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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various carotenoids in circulation, including isomers, may have different influences on cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study including 343 incident prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 640 controls individually matched on age, race, study site, and time of blood collection. Carotenoids investigated were carotene, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, dihydrolycopene, lutein, anhydrolutein, and zeaxanthin, including α vs. ß configurations and cis vs. trans isomers. General linear model and conditional logistic regression were applied to evaluate associations for PCa risk with adjustment for potential confounders. We conducted additional analyses with further stratification by race, multivitamin use, and smoking status. RESULTS: Case-control differences were found in carotenoid subtype levels, although not all reached the multiple comparison adjusted threshold for significance. Plasma lycopene (odds ratio (OR)T1 vs. T3 =0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29-0.87, Ptrend=0.014), dihydrolycopene (ORT1 vs. T3 =0.37, 95%CI: 0.18-0.74, Ptrend=0.006), and cis-anhydrolutein (ORT1 vs. T3 =0.57, 95%CI: 0.33-0.96, Ptrend=0.037) were inversely, while ß-trans-carotene (ORT1 vs. T3 =2.13, 95%CI: 1.33-3.43, Ptrend=0.002) and trans-lutein (ORT1 vs. T3 =1.86, 95%CI: 1.20-2.88, Ptrend=0.006) were positively associated with PCa risk. Stratified analyses showed inverse associations of lycopene, dihydrolycopene, and cis-anhydrolutein with PCa risk in subjects without multivitamin use; lycopene and dihydrolycopene in African-Americans and current smokers; and dihydrolycopene in non-smokers. Positive associations of ß-trans-carotene and trans-lutein were observed in African-Americans, non-smokers, and multivitamin users. CONCLUSION: The associations of carotenoids with risk of PCa differed by carotenoid subtypes. IMPACT: Public health recommendations on carotenoid intakes for PCa prevention should take subtypes and isomers into consideration.

3.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and may reduce colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on markers of rectal cell proliferation and apoptosis and examine how genetic variation in desaturase enzymes might modify this effect. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, control six-month trial of 2.5 grams of n-3 LCPUFA per day compared to olive oil. Study participants had a history of colorectal adenomas. Randomization was stratified based on the gene variant rs174535 in the fatty acid desaturase 1 enzyme (FADS1). Our primary outcome was change in markers of rectal epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. RESULTS: A total of 141 subjects were randomized. We found no difference in apoptosis markers between participants randomized to n-3 LCPUFA compared to olive oil (P = 0.41). N-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased cell proliferation in the lower colonic crypt compared to olive oil (P = 0.03) however baseline indexes of proliferation were different between the groups at randomization. We found no evidence that genotype modified the effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not show evidence of a proliferative or pro-apoptotic effect on n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on rectal mucosa regardless of the FADS genotype.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01661764Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1955286.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(7): 1190-1203, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146516

RESUMO

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10-31).

5.
J Nutr ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legumes, important components of a healthy diet, may exert their health benefits through the influence of the gut microbiome. However, this hypothesis has not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations between long-term legume consumption and the gut microbiome among elderly Chinese. METHODS: The gut microbiome was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 2302 Chinese adults enrolled in 2 large cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study. Legume consumption, including peanuts, soy foods, and other beans, was assessed by food-frequency questionnaires prior to the stool collection. The associations of legume consumption with microbiome diversity and taxa abundance were evaluated by linear or negative binomial hurdle models, adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and BMI. False discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P values (PFDR) < 0.1 were considered significant. RESULTS: Respectively, 52% and 48% of study participants were male and female. The mean age at stool collection was 68.03 y for females and 70.28 y for males. Total legume consumption was not associated with gut microbiome ɑ-diversity; however, male peanut consumers had a higher Chao1 index (ß = 22.52, P = 0.01), whereas peanut consumption was associated with decreased Shannon (ß = -0.03, P = 0.02) and Simpson (ß = -0.002, P = 0.04) indexes among females. In female and male combined analyses, total legume consumption was associated with increased Enterobacteriales (ß = 0.30, PFDR = 0.06). Within this order, an unclassified genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae was positively associated with total legume (ß = 0.46, PFDR = 0.03) and peanut (ß = 0.59, PFDR = 0.01) consumption. Stratified analyses showed significant associations were primarily confined to females and participants without metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Legume consumption was associated with gut microbiome diversity and abundance of some bacteria in elderly Chinese. Associations were significant only among 1 sex group. Further research, including large-scale prospective studies and feeding trials, is needed to fully understand the role of the gut microbiome in legume-health associations.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is widely used to identify potential novel biomarkers for cancer risk. No investigation, however, has been conducted to prospectively evaluate the role of perturbation of metabolome in gastric cancer development. METHODS: 250 incident cases diagnosed with primary gastric cancer were selected from the Shanghai Women's Health and the Shanghai Men's Health Study, and each was individually matched to one control by incidence density sampling. An untargeted global profiling platform was used to measure approximately 1,000 metabolites in prediagnostic plasma. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to generate ORs and P values. RESULTS: Eighteen metabolites were associated with gastric cancer risk at P < 0.01. Among them, 11 metabolites were lysophospholipids or lipids of other classes; for example, 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-GPE (P-16:0) (OR = 1.56; P = 1.89 × 10-4). Levels of methylmalonate, a suggested biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency, was correlated with increased gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.42; P = 0.004). Inverse associations were found for three biomarkers for coffee/tea consumption (3-hydroxypyridine sulfate, quinate and N-(2-furoyl) glycine), although the associations were only significant when comparing cases that were diagnosed within 5 years after the blood collection to matched controls. Most of the identified associations were more profound in women and never smokers than their male or ever smoking counterparts and some with notable significant interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified multiple potential risk biomarkers for gastric cancer independent of Helicobacter pylori infection and other major risk factors. IMPACT: New risk-assessment tools to identify high-risk population could be developed to improve prevention of gastric cancer.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 564-582, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713608

RESUMO

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estatura/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , África/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Cancer Med ; 10(4): 1439-1447, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a ubiquitous molecule in living organisms serving as a cofactor in energy production. Epidemiological studies have reported low CoQ10 levels being associated with an increased risk of various cancers. We conducted the first study to evaluate the association of CoQ10 concentrations with lung cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study including 201 lung cancer cases and 395 matched controls from the Southern Community Cohort Study was conducted. Plasma CoQ10 levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between plasma CoQ10 levels and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Plasma CoQ10 concentration was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status, the OR (95% CI) comparing the third to first tertile was 0.57 (0.36-0.91, P for trend = 0.02). Further adjustments for smoking, alcohol, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and body mass index attenuated the point estimate slightly (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.34-1.08, P for trend = 0.11), comparing third to first tertiles. Stratified analyses identified a significant inverse association between plasma CoQ10 levels and lung cancer risk in current smokers, but not in former/never smokers. The association was more evident in cases who were diagnosed within 1 year of blood draw than in cases diagnosed after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma CoQ10 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk, particularly among current smokers. The stronger association seen shortly following the blood draw suggests that CoQ10 may be related to disease progression.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 684-694, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have evaluated the influence of long-term diet on the gut microbiome, and data among Asian populations are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of long-term diet quality, comprising 8 food groups (fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, red meat, and processed meat), with gut microbiome among Chinese adults. METHODS: Included were 1920 men and women, enrolled in 2 prospective cohorts (baseline 1996-2006), who remained free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer at stool collection (2015-2018) and had no diarrhea or antibiotic use in the last 7 d before stool collection. Microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Long-term diet was assessed by repeated surveys at baseline and follow-ups (1996-2011), with intervals of 5.2 to 20.5 y between dietary surveys and stool collection. Associations of dietary variables with microbiome diversity and composition were evaluated by linear or negative binomial hurdle models, adjusting for potential confounders. False discovery rate (FDR) <0.1 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age at stool collection was 68 ± 1.5 y. Diet quality was positively associated with microbiome α-diversity (P = 0.03) and abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and genera/species within these phyla, including Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium/Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium / Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and order RF39 (all FDRs <0.1). Significant associations were also observed for intakes of dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, and processed meat, including a positive association of dairy with Bifidobacterium and inverse associations of processed meat with Roseburia /Roseburia faecis. Most associations were similar, with or without adjustment for BMI and hypertension status or excluding participants with antibiotic use in the past 6 mo. CONCLUSION: Among apparently healthy Chinese adults, long-term diet quality is positively associated with fecal microbiome diversity and abundance of fiber-fermenting bacteria, although magnitudes are generally small. Future studies are needed to examine if these bacteria may mediate or modify diet-disease relations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta/normas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Environ Int ; 147: 105975, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385923

RESUMO

We previously identified 10 lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA), the largest genomic study of lung cancer among never-smoking women to date. Furthermore, household coal use for cooking and heating has been linked to lung cancer in Asia, especially in Xuanwei, China. We investigated the potential interaction between genetic susceptibility and coal use in FLCCA. We analyzed GWAS-data from Taiwan, Shanghai, and Shenyang (1472 cases; 1497 controls), as well as a separate study conducted in Xuanwei (152 cases; 522 controls) for additional analyses. We summarized genetic susceptibility using a polygenic risk score (PRS), which was the weighted sum of the risk-alleles from the 10 previously identified loci. We estimated associations between a PRS, coal use (ever/never), and lung adenocarcinoma with multivariable logistic regression models, and evaluated potential gene-environment interactions using likelihood ratio tests. There was a strong association between continuous PRS and lung adenocarcinoma among never coal users (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.69 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.53, 1.87), p=1 × 10-26). This effect was attenuated among ever coal users (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.50), p = 0.02, p-interaction = 6 × 10-3). We observed similar attenuation among coal users from Xuanwei. Our study provides evidence that genetic susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma among never-smoking Asian women is weaker among coal users. These results suggest that lung cancer pathogenesis may differ, at least partially, depending on exposure to coal combustion products. Notably, these novel findings are among the few instances of sub-multiplicative gene-environment interactions in the cancer literature.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Ásia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Taiwan
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(5): 321-330, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481017

RESUMO

Most genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are located in intergenic regions, implying pathogenic dysregulations of gene expression. However, comprehensive assessments of target genes in CRC remain to be explored. We conducted a multi-omics analysis using transcriptome and/or DNA methylation data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression, The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Colonomics projects. We identified 116 putative target genes for 45 GWAS-identified variants. Using summary-data-based Mendelian randomization approach (SMR), we demonstrated that the CRC susceptibility for 29 out of the 45 CRC variants may be mediated by cis-effects on gene regulation. At a cutoff of the Bonferroni-corrected PSMR < 0.05, we determined 66 putative susceptibility genes, including 39 genes that have not been previously reported. We further performed in vitro assays for two selected genes, DIP2B and SFMBT1, and provide functional evidence that they play a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis via disrupting cell behavior, including migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our study reveals a large number of putative novel susceptibility genes and provides additional insight into the underlying mechanisms for CRC genetic risk loci.

14.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(4): 528-536, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480984

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in breast cancer development. We recently reported that a higher expression of miR-374b in tumor tissues was associated with a better disease-free survival of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the functional significance and molecular mechanisms underlying the role of miR-374b in breast cancer are largely unknown. In this current study, we evaluated the biological functions and potential mechanisms of miR-374b in both TNBC and non-TNBC. We found that miR-374b was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared to adjacent tissues. MiR-374b levels were also lower in breast cancer cell lines, as compared to breast epithelial cells. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that miR-374b modulates the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells, such as cell proliferation in 2D and 3D, cell invasion ability, colony-forming ability and tumor growth in mice. By using bioinformatics tools, we predicted that miR-374b plays a role in breast cancer cells through negatively regulating cyclin D1 (CCND1) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA). We further confirmed that CCND1 and TGFA contribute to the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our rescue experiments showed that overexpressing CCND1 or TGFA reverses the phenotypes caused by miR-374b overexpression. Taken together, our studies suggest that miR-374b modulates malignant behavior of breast cancer cells by negatively regulating CCND1 and TGFA genes. The newly identified miR-374b-mediated CCND1 and TGFA gene silencing may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer progression.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 160(4): 1164-1178.e6, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(6): 727-734, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55 900), 3073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM staging and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of category T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score of 8 or greater prostate cancer, because this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval = 0.22 to 0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.64 to 0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced category (T4 or N1 or M1), high-grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(3): 329-337, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 186(3): 769-777, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as important regulators for pathogenesis and/or prognosis of breast cancer, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. However, few previous studies used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology, and none included an independent replication. METHODS: To systematically evaluate the association between expression of lincRNAs and TNBC survival, we examined lincRNA expression profiles in TNBC tissues using RNA-Seq data for 200 TNBC patients from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS) and Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). RESULTS: Twenty-five lincRNAs were found to be associated with overall survival (P < 0.05 and no significant heterogeneity across studies at Q statistic P > 0.1), and 61 lincRNAs were associated with disease-free survival (DFS). Among these, two lincRNAs (LINC01270 and LINC00449) were significantly associated with both worse overall survival and DFS and were expressed at significantly higher levels in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal breast tissues (log2[Fold Change] > 0.5 and FDR < 0.05). We further evaluated the potential functions of LINC01270 and LINC00449 using in vitro functional experiments and found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of LINC01270 and LINC00449 expression significantly decreased cell viability, colony formation and cell migration ability in TNBC cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from observational studies and in vitro experiments indicates that LINC00449 and LINC01270 may be prognostic biomarkers for TNBC.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
19.
Thorax ; 76(3): 256-263, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate whether diversity in oral microbiota is associated with risk of lung cancer among never-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nested case-control study within two prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n=74 941) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n=61 480). PARTICIPANTS: Lifetime never-smokers who had no cancer at baseline. Cases were subjects who were diagnosed with incident lung cancer (n=114) and were matched 1:1 with controls on sex, age (≤2 years), date (≤30 days) and time (morning/afternoon) of sample collection, antibiotic use during the week before sample collection (yes/no) and menopausal status (for women). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing was used to measure the community structure and abundance of the oral microbiome in pre-diagnostic oral rinse samples of each case and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of lung cancer risk with alpha diversity metrics and relative abundance of taxa. The Microbiome Regression-Based Kernel Association Test (MiRKAT) evaluated the association between risk and the microbiome beta diversity. RESULTS: Subjects with lower microbiota alpha diversity had an increased risk of lung cancer compared with those with higher microbial alpha diversity (Shannon: ptrend=0.05; Simpson: ptrend=0.04; Observed Species: ptrend=0.64). No case-control differences were apparent for beta diversity (pMiRKAT=0.30). After accounting for multiple comparisons, a greater abundance of Spirochaetia (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 0.61 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.18), ORhigh 0.42 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.85)) and Bacteroidetes (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 0.66 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.25), ORhigh 0.31 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.64)) was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, while a greater abundance of the Bacilli class (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 1.49 (95% CI 0.73 to 3.08), ORhigh 2.40 (95% CI 1.18 to 4.87)) and Lactobacillales order (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 2.15 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.47), ORhigh 3.26 (95% CI 1.58 to 6.70)) was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective study of never-smokers suggests that lower alpha diversity was associated with a greater risk of lung cancer and the abundance of certain specific taxa was associated with altered risk, providing further insight into the aetiology of lung cancer in the absence of active tobacco smoking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Microbiota , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes
20.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 880, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is associated with a unique mutational signature in the human cancer genome. It is unclear whether tobacco smoking-altered DNA methylations and gene expressions affect smoking-related mutational signature. METHODS: We systematically analyzed the smoking-related DNA methylation sites reported from five previous casecontrol studies in peripheral blood cells to identify possible target genes. Using the mediation analysis approach, we evaluated whether the association of tobacco smoking with mutational signature is mediated through altered DNA methylation and expression of these target genes in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues. RESULTS: Based on data obtained from 21,108 blood samples, we identified 374 smoking-related DNA methylation sites, annotated to 248 target genes. Using data from DNA methylations, gene expressions and smoking-related mutational signature generated from ~ 7700 tumor tissue samples across 26 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found 11 of the 248 target genes whose expressions were associated with smoking-related mutational signature at a Bonferroni-correction P < 0.001. This included four for head and neck cancer, and seven for lung adenocarcinoma. In lung adenocarcinoma, our results showed that smoking increased the expression of three genes, AHRR, GPR15, and HDGF, and decreased the expression of two genes, CAPN8, and RPS6KA1, which were consequently associated with increased smoking-related mutational signature. Additional evidence showed that the elevated expression of AHRR and GPR15 were associated with smoking-altered hypomethylations at cg14817490 and cg19859270, respectively, in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues. Lastly, we showed that decreased expression of RPS6KA1, were associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel insight into the contributions of tobacco smoking to carcinogenesis through the underlying mechanisms of the elevated mutational signature by altered DNA methylations and gene expressions.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/patologia
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