controlling this process are still elusive. Here, we report that ubiquitin-specific protease 19 (USP19) acts as an anti-inflammatory switch that inhibits inflammatory responses and promotes M2-like macrophage polarization. USP19 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by increasing autophagy flux and decreasing the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. In addition, USP19 inhibited the proteasomal degradation of inflammasome-independent NLRP3 by cleaving its polyubiquitin chains. USP19-stabilized NLRP3 promoted M2-like macrophage polarization by direct association with interferon regulatory factor 4, thereby preventing its p62-mediated selective autophagic degradation. Consistent with these observations, compared to wild-type mice, Usp19-/- mice had decreased M2-like macrophage polarization and increased interleukin-1ß secretion, in response to alum and chitin injections. Thus, we have uncovered an unexpected mechanism by which USP19 switches the proinflammatory function of NLRP3 into an anti-inflammatory function, and suggest that USP19 is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory interventions.

12.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037696

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses are potent anticancer agents that replicate within and kill cancer cells rather than normal cells, and their selectivity is largely determined by oncogenic mutations. M1, a novel oncolytic virus strain, has been shown to target cancer cells, but the relationship between its cancer selectivity and oncogenic signaling pathways is poorly understood. Here, we report that RAS mutation promotes the replication and oncolytic effect of M1 in cancer, and we further provide evidence that the inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK signaling axis suppresses M1 infection and the subsequent cytopathic effects. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the inhibition of RAS signaling upregulates the type I interferon antiviral response, and further RNA interference screen identified CDKN1A as a key downstream factor that inhibits viral infection. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments confirmed that CDKN1A inhibited the replication and oncolytic effect of M1 virus. Subsequent TCGA data mining and tissue microarray (TMA) analysis revealed that CDKN1A is commonly deficient in human cancers, suggesting extensive clinical application prospects for M1. Our report indicates that virotherapy is feasible for treating undruggable RAS-driven cancers and provides reliable biomarkers for personalized cancer therapy.

13.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8851525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029120

RESUMO

The stria vascularis (SV) generates the endocochlear potential (EP) in the inner ear and is necessary for proper hair cell (HC) mechanotransduction and hearing. Cell junctions are indispensable for the establishment of compositionally distinct fluid compartments in the inner ear. Ototoxic drug cisplatin can damage SV and cause sensorineural hearing loss; however, the underlying mechanisms behind such injury are unclear. In this study, after the intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) in mice, we determined the auditory function by EP recording and auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis, observed the ultrastructure of SV by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and examined the expression and distribution of cell junction proteins by western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence staining. We discovered that the EP was significantly reduced while ABR thresholds were significantly elevated in cisplatin-treated mice; cisplatin induced ultrastructural changes in marginal cells (MCs), endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes, etc. We found that cisplatin insulted auditory function not only by reducing the expression of zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in MCs of the SV but also by decreasing the expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 43 (Cx43) in MCs and basal cells (BCs). More importantly, cisplatin induced activations of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) as well as increased expressions of profibrotic proteins such as laminin and collagen IV in SV. Thus, our results firstly showed that cisplatin induced fibrosis, inflammation, and the complex expression change of cell junctions in SV.

14.
Med Phys ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006775

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to develop a novel time-resolved magnetic resonance fingerprinting (TR-MRF) technique for respiratory motion imaging applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TR-MRF technique consists of repeated MRF acquisitions using an unbalanced steady-state free precession sequence with spiral-in-spiral-out trajectory. Time-resolved magnetic resonance fingerprinting was first tested via computer simulation using a four-dimensional (4D) extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for both regular and irregular breathing profiles, and was tested in three healthy volunteers. Parametric TR-MRF maps at different respiratory phases were subsequently estimated using our TR-MRF sorting and reconstruction techniques. The resulting TR-MRF maps were evaluated using a set of metrices related to radiotherapy applications, including absolute difference in motion amplitude, error in the amplitude of diaphragm motion (ADM), tumor volume error (TVE), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and tumor contrast. RESULTS: TR-MRF maps with regular and irregular breathing were successfully generated in XCAT phantom. Numerical simulations showed that the TVE were 1.6 ± 2.7% and 1.3 ± 2.2%, the average absolute differences in tumor motion amplitude were 0.3 ± 0.7 mm and 0.3 ± 0.6 mm, and the ADM were 4.1 ± 0.9% and 3.5 ± 0.9% for irregular and regular breathing, respectively. The SNR of the T1 and T2 maps of the liver and the tumor were generally higher for regular breathing compared to irregular breathing, whereas tumor-to-liver contrast is similar between the two breathing patterns. The proposed technique was successfully implemented on the healthy volunteers. CONCLUSION: We have successfully demonstrated in both digital phantom and healthy subjects a novel TR-MRF technique capable of imaging respiratory motions with simultaneous quantification of MR multiparametric maps.

15.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 257, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly around the world. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the entire evolution of COVID-19 in Wuhan, and to evaluate the effect of non-pharmaceutical intervention by the government. METHODS: The information of COVID-19 cases until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan were collected from the national infectious disease surveillance system in Hubei province. RESULTS: A total of 49,973 confirmed cases were reported until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan. Among whom, 2496 cases died and the overall mortality was 5.0%. Most confirmed cases (25,619, 51.3%) occurred during Jan 23 to Feb 4, with a spike on Feb 1 (new cases, 3374). The number of daily new cases started to decrease steadily on Feb 19 (new cases, 301) and decreased greatly on Mar 1 (new cases, 57). However, the mortality and the proportion of severe and critical cases has been decreasing over time, with the lowest of 2.0 and 10.1% during Feb 16 to Mar 18, 2020, respectively. The percentage of severe and critical cases among all cases was 19.6%, and the percentage of critical and dead cases aged over 60 was 70.1 and 82.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The number of new cases has dropped significantly after the government taking the isolation of four types of personnel and the community containment for 14 days. Our results indicate that the mortality and proportion of severe and critical cases gradually decreased over time, and critical and dead cases are more incline to be older individuals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Órgãos Governamentais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 88, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastases (LABM) have poor survival rates after treatment with conventional therapies. To improve outcomes, we retrospectively investigated whether the application of a more comprehensive genetic test of tumor biopsies samples from LABM patients could provide the basis for treatment with more effective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) regimens. METHODS: Fine needle biopsies were taken from the primary tumor (PT) and a secondary bone metastasis (BM) of 17 LABM patients before treatment. Simple genetic profiles for selecting therapies were initially obtained using an ARMS-PCR test for EGFR and ALK fusion mutations. More detailed genetic profiles of somatic exon SNVs and CNVs in 457 cancer-related genes were retrospectively derived using capture single molecule amplification and resequencing technology (capSMART). RESULTS: ARMS-PCR identified 14 EGFR positive, 3 EGFR negative and 1 ALK fusion positive patient. A therapy regimen incorporating TKIs Gefitinib and Crizotinib was offered to the EGFR and ALK fusion positive patients, respectively. With the exception of two patients, molecular profiling of matching PT and BM biopsies identified a highly shared somatic variant fingerprint, although the BMs exhibited additional genomic instability. In six of 13 EGFR positive patients and in all three EGFR negative patients, examination of the genetic profiles identified additional clinically significant mutations that are known or experimental drug targets for treatment of lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Our findings firstly suggest that treatment regimens based on comprehensive genetic assessment of newly diagnosed LABM patients should target both the PT and secondary BMs, including rogue clones with potential to form new BMs. Second, the additional information gained should allow clinicians to design and implement more personalized treatment regimens and potentially improve outcomes for LABM patients.

17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873351

RESUMO

Increased intake of vegetables and fruits has been associated with reduced risk of tuberculosis infection. Vegetables and fruits exert immunoregulatory effects; however, it is not clear whether vegetables and fruits have an adjuvant treatment effect on tuberculosis. Between 2009 and 2013, a hospital-based cohort study was conducted in Linyi, Shandong Province, China. Treatment outcome was ascertained by sputum smear and chest computerised tomography, and dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ. The dietary questionnaire was conducted at the end of month 2 of treatment initiation. Participants recalled their dietary intake of the previous 2 months. A total of 2309 patients were enrolled in this study. After 6 months of treatment, 2099 patients were successfully treated and 210 were uncured. In multivariate models, higher intake of total vegetables and fruits (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·99), total vegetables (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·97), dark-coloured vegetables (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·86) and light-coloured vegetables (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) were associated with reduced failure rate of tuberculosis treatment. No association was found between total fruit intake and reduced failure rate of tuberculosis treatment (OR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·37). High intake of total vegetables and fruits, especially vegetables, is associated with lower risk of failure of tuberculosis treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The results provide important information for dietary guidelines during tuberculosis treatment.

18.
Hum Gene Ther ; 31(21-22): 1203-1213, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829653

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses are emerging as important tools for immunotherapy for cancer treatment; however, most of the clinically tested oncolytic candidates are still administered by intratumoral injection, and new viruses capable of intravenous injection are urgently needed. The M1 virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus family, and it was identified as an oncolytic virus that can selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells after intravenous injection. To further develop M1 for clinical research through intravenous injection, we systematically investigated the biodistribution characteristics of the M1 virus in normal rats, cynomolgus monkeys, and tumor-bearing immunocompromised mice. The data showed that the M1 virus was eliminated gradually from normal tissue but replicated and increased rapidly in tumor tissue. More importantly, the virus also infiltrated the blood-brain barrier and specifically replicated in and killed malignant glioma in immunocompetent mice. Our data proved the tumor selectivity and safety of the M1 virus, supporting its further clinical development.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111172, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846300

RESUMO

Following oil extraction in the wetland of the Yellow River Delta, heavy metal contamination of coastal saline-alkaline soil, especially with cadmium (Cd), has become a serious environmental problem in some regions. Biochar application has been proposed to remedy Cd-contaminated soil, but the remediation effect is related to preparation conditions of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and raw material) and soil properties. The invasive plant, Spartina alterniflora, produces a high amount of biomass, making it suitable for biochar production in coastal China. We investigated the effect of S. alterniflora-derived biochar (SDB) pyrolyzed at four temperatures (350, 450, 550, and 650 °C) crossed with three addition ratios (1, 5, and 10%) and control on Cd contamination of coastal saline-alkaline soil. Pyrolysis temperature affected pH, surface area, and functional groups of SDB. SDB markedly improved soil pH and soil organic matter, but the degree of improvement was affected by pyrolysis temperature and addition ratio. SDB significantly altered available Cd content in soil, but reduced it only at low pyrolysis temperatures (350 and 450 °C). Available Cd content had a positive correlation with soil pH (R2 = 0.298, P < 0.01), but was not related to salinity and soil organic matter content. Thus, SDB pyrolyzed at 350 °C with 5% addition was optimal for passivating Cd in coastal saline-alkaline soil, since available Cd content in soil decreased mostly (by 26.9%). These findings act as a reference for the development of an application strategy for SDB to ameliorate Cd-contaminated coastal saline-alkaline soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poaceae/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Álcalis/análise , Biomassa , China , Modelos Teóricos , Pirólise , Salinidade , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824912

RESUMO

Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment failure. Currently, there is no effective adjunctive nutritional therapy. The current objective is to investigate the association of dietary micronutrient intake with PTB treatment outcome.A cohort study including 1834 PTB patients was conducted in Linyi, China. The dietary micronutrient intake was assessed through a three-day 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. The treatment outcome was assessed by combinations of sputum smear and computerized tomography results. A multivariate binary regression model was used to assess the associations. The final model was adjusted for potential confounding factors. A low intake of vitamin C (adjusted OR (95% CI): 1.80 (1.07, 3.04), Ptrend = 0.02) and Zn (adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.52 (1.25, 5.08), Ptrend = 0.02) was associated with a high treatment failure rate. In addition, a low intake of vitamin C and Mn was associated with a severe tuberculosis symptom, as indicated by a high TB score. A supplementation of vitamin C and Zn may be beneficial in PTB treatment. Previous meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported a null effect of Zn supplementation on PTB treatment. The effect of vitamin C supplementation should be investigated by RCTs.

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